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Carbon dioxide laser

A test target bursts into flame upon irradiation by a continuous wave kilowatt-level carbon dioxide laser.

The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas lasers to be developed. It was invented by Kumar Patel of Bell Labs in 1964,[1] and is still one of the most useful. Carbon dioxide lasers are the highest-power continuous wave lasers that are currently available. They are also quite efficient: the ratio of output power to pump power can be as large as 20%. The CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering on 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers (μm).

AmplificationEdit

The active laser medium (laser gain/amplification medium) is a gas discharge which is air- or water-cooled, depending on the power being applied. The filling gas within the discharge tube consists of around 10–20% carbon dioxide (CO
2
), around 10–20% nitrogen (N
2
), a few percent hydrogen (H
2
) and/or xenon (Xe) (usually only used in a sealed tube), and the remainder of the gas mixture helium (He).[citation needed] The specific proportions vary according to the particular laser.

The population inversion in the laser is achieved by the following sequence: electron impact excites the {v1(1)} vibrational mode quantum state of the nitrogen. Because nitrogen is a homonuclear molecule, it cannot lose this energy by photon emission, and its excited vibrational modes are therefore metastable and relatively long-lived. N
2
{v1(1)} and CO
2
{v3(1)} being nearly perfectly resonant (total molecular energy differential is within 3 cm-1 when accounting for N
2
anharmonicity, centrifugal distortion and vibro-rotational interaction, which is more than made up for by the Maxwell speed distribution of translational-mode energy), N
2
collisionally de-excites by transferring its vibrational mode energy to the CO2 molecule, causing the carbon dioxide to excite to its {v3(1)} (asymmetric stretch) vibrational mode quantum state. The CO
2
then radiatively emits at either 10.6 μm[i] by dropping to the {v1(1)} (symmetric-stretch) vibrational mode, or 9.6 μm[i] by dropping to the {v20(2)} (bending) vibrational mode. The carbon dioxide molecules then transition to their {v20(0)} vibrational mode ground state from {v1(1)} or {v20(2)} by collision with cold helium atoms, thus maintaining population inversion. The resulting hot helium atoms must be cooled in order to sustain the ability to produce a population inversion in the carbon dioxide molecules. In sealed lasers, this takes place as the helium atoms strike the walls of the laser discharge tube. In flow-through lasers, a continuous stream of CO2 and nitrogen is excited by the plasma discharge and the hot gas mixture is exhausted from the resonator by pumps.

Because the excitation energy of molecular vibrational and rotational mode quantum states are low, the photons emitted due to transition between these quantum states have comparatively lower energy, and longer wavelength, than visible and near-infrared light. The 9–12 μm wavelength of CO2 lasers is useful because it falls into an important window for atmospheric transmission (up to 80% atmospheric transmission at this wavelength), and because many natural and synthetic materials have strong characteristic absorption in this range.[2]

Laser wavelength can be tuned by altering the isotopic ratio of the carbon and oxygen atoms comprising the CO
2
molecules in the discharge tube.

ConstructionEdit

Because CO2 lasers operate in the infrared, special materials are necessary for their construction. Typically, the mirrors are silvered, while windows and lenses are made of either germanium or zinc selenide. For high power applications, gold mirrors and zinc selenide windows and lenses are preferred. There are also diamond windows and lenses in use. Diamond windows are extremely expensive, but their high thermal conductivity and hardness make them useful in high-power applications and in dirty environments. Optical elements made of diamond can even be sand blasted without losing their optical properties. Historically, lenses and windows were made out of salt (either sodium chloride or potassium chloride). While the material was inexpensive, the lenses and windows degraded slowly with exposure to atmospheric moisture.

The most basic form of a CO2 laser consists of a gas discharge (with a mix close to that specified above) with a total reflector at one end, and an output coupler (a partially reflecting mirror) at the output end.[3]

The CO2 laser can be constructed to have continuous wave (CW) powers between milliwatts (mW) and hundreds of kilowatts (kW).[4] It is also very easy to actively Q-switch a CO2 laser by means of a rotating mirror or an electro-optic switch, giving rise to Q-switched peak powers of up to gigawatts (GW).[5]

Because the laser transitions are actually on vibration-rotation bands of a linear triatomic molecule, the rotational structure of the P and R bands can be selected by a tuning element in the laser cavity. Prisms are not practical as tuning elements because most media that transmit in the mid-infrared absorb or scatter some of the light, so the frequency tuning element is almost always a diffraction grating. By rotating the diffraction grating, a particular rotational line of the vibrational transition can be selected. The finest frequency selection may also be obtained through the use of an etalon. In practice, together with isotopic substitution, this means that a continuous comb of frequencies separated by around 1 cm−1 (30 GHz) can be used that extend from 880 to 1090 cm−1. Such "line-tuneable" carbon dioxide lasers[6] are principally of interest in research applications.

The laser's output wavelength is affected by the particular isotopes contained in the carbon dioxide molecule, with heavier isotopes causing longer wavelength emission. CO
2
lasers can be made to emit from 8.98 to 10.2 μm by selecting the appropriate gas. The table below shows the output range for nine possible isotope combinations:[2]

Carbon atom isotope First oxygen atom isotope Second oxygen atom isotope Wavelength (μm)
14C 16O 16O 9.8–10.2
13C 16O 16O 9.5–9.8
12C 16O 16O 9.1–9.3
12C 16O 18O 9.0–9.2
13C 16O 18O 9.5–9.8
12C 17O 17O 9.0–9.3
12C 18O 18O 9.0–9.2
13C 18O 18O 9.4–9.8
14C 18O 18O 9.9–10.2

ApplicationsEdit

 
A medical CO2 laser

Industrial (cutting and welding)Edit

Because of the high power levels available (combined with reasonable cost for the laser), CO2 lasers are frequently used in industrial applications for cutting and welding, while lower power level lasers are used for engraving.[7] It is also used in the additive manufacturing process of Selective laser sintering (SLS).

Medical (soft-tissue surgery)Edit

Carbon dioxide lasers have become useful in surgical procedures because water (which makes up most biological tissue) absorbs this frequency of light very well. Some examples of medical uses are laser surgery and skin resurfacing ("laser facelifts", which essentially consist of vaporizing the skin to promote collagen formation).[8] CO2 lasers may be used to treat certain skin conditions such as hirsuties papillaris genitalis by removing bumps or podules. CO2 lasers can be used to remove vocal fold lesions,[9] such as vocal fold cysts. Researchers in Israel are experimenting with using CO2 lasers to weld human tissue, as an alternative to traditional sutures.[10]

The 10.6 μm CO2 laser remains the best surgical laser for the soft tissue where both cutting and hemostasis are achieved photo-thermally (radiantly).[11][12][13][14] CO2 lasers can be used in place of a scalpel for most procedures, and are even used in places a scalpel would not be used, in delicate areas where mechanical trauma could damage the surgical site. CO2 lasers are the best suited for soft tissue procedures in human and animal specialties, as compared to other laser wavelengths. Advantages include less bleeding, shorter surgery time, less risk of infection, and less post-op swelling. Applications include gynecology, dentistry, oral and maxillofacial surgery, and many others.

The CO2 laser at the 9.25 - 9.6 μm wavelength is sometimes used in dentistry for hard-tissue ablation. The hard-tissue is ablated at temperatures as high as 5,000 °C, producing bright thermal radiation.[15]

OtherEdit

The common plastic poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) absorbs IR light in the 2.8–25 μm wavelength band, so CO2 lasers have been used in recent years for fabricating microfluidic devices from it, with channel widths of a few hundred micrometers.[16]

Because the atmosphere is quite transparent to infrared light, CO2 lasers are also used for military rangefinding using LIDAR techniques.

CO2 lasers are used in spectroscopy[17] and the Silex process to enrich uranium.

The Soviet Polyus was designed to use a megawatt carbon-dioxide laser as an in-orbit weapon to destroy SDI satellites.

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ a b The exact wavelength depends upon the isotopic composition of the CO
    2
    molecule.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Patel, C. K. N. (1964). "Continuous-Wave Laser Action on Vibrational-Rotational Transitions of CO2". Physical Review. 136 (5A): A1187–A1193. Bibcode:1964PhRv..136.1187P. doi:10.1103/physrev.136.a1187.
  2. ^ a b [1] Yong Zhang and Tim Killeen, Gas Lasers: CO2 Lasers - progressing from a varied past to an application-specific future, LaserFocusWorld (4 November 2016)
  3. ^ "Output Couplers". ophiropt.com. Ophir Optronics Solutions Ltd. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  4. ^ "Carbon-Based Curtain Absorbs Stray Laser Light". Tech Briefs Media Labs. 30 November 2007. Retrieved 17 February 2014.
  5. ^ Carbon Dioxide Amplifier at Brookhaven National Lab
  6. ^ F. J. Duarte (ed.), Tunable Lasers Handbook (Academic, New York, 1995) Chapter 4.
  7. ^ Andreeta, M. R. B.; et al. (2011). "Bidimensional codes recorded on an oxide glass surface using a continuous wave CO2 laser". Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering. 21 (2): 025004. Bibcode:2011JMiMi..21b5004A. doi:10.1088/0960-1317/21/2/025004.
  8. ^ Barton, Fritz (2014). "Skin Resurfacing". In Charles Thorne (ed.). Grabb and Smith's Plastic Surgery (7 ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 455. ISBN 978-1-4511-0955-9. For practical purposes, there are three methods of resurfacing: mechanical sanding (dermabrasion), chemical burn (chemical peels), and photodynamic treatments (laser ablation or coagulation).
  9. ^ Benninger, Michael S. (2000). "Microdissection or Microspot CO2 Laser for Limited Vocal Fold Benign Lesions: A Prospective Randomized Trial". The Laryngoscope. 110 (S92): 1–17. doi:10.1097/00005537-200002001-00001. ISSN 1531-4995. PMID 10678578.
  10. ^ "Israeli researchers pioneer laser treatment for sealing wounds". Israel21c. 16 November 2008. Archived from the original on 28 July 2009. Retrieved 8 March 2009.
  11. ^ Vogel, A.; Venugopalan, V. (2003). "Mechanisms of pulsed laser ablation of biological tissues". Chem Rev. 103 (2): 577–644. doi:10.1021/cr010379n. PMID 12580643.
  12. ^ Vitruk, Peter (2014). "Oral soft tissue laser ablative and coagulative efficiencies spectra". Implant Practice US. 6 (7): 22–27. Retrieved 15 May 2015.
  13. ^ Fisher, J. C. (1993). "Qualitative and quantitative tissue effects of light from important surgical lasers". Laser Surgery in Gynecology: A Clinical Guide: 58–81.
  14. ^ Fantarella, D.; Kotlow, L. (2014). "The 9.3μm CO2 Dental Laser" (PDF). Scientific Review. J Laser Dent. 1 (22): 10–27.
  15. ^ "Laser Surgery Basics - American Laser Study Club". American Laser Study Club. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  16. ^ "CO2-laser micromachining and back-end processing for rapid production of PMMA-based microfluidic systems". Retrieved 21 October 2009.
  17. ^ C. P. Bewick, A. B. Duval, and B. J. Orr, Rotationally selective mode-to-mode vibrational energy transfer in D2CO/D2CO and D2CO/Ar collisions, J. Chem Phys. 82, 3470 (1985).

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