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Campos do Jordão (Brazilian Portuguese: [ˈkɐ̃pus du ʒoɾˈdɐ̃w]) is a municipality in the state of São Paulo in southeastern Brazil. It is part of the Metropolitan Region of Vale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte.[1] The population is 51,454 (2017 est.) in an area of 290.52 square kilometres (112.17 sq mi).[2] The city is situated 1,628 metres (5,341 ft) above sea level and is the highest city in Brazil.[3]

Campos do Jordão
Municipality
Município de Campos do Jordão
Skyline
Skyline
Flag of Campos do Jordão
Flag
Official seal of Campos do Jordão
Seal
Nickname(s): 
Brazilian Switzerland
Location of Campos do Jordão in the state of São Paulo
Location of Campos do Jordão in the state of São Paulo
Campos do Jordão is located in Brazil
Campos do Jordão
Campos do Jordão
Location of Campos do Jordão in Brazil
Coordinates: 22°44′20″S 45°35′27″W / 22.73889°S 45.59083°W / -22.73889; -45.59083Coordinates: 22°44′20″S 45°35′27″W / 22.73889°S 45.59083°W / -22.73889; -45.59083
Country Brazil
RegionSoutheast
State
Bandeira do estado de São Paulo.svg
São Paulo
Metropolitan RegionVale do Paraíba e Litoral Norte
FoundedApril 29, 1874
Government
 • MayorFrederico Guidoni (PSDB)
Area
 • Total290.520 km2 (112.170 sq mi)
Elevation
1,628 m (5,341 ft)
Population
 (2017)
 • Total51,454
 • Density164.76/km2 (426.7/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC-3 (BRT)
Postal Code
12460-000
Area code(s)+55 12
WebsiteCampos do Jordão, SP

There are numerous outdoor activities for tourists and winter residents. These include hiking, mountain climbing, treetop cable swings (arborismo), horseback riding, and ATV and motorbike riding. July, of winter season vacations, sees an enormous influx of visitors (more than quadrupling the city's population), due in part to the winter festival of classical music.[citation needed]

Its attractions throughout the year include German, Swiss and Italian cuisine restaurants, bars, and a cable car. There are many pousadas (inns) and chalets. Also, in order to cater to the large number of visitors, several bars, lounges, discos and clubs open during the winter months.[citation needed]

Contents

DemographyEdit

  • Total Population: 51,454
  • Population Density (inhabitants/km2): 152.86
  • Infant Mortality (0 to one year old) (per one thousand): 8.52
  • Life Expectancy (years): 75.73
  • Total Fertility Rate (Children per Woman): 2.18
  • Literacy Rate: 92.28%
  • Human Development Index (IHDI): 0.820
    • IHDI-M Income: 0.763
    • IHDI-M Life Expectancy: 0.846
    • IHDI-M Education: 0.851
Race Percentage
White 83.9%
Multiracial 12.2%
Black 2.3%
Asian 0.5%

(Source: IPEADATA)

EconomyEdit

The city's economy is based mainly on tourism; due to its location at high elevation in the Mantiqueira mountains, and traditional European-style architecture. Buildings are mostly vernacular architecture from German, Swiss, or Italian models. Many of the wealthiest residents in the state of São Paulo have winter country houses here.

Despite the high income of many visitors, the HDI (0.820 in 2004) of Campos do Jordão is not very high because the owners of the houses in the best neighbourhoods are not regular inhabitants; these houses are used only during the holidays. The city can be reached from São Paulo mainly by road through the Rodovia Floriano Rodrigues Pinheiro. There is also a picturesque railroad from Pindamonhangaba, used mostly by tourists. At the end of the main road going through Campos do Jordão, there is a state park called Horto Florestal.

GeographyEdit

 
A shopping mall in a Swiss-inspired style

The municipality contains the 8,341 hectares (20,610 acres) Campos do Jordão State Park, created in 1941.[4]

It contains the 503 hectares (1,240 acres) Mananciais de Campos do Jordão State Park, created in 1993 to protect the water supply of the municipal seat.[5] It also contains the 28,800 hectares (71,000 acres) Campos do Jordão Environmental Protection Area, created in 1984.[6]

The Mantiqueira Mountains provide unique panoramic views, and the municipality's region still has undeveloped old growth Atlantic Forest habitat. The native Brazilian Paraná pine (Araucaria angustifolia) is found here.

A former state governor had a winter residence in the city, the Boa Vista Palace, which is now a museum in the city.[7]

The city is located in the northeastern side of the State of São Paulo, bordering Minas Gerais in the north. Campos do Jordão is at a distance of 180 km (112 miles) from the City of São Paulo, 334 km (208 miles) from the City of Rio de Janeiro, and 486 km (302 miles) from Belo Horizonte.

Campos do Jordão is located on a crystalline plateau where the High Felds are located (in Portuguese: Altos Campos) formed from the quaternary, increasing the geomorphological risks with the increase of urbanization and seen inadequate occupations as in straight slopes.[8] T hese areas may be at risk of landslide. The municipality has rounded topos and amphitheaters where organic clay is found due to erosive processes and due to this constiution its characteristic is the concentration of water.[9]

ClimateEdit

Largest accumulations of precipitation at
24 hours registered in Fields of the
Jordan by months (INMET, 1961–present)[10]
Month Accumulated Date
January 121.1 mm (4.77 in) January 24, 1963
February 96.3 mm (3.79 in) February 6, 1963
March 146.7 mm (5.78 in) March 10, 1965
April 90.6 mm (3.57 in) April 29, 1965
May 108.4 mm (4.27 in) May 25, 2005
June 71 mm (2.8 in) June 9, 1978
July 74.4 mm (2.93 in) July 25, 2007
August 60.6 mm (2.39 in) August 20, 1965
September 75.4 mm (2.97 in) September 6, 1983
October 129.5 mm (5.10 in) October 14, 1995
November 102.8 mm (4.05 in) November 20, 1971
December 111.4 mm (4.39 in) December 24, 1971

Campos do Jordão features a subtropical highland climate/mesothermal but technically ever moist (Köppen: Cfb),[11][12][13] although other sources define it as Cwb, which is more common for its tropical location, except for the definition of a dry season, there is a no greater difference in climate modeling of the plateau climates.[14][15] According to a detailed study on the climate classifications it is affirmed that the Cwb is more frequent, but that Cfb appears more in the average in spatial distribution.[16] In general, is characterized with warm to cool summers (with abundant precipitation during the period) and mild winters but cold for São Paulo state. Although at a higher elevation than the higher portions than Santa Catarina, the latitude compensates for such a difference by giving winters a little warmer and with unknown snow over a long period associated with the drier mid-year air. As it is a montane vegetation and with mild temperatures, trees like Araucaria augustifolia is part of the ecosystem of the highest part of th Mantiqueira Mountains.[11][12][13] The annual sweating evaporation is one of the smallest of the cities of São Paulo, which can tend to water deficiencies in the driest months.[17]

The average annual precipitation is approximately 1850 mm annually, concentrated in December and January.[18] The average annual compensated temperature is 14.5 °C (although there are cooler cities, the cooler weather tends to last longer by averaging less than municipalities like Curitiba, Lages or Canela[19]),[18] falling to below zero in winter at the same time at a few degrees Celsius in the Paraíba Valley, with a thermal sensation that may be even lower, but there may be years with temperatures above freezing as in 1999.[20][21] As previously said even with high altitude latitude together is not enough for snowfall and therefore, the occurrence of snow in the city is rare, having been recorded in years as 1928,[22] 1942,[23] 1947 and 1966, four records at intervals of two decades that seems to be discontinued so far, in addition the dates are not consensual and INMET installed since 1944 did not record any occurrence of flakes.[24]

According to data from the National Institute of Meteorology (INMET), since 1961 the absolute minimum temperature recorded in Campos do Jordão from -7.2 °C on June 6, 1988.[25] For the Forecast Center (CPTEC) the winter of this year was the most rigorous of the records, for comparison between 2008 and 2018 the lowest temperature was only -3.8 °C, being urbanization is a factor of softer conditions[26] Outside this period there are still other unofficial low temperature records even lower, as -7.4 °C on 26 June 1918, -8 °C on 25 July 1923[27] and -8.7 °C in July 1926.[28] The absolute maximum in the same period was 30.5 °C on September 17, 1961. In other two occasions temperatures reached 30 °C, being on September 21, 1961 and October 14, 1963, with only three available data available.[29] Cooler temperatures are more common in June and July, but during the afternoon they will be above freezing, often cool. Much of September and April is composed of pleasant days, hot days with 30 °C or more are almost null.[30]

The largest accumulated precipitation in 24 hours was 146.7 mm on March 10, 1965. Other large accumulations were 129.5 mm on October 14, 1995, 121.1 mm on January 24, 1964, 118.2 mm mm on March 8, 1966, 111.4 mm on December 24, 1971, 108.4 mm on May 25, 2005, 106.4 mm on December 14, 1971, 104.2 mm on December 2, 1963, 102.8 mm on November 20, 1971 and 101.2 mm on December 22, 1966.[31] The month of greatest precipitation was December 1971, when 606.6 mm were recorded.[32] Coincidentally the most auspicious day of average rainfall is Christmas with a 75% chance of net precipitation, remaining high between December and January.[30] It is also understood that 75% of the annual rainfall is between spring and summer. The altitude variation and the presence of valleys makes differences in the total amount in the municipality, and the humidity decreases towards the interior of the plateau.[33]

The seasonal variation of cloudiness is remarkable. The most susceptible time for sunlight is from the beginning of April until the middle of October, with the end of August being the least covered season, reaching up to 70% of the open sky. The rest of the year tends to be more hazy, with mid-January reaching 77% of the overcast sky. The duration between the shortest day of the year and the longest day usually coincide correctly with the astronomical cycles. The second annual semester is usually season of stronger winds, mainly between September and October with average winds of 8 km/h. The quietest time is between February and March with average speeds of 6 km/h. The predominant direction of the north winds is around 2/3 of the year, mainly between the end of April and the end of September. In almost 4 months the second major direction is from the east.[30]

Climate data for Campos do Jordão (Vila Capivari), elevation: 1642 m or 5387.1 ft, 1981–2010 normals, extremes 1961–present
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 29.0
(84.2)
28.6
(83.5)
29.0
(84.2)
27.0
(80.6)
24.5
(76.1)
23.4
(74.1)
24.4
(75.9)
28.2
(82.8)
30.5
(86.9)
30.0
(86.0)
28.6
(83.5)
28.2
(82.8)
30.5
(86.9)
Average high °C (°F) 22.5
(72.5)
23.0
(73.4)
22.2
(72.0)
21.0
(69.8)
18.5
(65.3)
17.9
(64.2)
17.9
(64.2)
19.7
(67.5)
20.4
(68.7)
21.4
(70.5)
21.6
(70.9)
22.0
(71.6)
20.7
(69.3)
Daily mean °C (°F) 17.6
(63.7)
17.7
(63.9)
17.0
(62.6)
15.3
(59.5)
12.6
(54.7)
10.4
(50.7)
10.3
(50.5)
11.4
(52.5)
13.5
(56.3)
15.2
(59.4)
16.4
(61.5)
17.0
(62.6)
14.5
(58.1)
Average low °C (°F) 13.9
(57.0)
13.6
(56.5)
12.8
(55.0)
10.6
(51.1)
7.7
(45.9)
5.3
(41.5)
4.6
(40.3)
5.1
(41.2)
8.0
(46.4)
10.3
(50.5)
11.7
(53.1)
13.1
(55.6)
9.7
(49.5)
Record low °C (°F) 5.0
(41.0)
4.2
(39.6)
2.6
(36.7)
−2.6
(27.3)
−6.2
(20.8)
−7.2
(19.0)
−6.0
(21.2)
−5.5
(22.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
0.7
(33.3)
0.3
(32.5)
1.8
(35.2)
−7.2
(19.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 253.1
(9.96)
206.0
(8.11)
196.7
(7.74)
85.5
(3.37)
82.5
(3.25)
38.0
(1.50)
45.9
(1.81)
38.3
(1.51)
85.8
(3.38)
133.0
(5.24)
160.6
(6.32)
240.0
(9.45)
1,565.4
(61.63)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 21 16 17 9 7 4 4 4 8 12 14 19 135
Average relative humidity (%) 86.1 87.1 87.5 87.2 86.9 85.3 84.5 80.9 81.5 84.2 83.8 86.8 85.2
Mean monthly sunshine hours 106.4 93.6 99.8 122.9 137.2 157.9 180.3 177.9 123.8 137.2 128.0 97.6 1,562.6
Source #1: INMET[34]
Source #2: Meteo Climat (record highs and lows)[35]

GalleryEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Assembleia Legislativa do Estado de São Paulo, Lei Complementar Nº 1.166
  2. ^ Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística
  3. ^ "IBGE disponibiliza coordenadas e altitudes para 21.304 localidades brasileiras" [IBGE provides coordinates and altitudes to 21,304 Brazilian locations] (in Portuguese). Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE). Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  4. ^ Sobre o Parque (in Portuguese), SAP: Sistema Ambiental Paulista, archived from the original on 2016-10-01, retrieved 2016-09-27
  5. ^ Parque Estadual Mananciais de Campos do Jordão (in Portuguese), SAP: Sistema Ambiental Paulista, retrieved 2016-10-01
  6. ^ Área de Proteção Ambiental Campos do Jordão (in Portuguese), Fundação Florestal SP, retrieved 2016-09-29
  7. ^ "Palácio Boa Vista" [Boa Vista Palace]. The Artistic-Cultural Collection of the Governmental Palaces of the State of São Paulo. Archived from the original on 2012-11-29. Retrieved September 10, 2012.
  8. ^ Hiruma, Silvio Takashi; Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine (2004-12-01). "A expansão urbana no planalto de Campos do Jordão: diagnóstico geomorfológico para fins de planejamento". Revista do Instituto Geológico. 25 (1–2): 1–28. doi:10.5935/0100-929X.20040001. ISSN 2176-1892.
  9. ^ Coutinho, Marcos Pellegrini; Londe, Luciana de Resende; Soriano, Érico (2017-09-08). "PERCEPÇÃO DO RISCO DE MORADORES DE ÁREAS SUSCETÍVEIS A MOVIMENTOS DE MASSA NO MUNICÍPIO DE CAMPOS DO JORDÃO-SP". Boletim de Geografia (in Portuguese). 35 (3): 12–25. doi:10.4025/bolgeogr.v35i3.31826. ISSN 2176-4786.
  10. ^ "BDMEP - série histórica - precipitação (mm) - Campos do Jordão". Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia (in Portuguese). 1/5/2014. Check date values in: |date= (help)
  11. ^ a b Dubreuil, Vincent; Fante, Karime Pechutti; Planchon, Olivier; Neto, João Lima Sant'anna (2018-09-24). "Os tipos de climas anuais no Brasil : uma aplicação da classificação de Köppen de 1961 a 2015". Confins. Revue franco-brésilienne de géographie / Revista franco-brasilera de geografia (in French) (37). doi:10.4000/confins.15738. ISSN 1958-9212.
  12. ^ a b Velloso Galvão, Marília (January–March 1967). "Regiões bioclimáticas do Brasil" (PDF). Revista Brasileira de Geografia (v.29, n. 1).
  13. ^ a b "Campos do Jordão, Sao Paulo Köppen Climate Classification (Weatherbase)". Weatherbase. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  14. ^ Moura, Pedro Henrique Abreu; Abreu, Celeste Maria Patto de; Guedes, Mayara Neves Santos; Pio, Rafael; Maro, Luana Aparecida Castilho (September 2014). "Environmental and genetic variation in the post-harvest quality of raspberries in subtropical areas in Brazil". Acta Scientiarum. Agronomy. 36 (3): 323–328. doi:10.4025/actasciagron.v36i3.18050. ISSN 1807-8621.
  15. ^ "(PDF) Pré-zoneamento para a cultura da oliveira no Estado de São Paulo". ResearchGate. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  16. ^ Jurca, Janaína [UNESP (2005). "Classificações climáticas: variações temporo-espaciais e suas aplicações nos livros didáticos e como subsídio ao zoneamento agroclimático". Aleph: 100 f. : il.
  17. ^ "CIIAGRO - Centro integrado de informações agrometeorológicas". www.ciiagro.sp.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  18. ^ a b ":: INMET - Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia ::". www.inmet.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  19. ^ Damasceno B. Valeriano, Diana (November 2013). "Análise multiescala da distribuição espacial da Araucaria angustifolia (Bertol.) Kuntze no Parque Estadual de Campos do Jordão - SP" (PDF). Laboratório Associado de Sensores e Materiais. INPE. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  20. ^ "Revista Turismo - Campos do Jordão - SP". www.revistaturismo.com.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  21. ^ "Folha Online - Cotidiano - Temperatura em Campos do Jordão pode chegar a 5°C - 24/05/2002". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  22. ^ "AS NEVES DE CAMPOS DO JORDÃO E DA SERRA DA MANTIQUEIRA". DADOS METEOROLÓGICOS METEOROLOGICAL DATA (in Portuguese). 2015-05-23. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  23. ^ "É Possível nevar nos estados do RJ,SP,MG,e ES - Categoria - Notícias Climatempo". www.climatempo.com.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  24. ^ "Folha Online - Cotidiano - Meteorologistas divergem sobre possibilidade de neve em Campos do Jordão - 21/07/2000". www1.folha.uol.com.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  25. ^ "BDMEP - série histórica - dados diários - temperatura mínima (°C) - Campos do Jordão". www.inmet.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  26. ^ "Inverno de 1988 foi o mais rigoroso da história em Campos do Jordão, diz Cptec". G1 (in Portuguese). Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  27. ^ "Fotografias - Inverno em Campos do Jord%E3o - Campos do Jordão Cultura". www.camposdojordaocultura.com.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  28. ^ Alberto, Carlos (September 17, 2010). "Temperatura de 8,7 graus abaixo de zero em Campos do Jordão no ano de 1926". Meteorologia e Clima.
  29. ^ "BDMEP - série histórica - dados diários - temperatura máxima (°C) - Campos do Jordão". www.inmet.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  30. ^ a b c "Clima característico em Campos do Jordão, Brasil durante o ano - Weather Spark". pt.weatherspark.com. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  31. ^ "BDMEP - série histórica - precipitação (mm) - Campos do Jordão". www.inmet.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  32. ^ "BDMEP - série histórica - dados mensais - precipitação total (mm) - Campos do Jordão". www.inmet.gov.br. Retrieved 2019-03-09.
  33. ^ Nunes, Lucí Hidalgo; Modenesi-Gauttieri, May Christine (1998-12-01). "Processos geocriogênicos quaternários nas cimeiras da Mantiqueira, com considerações climáticas". Revista do Instituto Geológico (in Portuguese). 19 (1–2): 19–30. doi:10.5935/0100-929X.19980003. ISSN 2176-1892.
  34. ^ "Normais Climatológicas Do Brasil 1981–2010" (in Portuguese). Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  35. ^ "Station Campos do Jordão" (in French). Meteo Climat. Retrieved 14 October 2018.

External linksEdit