Canal+ (Canal Plus, French pronunciation: [kanal plys], meaning 'Channel Plus'; sometimes abbreviated C+) is a French premium television channel launched in 1984. It is 100% owned by the Canal+ Group, which in turn is owned by Vivendi. The channel broadcasts several kinds of programming, mostly encrypted. Unencrypted programming can be viewed free of charge on Canal+ and on satellite on Canal+ Clair (Clear). The channel does not broadcast advertising, except when broadcasting on free-to-air slots. Almost all foreign films and series are broadcast in their original language with French subtitles on a secondary audio channel and dubbed in French or in French. All the programs of the group's channels are subtitled in French for the deaf and hard of hearing and the visually impaired also have access audio description for some programs.
|Launched||4 November 1984|
|Picture format||1080i HDTV|
(downscaled to 16:9 576i for the SDTV feed)
|Audience share||1.4% (December 2018, Médiamétrie)|
|Slogan||Créateur et original depuis 1984. (Creator and original since 1984)|
|Headquarters||Issy-les-Moulineaux, Paris, France|
|Digital terrestrial television||Channel 4 (HD)|
|Canal+||Channels 4 & 9 (SD/HD)|
Channel 503 (HD)
Channels 703 & 710 (SD)
|Canal+||Channel 4 & 9 (SD/HD)|
Channel 503 (HD)
Canal+ is a supporter of the Hybrid Broadcast Broadband TV (HbbTV) initiative, which promotes and establishes an open European standard for hybrid set-top boxes for the reception of broadcast TV and broadband multimedia applications with a single user interface. Since November 2017, Canal+ began to expand their catalogue internationally through the international feed, Canal+ International.
After the announcement about the launch of the fourth French television channel, Canal+ started broadcasting on 4 November 1984. In 1986, the channel had one million subscribers. It has produced numerous films of auteurs, including David Lynch's The Straight Story, Mulholland Dr., and Inland Empire.
Originally, subscribers would be mailed a code to punch in on their decoder's control panel to view the encrypted service (using the RITC Discret 1 system); the code would be based upon the decoder's serial number (stored in the box's ROM). To avoid problems with customer's codes being not delivered on time by the postal system, Canal+ would switch to encryption based on a generic key, between the last day of the month (beginning at midnight) and the first Monday of the next month (until 9 AM). During this time, all decoders -- even those with lapsed subscriptions -- would be able to view the channel. However, signal piracy was rampant, after the magazine Radio Plans printed decoder plans in their December 1984 issue. As a result of this, Canal+ switched to the much stronger Nagravision encryption system beginning in 1992; the Discret system was fully phased out by 1995. The new decoders now utilized smart cards, cut into the shape of a key and inserted into the front of the decoder. Different decoders using the D2-MAC standard were also deployed during this time, mostly for cable subscribers. With the launch of CanalSatellite, the Mediaguard encryption system was instituted, created by SECA (Société Européenne de Contrôle d'Accès), a firm owned by Canal+ and Bertelsmann; Canal+ eventually bought out Bertelsmann's stake and rebranded SECA as Canal+ Technologies. This firm was sold by 2003 to Thomson SA. The MediaGuard system's use in Britain (by the now defunct OnDigital/ITV Digital) led to hackers in the employ of Rupert Murdoch's rival encryption company NDS breaking into the MediaGuard system, resulting in new cards being issued to Canal+ subscribers in 2002 and Canal+ starting legal action against Murdoch. The Nagravision system continued in use until 30 November, 2011, when all analog television broadcasting in France ceased.
With the launch of the digital satellite provider CanalSatellite on 27 April 1996, Canal+ received two new sister channels: Canal+ Jaune and Canal+ Bleu. A fourth channel, called Canal+ Vert came along on 31 August 1998. The channels changed their names to Canal+ Confort (now known as Canal+ Décalé since 2005), Canal+ Cinéma and Canal+ Sport on 1 November 2003.
In September 2005, Canal+, Canal+ Cinéma and Canal+ Sport started broadcasting in the French digital terrestrial television network. The free-to-air parts of Canal+ had already been broadcasting for a few months by then. In August 2008, Canal+ started broadcasting the encrypted parts of its main channel in high-definition in the terrestrial network. Canal+ announced plans to turn off the analogue terrestrial signals by 2010.
An account of the rise of Canal+ and CanalSatellite, and the establishment of the Canal+ Group as a major satellite broadcaster in Europe is given in the book, High Above, which tells the story of the foundation and development of the leading European satellite operator, Astra.
In February 2013, for €29 million per year, Canal+ bought the TV rights for the FIA Formula One World Championship. The same year, the group bought the rights to the English Premier League, the most watched football league in the world.
On November 15, 2017, Quebec cable system Videotron began carrying Canal+ International, marking it the first provider to carry the channel. It is also the second attempt at making Canal+ available in Canada since the former paid Canal+ Canada channel on Dailymotion, launched in 2013.
As of August 2018, Canal+ International is on U.S. satellite provider DirecTV in HD on channel 2010.
- Original French TV Shows : Les Guignols de l'info; Groland; H; Jamel Comedy Club; Spiral (Engrenages) ; Mafiosa; Le Journal du Hard; Pigalle la Nuit; La Commune; Braquo; Reporters; Scalp; Le Grand Journal; La Matinale; Le petit journal; La Nouvelle Edition; Lundi Investigation; Canal Football Club; Dimanche+; Maison Close; Les Revenants; The Spy; Savages (Les Sauvages)
- Original French/British TV Show : The Tunnel
- Original French/German/Italian TV Show : Borgia
- French TV Shows: Mad Pigeon
- Kids Shows : Rugrats (Les Razmokets) ; Teletubbies; Kaeloo; Mia and Me and The Cramp Twins.
- American TV Shows : 24 (24 heures chrono) ; 30 Rock; Big Love; Cold Case; Damages; Desperate Housewives; Dexter; Fallen Angels; FlashForward; How I Met Your Mother; It's Always Sunny in Philadelphia (Philadelphia) ; Mad Men; Nurse Jackie; Pushing Daisies; Royal Pains; The Daily Show; The L Word; The New Adventures of Old Christine (Old Christine) ; The Office; The Pacific; The Secret Life of the American Teenager (La Vie Secrète d'une Ado Ordinaire) ; The Shield; Two and a Half Men (Mon Oncle Charlie) ; Vampire Diaries; Weeds and United States of Tara; also Boomtown; Rome; Six Feet Under; Spin City; Surface and Will & Grace, Game of Thrones.
- American animated TV Shows : American Dad!; Drawn Together; Family Guy (Les Griffin) ; South Park and The Tom and Jerry Show.
- American reality TV Shows : The Simple Life.
- Japanese animated TV Shows : Fullmetal Alchemist; Monster; Noir and Samurai Champloo.
- British TV Shows : Skins; Merlin; Wire in the Blood; The Office and Spooks (MI-5).
- Irish/Canadian TV Shows : The Tudors (Les Tudors).
- Canadian TV shows : Flashpoint; Little Mosque on the Prairie, Life with Derek, Naturally Sadie, Total Drama: Revenge of the Island.
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Les Chaînes Canal+ is the brand name used for all the Canal+-branded channels in France. Prior to 2008 it was called Canal+ Le Bouquet.
|Canal+||4 November 1984||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ HD||2006||previously known as Canal+ 16/9 then as Canal+ Hi-Tech||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 HDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Cinéma||27 April 1996||A dedicated movie channel, previously known as Canal+ Jaune||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Cinéma HD||2010||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Sport||31 August 1998||A sports channel, previously known as Canal+ Vert||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Sport HD||2010||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Family||2007||A channel broadcasting familial programmes, series and cartoons||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Family HD||2010||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Séries||2013||A channel broadcasting series||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Séries HD||2013||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Décalé||27 April 1996||Shows repeats of programs shown on Canal+, previously known as Canal+ Bleu||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||16:9 SDTV||24 hours|
|Canal+ Décalé HD||2010||No||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|C8||2013||A channel broadcasting entertainment programmes and films, previously known as D8. It is free-to-air.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|CStar||2016||A channel broadcasting music videos and reality shows and documentaries, previously known as D17. It is free-to-air.||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
|CNews||2016||A 24-hour News channel, previously known as i>Télé. It is free-to-air||Yes||Yes||Yes||Yes||1080i HDTV||24 hours|
- D, Pierre; umont (10 April 2019). "Faire fonctionner un décodeur Canal+ des années 80". Le journal du lapin (in French). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- BUSINESS, BFM. "30 ans de décodeurs Canal+". BFM BUSINESS (in French). Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- Cassy, John; Murphy, Paul (13 March 2002). "How smart card secrets were cracked". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Murdoch firm accused of hacking". BBC News. 27 March 2012. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- "Virginie Calmels: Executive Profile & Biography - Bloomberg". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Virginie Calmels joins the Assystem Board of Directors" (PDF). Assystem.com. 2016. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 September 2017.
- "L'histoire du Groupe Canal+ de 1983 à nos jours". Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2009.
- "Canal plans analogue switch-off". Broadbandtvnews.com. 3 April 2009.
- "Ligue 1 nets nearly $1 billion for TV rights". Thenational.ae. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Canal+ lance A+ pour le « public familial africain »". Lemonde.fr. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- Keslassy, Elsa (10 September 2015). "Vincent Bollore Shakes Up Canal Plus Management". Variety. Retrieved 20 September 2017.
- "Canal+ chez Vidéotron à la mi-novembre". Lesoliel.com. 30 October 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2018.
- "Les Chaînes Canal+ : Programs for all tastes". Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 25 June 2009.
- Official website (in French)