Campus climate

Campus climate refers to current dimensions of climate in the campus community in higher education institutions.[1] According to the author, the dimensions of climate could refer to views, attitudes, psychology, behaviors, standards, perceptions and expectations.[2] Campus community could refer to employees such as faculty, staff, administrators, and students, individually or as a group.[2] Campus climate is often contrasted with 'campus culture'. While climate and culture are sometimes used interchangeably, some authors mention overlaps, while others define clear boundaries between the two.[2][3]

Definitions and descriptionsEdit

Huston Smith (1955) wrote that the "atmosphere" and "environment" of a college affects everyone that is a part of it, making an educational institute more than a group of students, employees and buildings.[4] Early attempts at measuring campus climate (culture, atmosphere, environment) include assessments and indexes created by John L. Holland & Alexander Astin (1961), and George G. Stern & C. Robert Pace (1962).[5] More recently, climate has been understood to represent an "immeasurable construct".[6] Hart & Fellabaum (2008) studied 118 campus climate papers and identified a number of definitions and measurement efforts.[7]

The major features of climate are (1) its primary emphasis on common participant views of a wide array of organizational phenomena that allow for comparison among groups or over time, (2) its focus on current patterns of beliefs and behaviors, and (3) its often ephemeral or malleable character

The collective, mutually shaping patterns of institutional history, mission, physical settings, norms, traditions, values, practices, beliefs, and assumptions that guide the behavior of individuals and groups in an institution of higher education which provide a frame of reference for interpreting the meanings of events and actions on and off campus

The current attitudes, behaviors, and standards and practices of employees and students of an institution [...] that concern the access for, inclusion of, and level of respect for individual and group needs, abilities, and potential

Climate is a broad concept however often used in a narrower and more concentrated manner.[11] Conceptual framework for campus climate has developed to include the history of the educational institute, capacity to handle diversity, and psychological and behavioral climate.[12]

Campus climate for the campus communityEdit


Women colleges and universities around the world provide a friendly and "warm" to "neutral" climate.[13] Campus climate at women's colleges for female faculty is more conducive than at coeducational institutions.[14] The climate situation in coeducational settings for female faculty is similar to the situation for female students, say with regard to male privilege.[15] Intellectual inbreeding in China, Japan and Korea is affected by the old boy networks; in this respect women colleges and universities provide opportunities which coeducational institutions do not.[16]

Research from around the worldEdit

Campus climate in BrazilEdit

A study conducted at Federal University of Bahia observed that a number of campus climate variables affected students in general, and more importantly variables that went on to affect their interaction with their academic life and retention.[17] This includes identity, teaching and faculty interactions.[17]

Campus climate in IndiaEdit

One of the first studies in India which included the aspect of campus climate was conducted in the University of Pune from 2013 onwards.[18][19] The study found that faculty demographics and student demographics has changed unequally and this has a significant factor of campus climate.[20] The study also revealed changing gender patterns which also have implications for campus climate.[20] Changes in the gender gap include increased access to higher education for women from "relatively privileged backgrounds" and males from "disadvantaged backgrounds".[20] This kind of changing social dynamic has resulted in observations such as men reporting experiencing more discrimination than women.[20] Low empathy, low tolerance and low argumentation skills were observed.[20]

Campus climate in TurkeyEdit

Gunuc & Artun et al (2019) conducted a campus climate study of 26 universities in Turkey covering all the geographic regions of the country.[21] The study found that the correlation between student engagement and campus climate along with certain other variables was significant.[21]

Campus climate in United StatesEdit

Climate for free speech in USA campuses has been studied. More than half of college students self-censor themselves and there is a large variation between institutions with regard to free speech.[22][23][24] There is a discussion about cancel culture and wokeness on the left.[25][26] Campus climate is an important factor that affects decisions to seek out mental health services for mental health issues.[27]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Hart & Fellabaum 2008, p. 223, "The term campus climate has become commonplace within higher education".
  2. ^ a b c d Hart & Fellabaum 2008, p. 223.
  3. ^ Miller 2014, p. 183.
  4. ^ Schoen 1966, p. 3.
  5. ^ Schoen 1966, p. 3-4.
  6. ^ Rankin & Reason 2008, p. 263, climate is normally understood to be an immeasurable construct composed of multiple items.
  7. ^ Miller 2014, p. 186.
  8. ^ Miller 2014, p. 184.
  9. ^ Childs 2015, p. 27.
  10. ^ Rankin & Reason 2008, p. 264.
  11. ^ Peterson & Spencer 1990, p. 8.
  12. ^ Souza, Veiga Simão & Ferreira 2019, p. 1196.
  13. ^ Renn 2014, p. 74.
  14. ^ Renn 2014, p. 71-72.
  15. ^ Renn 2014, p. 72-73.
  16. ^ Renn 2014, p. 73.
  17. ^ a b Childs 2015, p. 122.
  18. ^ "UMass Amherst Professor of Education Shares Research on Inclusive Universities at International Symposium in India". University of Massachusetts Amherst. 14 February 2018. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  19. ^ "'Inclusive Universities Project' Unites UMass Amherst and University of Pune in Boosting Higher Ed Access". News & Media Relations. University of Massachusetts Amherst. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  20. ^ a b c d e Trivedi, Divya (30 March 2018). "Inclusive universities". Frontline. The Hindu Group. Retrieved 16 June 2022.
  21. ^ a b Gunuc, Selim; Artun, Huseyin; Yigit, Emrullah; Keser, Hafize (2022) [2019]. "Examining the Relationship Between Student Engagement and Campus Climate: A Case in Turkey". Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice. 23 (4): 1099–1119. doi:10.1177/1521025119894579. ISSN 1521-0251. S2CID 213175174.
  22. ^ "Campus Free Speech Climate". College Pulse. 29 September 2020.
  23. ^ Stevens, Sean (15 May 2020). "Campus-specific analyses of the climate for free expression reveal stark differences between schools". Foundation for Individual Rights and Expression.
  24. ^ Anderson, Greta (29 April 2020). "Survey Identifies 'Dangerous' Student Self-Censorship". Inside Higher Ed.
  25. ^ Marchese, David (2 May 2022). "Why Critics of Angry Woke College Kids Are Missing the Point". The New York Times Magazine.
  26. ^ Abrams, Samuel J. (3 October 2021). "How did universities get so woke? Look to the administrators | Opinion". Newsweek.
  27. ^ Stein, Bradley D.; Sontag-Padilla, Lisa; Ashwood, J. Scott; Woodbridge, Michelle W.; Eberhart, Nicole K.; May, Libby; Seelam, Rachana; Briscombe, Brian; Mendelsohn, Joshua; D'Amico, Elizabeth J.; Osilla, Karen Chan (2016). "Campus Climate Matters: Changing the Mental Health Climate on College Campuses Improves Student Outcomes and Benefits Society". RAND Corporation. Santa Monica, CA.

Works citedEdit

(Sorted by year)

Further readingEdit