Campo troupial

The campo troupial or campo oriole (Icterus jamacaii) is a species of bird in the family Icteridae that is found in northeastern Brazil. At one time thought to be conspecific with the Venezuelan troupial, it is now accepted as a separate species. It is a fairly common bird and the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated it as a "least-concern species".

Campo troupial
Corrupião - Icterus jamacai.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Passeriformes
Family: Icteridae
Genus: Icterus
Species:
I. jamacaii
Binomial name
Icterus jamacaii
(Gmelin, 1788)

DescriptionEdit

The campo troupial is very similar in appearance to the Venezuelan troupial (Icterus icterus) with which it was at one time thought to be conspecific. It is a robust bird about 23 cm (9 in) long with a long tail and a broad beak. It is bright orange apart from a black hood and bib, back, wings and tail. There is an uneven line dividing the bib from the breast. It differs from the Venezuelan troupial in having only a small patch of white on its wings and hardly any bluish skin around its eye, and it has orange epaulettes on its shoulders whereas the Venezuelan bird does not. It could also be confused with the orange-backed troupial (Icterus croconotus), but that species has an orange head apart from a patch of black on its forehead, a sharp dividing line between its bib and its breast, and rather more orange on its back.[2]

Distribution and habitatEdit

The campo troupial is endemic to northeastern Brazil, where its area of occurrence is estimated to be over 2,000,000 square kilometres (770,000 sq mi).[1] It typically inhabits dry scrubland and deciduous woodland, at elevations up to 700 m (2,300 ft) or more. The ranges of the Venezuelan troupial, the campo troupial and the orange-backed troupial do not overlap.[2]

EcologyEdit

The diet consists of insects and other small invertebrates, fruits and nectar; one individual was found to have 126 fly larvae in its stomach.[3] Breeding takes place during the wet season, between December and March.[3]

StatusEdit

The campo troupial is a fairly common bird with a wide range and the population seems to be stable. For these reasons, the International Union for Conservation of Nature has rated its conservation status as being of "least concern".[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c BirdLife International. (2016). Icterus jamacaii. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2016-3.RLTS.T22724120A94849896.en
  2. ^ a b Ridgely, Robert S.; Tudor, Guy (2009). Field Guide to the Songbirds of South America: The Passerines. University of Texas Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-0-292-71748-0.
  3. ^ a b Fraga, R (2017). "Campo Troupial (Icterus jamacaii)". Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona. Retrieved 17 October 2017.