Carmelites of Mary Immaculate

The Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (C.M.I.) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church, and is the largest clerical religious congregation of pontifical right[1] in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church.

Carmelites of Mary Immaculate
Carmelites of Mary Immaculate Logo.jpg
MottoI have been very zealous
for the Lord, the God of hosts
"meṭan ṭenēt l-māryā ’alāhā ḥayltānā" (Syriac)
Formation11 May 1831; 189 years ago (1831-05-11)
FoundersFr. Thomas Palackal
Fr. Thomas Porukara
St.Kuriakose Elias Chavara
TypeClerical Religious Congregation of Pontifical Right (for Men)
PurposeContemplata aliis tradere
(Sharing with others the fruits of contemplation)
HeadquartersChavara Hills,
Kochi, Kerala, India
2,597 members (1,900 priests) (2016)
Prior General
Fr. Thomas Chathenparambil Mathew, C.M.I.
Main organ
General Curia
Formerly called
Servants of Mary Immaculate
(അമലോത്ഭവ ദാസ സംഘം)

It was founded on 11 May 1831 by Indian priests Fr. Thomas Palackal, Fr. Thomas Porukara, and Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara who were priests of the Apostolic Church of Saint Thomas Christians in India.[2] Brother Jacob Kanianthara was inspired by the vision of the founding fathers and served them in the foundation of the congregation.[3] The core charism of congregation is contemplata et aliis tradere (to share with others the fruits of contemplation).[4] The Identity and heritage of the Congregation is reflected in its triple roots of spirituality namely Indian, Eastern and Carmelite. The Congregation is involved in pastoral works consisting of teaching at all levels, taking care of aged and sick, apostolate of press, running several mission dioceses both in India and abroad.[5]

The Congregation was originally called the Servants of Mary Immaculate (അമലോത്ഭവ ദാസ സംഘം). The original vision of founders was to begin a House of Vision (ദർശന വീട്) for priests rooted in Christian and Indian spirituality by combining contemplation and service, especially spiritual guidance with sannyasic elements.[6] It was based on their understanding that "a lot of good had not been done due to the absence of a House of Contemplation (തപസ് ഭവനം ) and a House of Vision (ദർശന വീട്)."[7] The influence of Vicar Apostolic of Verapoly, who were Carmelites resulted in the orientation towards Carmelite order and spirituality. The Congregation was affiliated to the Carmelite Order as a Religious Congregation of the Oriental Rite and assumed the name Third Order of Carmelites Discalced in 1860. Pontifical status was granted in 1885. The Congregation changed the name to C.M.I. (Carmelites of Mary Immaculate) in 1958. The Congregation was given Pontifical Exemption in 1967.[8]

The Congregation has about 3,000 members from Syro-Malabar, Syro-Malankara and Latin rites from India and Kenya with 10 bishops, 1917 priests, 19 lay brothers and 1200 brothers. Associates of CMI (ACMI) support the missionary activities of the congregation in different ways.[9]



The initial idea of leading a hermetic life came up in the minds of Malpan Thomas Porukara and Malpan Thomas Palackal. They approached the then Vicar Apostolic Bishop Mourelius Stabilini for permission. The Bishop cited three reasons namely the difficulty to begin a congregation, difficulty to get financial resources to maintain and continue it and turned them back. Later, he changed his decision and said, "If both of you priests, who are intelligent and prudent, are going to lead a life of silence and solitude, then who will teach the people? If you want, you can start a monastery. It will be useful for you and also for others."[10] He approved their request and gave them Rs. 200 to begin the monastic life. The permission was granted by Vicar Apostolic Msgr Stabilini to start a religious house for the following purposes: (1) Educating the uneducated, (2) Helping them who desire to enter the Catholic Church, (3) Working for the reunion of the separated brethren, (4) Safeguarding the wellbeing of all, (5) Aiming at the renewal of the Church, and (6) Willing to do all that are seen good for the people of God.

The first monastery of CMI congregation was established on 11 May 1831 at Mannanam, Kerala, India. The foundation stone was laid by Malpan Thomas Porukara in the presence of Vicar Apostolic - Bishop Mourelius Stabilini, the local ordinary, Malpan Thomas Palackal and St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara.[11] The founders of the congregation namely Fr. Thomas Porukara, Fr. Thomas Palackal and St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara were assisted by Brother Jacob Kaniathara.[12] Jacob Kanianthara became the first professed 'brother' in the Congregation. Fr. Geevarghese Thoppil was the first to join the new religious movement. Several priests and young men from then on started to join the religious movement started at Mannanam.

Cenotaph of Fr. Thomas Palackal

On 8 December 1855, the Mannanam community was recognised canonically with the profession of vows of eleven priests headed by St Kuriakose Elias Chavara, the first prior of the congregation. The original name of the movement was Servants of Mary Immaculate (അമലോത്ഭവ ദാസ സംഘം) . In 1860, this congregation was affiliated to the Carmelite Order and its members began to use the postnominal initials of T.O.C.D. (Third Order of Discalced Carmelites).[13] The Congregation grew leaps and bounds with the addition of new members and establishing of six more monasteries in a decade.

St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara governed the Congregation for 16 years as its Superior General under the name "Common Prior." There was only one Prior till 1885 and the monasteries were headed by his vicars. The constitution of the Congregation were approved for the first time by the Holy See in 1885 thus the Congregation became juris pontific (pontifical right) The Congregation was headed by Prior General's from outside the congregation (Bishops) and their delegates from 1885-1902. It was from then that head of each monastery was called Prior. The title Prior General was used for the elected member who headed the Congregation. In 1902, the General Chapter convened by Bishop Bernard, the Prior General was directed by the Holy See to elect the Prior General from within the Congregation. Thus Fr. Alexander Kattakayam was elected Prior General. The practice of electing Prior Generals from among the members of Congregation continues till date. The final approbation for Constitution was received in 1906.[1] The congregation was divided into three provinces in 1953. The current name Carmelites of Mary Immaculate was received in 1958.[14] The congregation was raised to one of pontifical right in 1967 by Pope Paul VI.

Founders of the CongregationEdit

Fr. Thomas Palackal (1775-1841)Edit

The senior most among the three founders was Palackal Thoma (Fr. Thomas Palackal) who concurred on the idea of starting a religious congregation and shared his vision to his close friend Fr. Thomas Porukara and his beloved protégé Fr. Kuriakose Chavara. Fr. Thomas Palackal was ordained priest in 1807. He was involved in the training and formation of the priests as a Malpan (professor of sacred sciences) of the Church. He led a very ascetical life, dedicated to penance, prayer and study. He lived a community life with his students, joining them in their spiritual exercises and sitting with them for study. What he had in mind as a spiritual ideal was a sort of Dominican way of life. The Dominican spirit was understood as to teach and proclaim what has been learned from sacred reading, subjecting it to deep meditation, or to study, prayer and teaching (Contemplata praedicare). Since books on theology, scripture and morals were not available in Syriac and Malayalam he collected Tamil books on these topics and copied them down, studied and translated a few of them into Malayalam. Fr. Palackal died on 16 January 1841 at the age of 66 and was buried in the parish church at Pallipuram.[15]

Fr. Thomas Porukara (1799-1846)Edit

Fr. Porukara was ordained on 22 September 1823. In his priestly ministry in the parish, he made earnest effort to renew the life of the people in the parish. He set apart the Saturdays for the destitute and other homeless beggars to help them in their material deprivation and to give them spiritual guidance and sacramental assistance. It was Fr. Porukara who laid the foundation stone of the monastery at Mannanam on 11 May 1831 and the name of St Joseph was proposed by Fr. Porukara and all agreed to his proposal, though the Bishop and Fr. Palackal had their own views. Fr. Porukara had special devotion to St Joseph which he developed in Mannanam in 1843 and popularized the devotional practice of giving meal and clothing to parents and a child from an indigent family on Wednesdays in the month of March. Since the beginning of the monastery at Mannanam in 1831, practically Fr. Porukara was the Superior of the community as most of the time Fr. Palackal was at Pallipuram with his seminarians. Fr. Porukara died on 8 January 1846.[16][17]

St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara (1805-1871)Edit

St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara was born on 10 February 1805 in Kainakary. In 1818, at the age of 13, he joined the seminary at Pallipuram under the tutelage of Malpan Thomas Palackal. During the early years of his studies Chavara lost his parents and his lone brother and he was compelled to return home to preserve his father’s family tradition. But he solved the family and vocation crisis and continued his priestly studies and was ordained a priest on 29 November 1829 at the age of 24 by Msgr. Maurelius Stabilini at Arthunkal. It is recorded in the Chronicle that the main personal intention of Fr. Chavara in the first Holy Mass was the realization of the establishment of a religious house for priests at the earliest. His priestly ministry for 40 years shows an indomitable spiritual power embellishing the Church.

He collaborated with Fr. Thomas Palackal and Fr. Porukara in the establishment of the first indigenous religious house for men at Mannanam in 1831. After the death of Fr. Thomas Palackal in 1841 and Fr. Thomas Porukara in 1846, he led the congregation from the front. On 8 December 1855 on the first anniversary of the official proclamation of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception of Blessed Mother, Fr. Kuriakose made the profession of religious vows, adopting the name Kuriakose Elias of Holy Family. Then, his ten companions made their religious vows before him, himself being appointed the superior of the new religious community. The new religious community was known at that time as Servants of Mary Immaculate. It was St Kuriakose who introduced the term Mary Immaculate in the name of the congregation. Later, from 1858, by the influence of the Carmelite missionaries, the community began to be known as Servants of Mary Immaculate of Carmel.

St Kuriakose Elias Chavara established the first Syro-Malabar common seminary in 1833 at Mannanam, which continued up to 1894 and, then, got amalgamated to the Puthenpally seminary.[18] He became the first Vicar General in the Syrian Church after the time of archdeacon in 1861. He implemented the idea of "a school for a church" in the Syrian churches when he was the Vicar General in 1864.[19] He took pains to unify and codify the Syriac Divine Office, liturgical rubrics, calendar in the Malabar Church, etc. In 2008, Cardinal Varkey Vithayathil, former Major Archbishop of the Syro-Malabar Archiepiscopal Church, wrote: "It is mostly thanks to Blessed Chavara’s tireless and committed efforts that the Syro-Malabar Church is what she is today. The practical wisdom and common sense with which he introduced reform in the fields of liturgy, priestly training and pastoral ministry certainly provide us with unfailing guidelines even today in similar endeavours. He also presented well thought out proposal for regaining and maintaining Church’s autonomy and identity, which would even facilitate the reunion of the separated brethren". He initiated spiritual reforms by starting 40 hour adoration, way of the cross, and various Marian devotional practices.

In the midst of diverse and manifold activities, he found time and leisure to write a few books, both in prose and in verse, like Atmanuthapam (The Lamentations of a Repentant Soul-a poem), Marana-Veettil Padunnathinulla Pana (A Poem to Sing in the Bereaved House), Anasthaciayude Rakthasakshyam (The Martyrdom of Anasthacia), Dhyana Sallapangal (Colloquies in Mediation) and Nalagamangal (Historical Notes as Chronicles).[20] He took initiative in codifying the liturgical books like canonical prayers for priests and prepared the liturgical rubrics called Thukkasa, liturgical calendar, Solemn Sung Mass, Little Office of the Blessed Virgin Mary and Office for the Dead. His Eclogues are 10 Shepherd Plays related to the birth of Jesus Christ. His counsels to the Christian families given in 1868 in the form of the "Testament of a Loving Father" are universally applicable and are relevant to this day even after 150 years. As an instruction manual for families, already lakhs of copies in 32 editions were circulated among the Christian families. He started catechumenates attached to Mannanam and other monasteries and many received faith and joined the Catholic Church.[21]

He was known for his personal holiness and was acclaimed popularly as a true mirror of virtues. "God’s will always and everywhere" was his mantra and his intense Abba experience enabled him to trust in the Providence of God. Chavara used to spend long hours in adoration before the Eucharistic Lord and promoted the Eucharistic and Marian devotions. In October 1870, he became very sick; he was totally blind for about three months. Sensing the imminent death of the founder members, the community assembled around him in tears at his deathbed on the eve of 2 January 1871. Then, he told to them in a feeble voice: "Why are you very sad and are crying? Every man, however high he is, has to die one day. Now it is my time. As I had always the protection of the Holy Family, I have never lost the baptismal grace" and, then, he entrusted the Congregation and all the members to the protection of the Holy family. He left for his eternal reward on 3 January 1871. Though his canonization process began in 1955 and the process was officially declared in 1957. On 7 April 1984, Chavara was declared Venerable and on 8 February 1986, Pope John Paul II, declared him Blessed. Pope Francis canonized him a saint on 24 November 2014.[22] The feast falls on 3 January.

Bro. Jacob Kaniyanthara (1800-1898)Edit

Bro Jacob Kaniyanthara collaborated with the founding fathers. The congregation venerates him as the one who initiated, shared and shaped the charism and vocation of the congregation together with the founding fathers. He was admitted to the profession in 1865. Since the congregation in the beginning was conceived to be one for the priests only, he had to wait long to be formally admitted to the religious community. In Bro Jacob, the congregation finds a luminous example of a virgin soul, which always patiently kept the light of faith ever shining with the oil of hope for the emulation and admiration of the future members. He died at the age of 98 in 1898 and was buried in Mannanam.[23]

First monasteriesEdit

Six new monasteries were founded: St. Philomena's Monastery, Koonammavu (1857), St. Mary's Monastery, Elthuruth near Trichur (1858), Carmel Monastery, Vazhakulam near Muvattupuzha (1859), St. Sebastian's Monastery, Pulinkunnu (1861), St. Theresa's Monastery, Ambazhakad (1868), and St. John of the Cross Monastery, Mutholy (1870).

Contributions to the ChurchEdit

Retreat PreachingEdit

Retreat preaching was one of the main apostolate of CMI congregation in the beginning. It was instrumental in the introduction of annual retreats for priests and laity in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. The members of the congregation used to go in groups of two or three to different parishes in Kerala to preach retreats. The monastic rules were made flexible so that they could return to the monastery some months later after preaching retreats in different parishes. The mission of retreat preaching was supported by Bishop Luduevicos who sent a circular to all parishes of vicariate instructing them to invite the religious priests from mannanam to preach retreats in their parishes. The annual retreats for priests were conducted in the monasteries of Mannanam and Elthurth.[24]

Systematizing Liturgy and Introducing Devotional PracticesEdit

The CMI congregation was involved in the radical renewal of the Church by systematizing liturgy and introducing devotional practices. The systematization of liturgy consists of mainly systematizing the liturgical celebrations. St.Kuriakose Elias Chavara played a significant role in this regard. He wrote a number of liturgical texts that played an important role in reforming liturgy. They include the Divine office for priests, Divine office for the dead, office of the Blessed virgin Mary, prayers of various blessings, the order of Holy mass - Tukasa, liturgical calendar, forty hours adoration and prayer books for laymen.

The members of the congregation paid visits to the laity, instructing them by visiting families, Sunday homilies, Preparing children for first holy communion and above all popularizing devotional practices which were practiced in the global church.[25] The spiritual outcome of such an effort could be found in The Syro-Malabar Church who are blessed with three saints, three blesseds, four venerables and ten servant of Gods.[26]

Papal HonourEdit

Fr. Alexander Kattakayam (Sr.) was honoured by Pope Leo XIII with the title MISSIONARY APOSTOLIC in 1892. The same pope endowed him with yet another title CROCE DI BENEMERENZA in 1903. Fr. Alexander was remarkable preacher and was attentive of the pastoral needs of parishes. He is credited with introducing the first holy communion service in the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. B Charles Levinjnue once prophesied, "Fr. Chandy will die while preaching" These words were fulfilled when Fr. Alexander fell ill while preaching retreat at Thidanad and died.[27]

Seminary FormationEdit

The system formation of priests in Syro-Malabar Catholic Church was called Malpanate system.[28] The three founding fathers of the CMI congregation were Malpans or teachers involved in priestly formation. They were instrumental in systematizing the seminary formation and thus they began the first common seminary of Syro-Malabar Catholic Church in Mannanam in 1831. It could accommodate 150 seminarians. It functioned till 1894 and was later joined with major seminary at Puthenpally. The seminaries were founded attached to monasteries in Vazhakulam (1866), Elthuruth (1868) and Pulincunnu (1872). The priests who received formation in these seminaries were instrumental in thwarting the threat raised by Roccosian and Melusian Schism.[29]

Defending Catholic FaithEdit

When the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church was facing the threat of schisms of Bishop Roccos (1861) and Bishop Melus (18740), the CMIs were in forefront to unite the Church and defend faith. During the period when Kuriakose Elias Chavara was the Vicar General of the Syro-Malabar Church, he divided the Syrian parishes into zones and members of CMI congregation were entrusted to assist in taking care of the faithful in the parishes especially with regard to pastoral services, functioning of Sunday schools, conducting retreats. The members of the congregation was aware of the identity of Syro-Malabar Catholic Church which was under the Latin Church. Many letters were written to Rome pleading for bishops from the Syro-Malabar Church and also for freedom in liturgical worship. The congregation had to pay heavy price for such an act with seven members were expelled for writing letters to Rome. The only reason for expulsion being asking for separate Bishops for Syrians without the consent of vicar apostolic of Verapoly.[30] One of the seven, Aloysius Pazheparambil (Louis Pazheparampil), became the first bishop of the Vicariate of Ernakulam in 1896.

Reunion MovementEdit

The Coonan Cross Oath resulted in the division of Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara and members of the CMI congregation were instrumental in bringing the separated Jacobite brethren back to the Catholic fold. Letters were written by Kuriakose Elias Chavara to Rome in 1896 requesting separate Bishops for Syrians and Latins which would created an ambient atmosphere for the return of the Jacobites. St. Chavara had also written letters to Jacobite to attend the First Vatican Council held between 1869-1870 which was encouraged by the Pope too. Yet another significant name in the reunion movement is Fr. Mathai Mariam Palakunnel. Together with other members of the CMI Congregation he worked among Jacobites in Kollam, Kottar, Pandalam, Kottarakara, Adoor, Chenganur etc. He also established Ashrams in prominent Jacobite centers such as Ayroor and Puthupally. Based in the major seminary in Chethipuzha, Fathers Stephan Thayil, Hyacinth Kunnumkal, Gregory Neerakal, Ignatius Puthanpurackal were the leading lights of the 20th century re-union movement. Yet another notable member of the CMI congregation was Fr. Placid J. Podipara who also played a key role in the re-union of Geevarghese Ivanios (Mar Ivanios) and Mar Teophilos towards the establishment of Syro-Malankara Catholic Church.[31]

Other pioneering worksEdit

A Sanskrit school was started in Mannanam in 1846; the St. Ephraim English school was begun there in 1890 and converted to a high school in 1903. Similarly in 1844, the first printing press in the Syro-Malabar Church was started at Mannanam. Deepika, the first newspaper of Kerala, was begun at Mannanam in 1887. After running it for more than a century, it was handed over to a registered company.

Global MissionEdit

The CMI Congregation began its global mission in 1938 with the Iran Mission. The Iraq mission was undertaken in 1960. The priests worked in parishes and seminary formation. The missions to Europe and North America too began in 1960s with involvement in pastoral ministry. The focus was shifted to Africa with the opening of Peru mission in 1975. In 1977 Missions were opened in South America and Kenya. Gradually missions were opened in African countries like Ghana, Botswana, Tanzania, Namibia and South American countries like Argentina, Chile, Ecuador and Paraguay. The priests also serve in Australia, Philippines and in Indonesia.[32]

More than half of the priests of the congregation serve outside Kerala, of whom 392 are serving the universal Church in 30 countries around the world. The congregation renders service to the universal Church through priestly formation in India in major seminaries and pontifical athenaeum for philosophical, theological, canon law and formative spirituality studies. The National Seminary of Namibian Bishops’ Conference is administered by the CMI conferrers and some others render service in Pontifical Oriental Institute, Rome, and Hekima and Thangasa University Colleges, Nairobi. Members of the congregation reach out to more than 100 dioceses across the globe through pastoral ministry and works of evangelization and at present the congregation focuses more on Africa and Latin American countries. CMIs have made their presence felt in the ministry of publication and press. They also provide quality education through university, university colleges, technical institutions and schools, including special and inclusive schools for the differently abled children. CMI communities reach out through various charity and social action programmes to address the concerns of the poor, the sick and the socially and economically marginalized through institutions and services.

The CMI congregation dedicates the month of October every year to pray for the global missions. Each country of the mission is remembered during prayer.


There were 400 members and 37 houses for the Congregation by 1950 and it was a felt need to divide the Congregation into provinces. Bishop Bonaventure Arana, was appointed by the Apostolic See as an Apostolic Visitor to study the matter and report it to Apostolic See. Based on the report the Apostolic See agreed for the division of Congregation into three provinces. The decision to divide the Congregation intro provinces was taken at the extraordinary meeting of the General Council at Mannanam after the General Chapter which was held from 23 February 1953 to 25 February 1953. The division of the province was done geographically. The South was named St. Joseph Province, Kottayam, The Central region was named, Sacred Heart Province, Kalamssery and Northern Part as, Mary Matha Province, Thrissur.

At present there are 15 provinces in the CMI Congregation. St Joseph’s Province, Thiruvananthapuram; St Joseph Province, Kottayam; Carmel Province, Muvattupuzha; Sacred Heart Province, Kochi; Devamatha Province, Thrissur; St Thomas Province, Kozhikode; Preshitha Province, Coimbatore; St Paul’s Province, Mysore; Mary Matha Vice-Province, Hyderabad; Mar Thoma Province, Chanda; Nirmal Province, Jagdalpur; St Paul Province, Bhopal; St Chavara Vice-Province, Bhavnagar; St Xavier’s Province, Rajkot; and St John’s Province, Bijnor.

The Delegations of the congregation are: CMI North American Delegation, New York; CMI German Delegation, Bonn. Region: St. Thomas East Africa Region, Kenya.

The Sub-Regions: Kanyakumari Sub-Region; Kolkata Sub-Region,; Jammu Sub-Region,; Chavara Sub-Region, Dhule; San Mateo Sub-Region, Peru; St Theresa’s Sub-Region, Mount Kenya; St Therese de Lisieux Sub-Region, Madagascar.[33]


The congregation has about 3,000 members from Syro-Malabar, Syro-Malankara and Latin rites from India and Kenya with 10 bishops, 1917 priests, 19 lay brothers and 1200 brothers in formation. The priests are actively involved in pastoral services in 30 countries around the world.[34]

The congregation currently has five major seminaries: Dharmaram College, Bangalore, Darsana Philosophate, Wardha, Samanvaya Theologate, Bhopal, Carmel Vidya Bhavan, Pune, and CMI Vidya Bhavan, Baroda. Dharmaram Vidya Kshetram (D.V.K.) at Bangalore has 800 students. The first seminary outside India was established in 2001 in Kenya and the first batch of students from abroad made their religious profession on 19 March 2005.

Important ActivitiesEdit

Field of education - CMI's are running some of the notable institutions in several disciplines around India. Christ University Bangalore, Kristu Jayanti College Bangalore, Rajagiri Institutions Kochi, Amala Medical College Thrissur, SH College Kochi, etc.

Field of social service - There are centralized and province based specific wings for social works. CEVA, KESS, PDS, etc. are rendering notable services for the social justice, enrichment of the marginalized people, etc.

Field of retreats - Jerusalem Retreat Center, Darsana Thalipparambu, Nirmalgram Bhoothathankettu, etc.

Field of Journalism - Deepika News paper, Chavara Vision, several religious press and magazines, etc.

Field of Art - Kalabhavan Kochi, Chavara cultural center Kochi, Darsana Kottayam, Upasana Thodupuzha, etc.


A Prior General, with a team of four general Councilors, and a general auditor administer the congregation. A General Chapter of the congregation elects them every six years. As of August 2020, the Prior General is Father Thomas C Mathew, C.M.I.[35]

List of Prior GeneralsEdit

Name of Prior General Start date End date
Fr. Thomas C Mathew, C.M.I. 2020
Fr. Paul Achandy, C.M.I. 2014 2020
Fr. Jose Panthaplamthottiyil, C.M.I. 2008 2014
Fr. Anthony Kariyil, C.M.I. 2002 2008 Later ordained Bishop of Mandya
Fr. Alex Ukken, C.M.I. 1996 2002
Fr. Thomas Mampra, C.M.I. 1990 1996
Fr. Vijay Anand Nedumpuram, C.M.I. 1985 1990 Later ordained Bishop of Chanda
Fr. Thomas Aykara, C.M.I. 1978 1985
Fr. Theobald Pothanikkad, C.M.I. 1972 1978
Fr. Canisius Thekkekara C.M.I. 1966 1972 Declared Servant of God
Fr. Maurus Valiyaparampil, C.M.I. 1953 1966
Fr. Vincent Alappatt, C.M.I. 1947 1952
Fr. John Berchmans Koithara, C.M.I. 1941 1947
Fr. Bartholomew Perumalil, C.M.I. 1936 1941
Fr. Silvester Thattil, C.M.I. 1933 1936
Fr. John Berchmans Koithara, C.M.I. 1926 1933
Fr. Bartholomew Perumalil, C.M.I. 1936 1941
Fr. Silvester Thattil, C.M.I. 1933 1936
Fr. John Berchmans Koithara, C.M.I. 1926 1933
Fr. Louis Neriamparampil, C.M.I. 1923 1926
Fr. Alexander Kattakayam, C.M.I. 1920 1923
Fr. Gabriel Pulickal, C.M.I. 1917 1920
Fr. Alexander Kattakayam, C.M.I. 1914 1917 Honoured by Pope Leo XIII with titles Missionary Apostolic (1892) and CROCE DI BENEMERENZA (1903).
Fr. Basil Thaliath, C.M.I. 1908 1914
Fr. Alexander Kattakayam, C.M.I. 1902 1908 Honoured by Pope Leo XIII with titles Missionary Apostolic (1892) and CROCE DI BENEMERENZA (1903).
Archbishop Bernard of Jesus Arginzonis y Astobiza, O.C.D. 1892 1902
Archbishop Ladislaus Michael Zaleski 1892 1892 Later Patriarch of Antioch
Cardinal Giovanni Simeoni 1891 1892
Archbishop Andrea Aiuti 1887 1891 Later Cardinal
Marcellino Berardi, O.C.D. 1885 1887
Fr. Kuriakose Eliseus Porukara, C.M.I. 1871 1885
Saint Fr.Kuriakose Elias Chavara 1855 1871

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (C.M.I.)". GCatholic. Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  2. ^ "CMI at a Glance".
  3. ^ "CMI History".
  4. ^ "CMI". Kerala Conference of Major Superiors (KCMS). 2 May 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  5. ^ "To Carmelites of Mary Immaculate, 20 March 1974 | Paul VI". Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  6. ^ Schaeffer, Mary M. "India: Christian" in Encyclopedia of Monasticism edited by William M. Johnston, Pg. 640. Routledge Publishing, 2000.
  7. ^ "CMI History". Retrieved 15 October 2018.
  8. ^ "CARMELITES OF MARY IMMACULATE (CMI) - A Short History". Retrieved 9 October 2018.
  9. ^ Achandy, Paul. "Carmelites of Mary Immaculate (CMI)." Kochi: Prior General's House, 2019.
  10. ^ Plathottam, Valerian (1939). Vazhathapetta Divya Shree Chavara Kuriakose Eliasachan (biography). Mannanam: St. Joseph's Press. p. 49.
  11. ^ "Carmelites of Mary Immaculate | Dharmaram Daily". Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  12. ^ "CMI Global: CMI". CMI Global. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  13. ^ "CMI". Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  14. ^ "Carmelites of Mary Immaculate | Dharmaram Daily". Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  15. ^ "Thomas Palackal" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Our Patron".
  17. ^ "Fr. Thomas Porukara" (PDF).
  18. ^ "Chavara Portrait". Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  19. ^ P V, Mollykutty. "St. Kuriakose Elias Chavara: A Unique and Vibrant Educational Visionary of Kerala".
  20. ^ "Saint Kuriakose Elias Chavara Mannanam". Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  21. ^ Scaria, Manjula. "The Legacy of Kuriakose Elias Chavara as a Social Reformer" (PDF).
  22. ^ "Canonization of St Kuriakose Elias Chavara". Chronology of the Carmelite Order. 6 October 2016. Archived from the original on 14 February 2019. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  23. ^ "CMI". Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  24. ^ "CMI Global: PASTORAL". CMI Global. Retrieved 12 October 2018.
  25. ^ "CARMELITES OF MARY IMMACULATE (CMI) - A Short History". Retrieved 12 October 2018.
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