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|Prime Minister of France|
21 February 1930 – 2 March 1930
|Preceded by||André Tardieu|
|Succeeded by||André Tardieu|
26 November 1933 – 30 January 1934
|Preceded by||Albert Sarraut|
|Succeeded by||Édouard Daladier|
22 June 1937 – 13 March 1938
|Preceded by||Léon Blum|
|Succeeded by||Léon Blum|
|Born||1 February 1885|
|Died||1 July 1963 (aged 78)|
Washington, D.C., United States
He was the father-in-law of U.S. politician and statesman Howard J. Samuels.
Born into a family of Radical politicians, Camille Chautemps was a lawyer by training and a noted amateur rugby-player in his youth, playing for Tours Rugby and Stade Français. He was inducted into the Grand Orient of France (1906, master 1908), quitting the Freemasons in August 1940 as anti-masonic regulation is adopted by Pétain.
He entered local politics in the fiefdom of his parliamentarian uncle, Alphonse Chautemps, and followed a political career path typical of many Radical-Socialists: first elected town councillor for Tours (1912), then mayor (1919–25), parliamentary deputy (1919–34) and senator (1934–40). Chautemps was considered one of the chief figures of the 'right' (anti-socialist and pro-liberal) wing of the centre-left Radical-Socialist Party. Between 1924 and 1926, he served in the centre-left coalition governments of Édouard Herriot, Paul Painlevé and Aristide Briand.
Twice prime ministerEdit
Renowned as a skilful negotiator with friends from across the party divide, he was called upon on several occasions to attempt to build support for a coalition of the centre-left. He first became President of the Council for a short-lived government in 1930. After the electoral victory of the left in 1934, he served as Interior Minister and became head of government once more in November 1933. The revelations of the Stavisky Affair, a corruption scandal, tarnished two of his ministers, sparking violent protests by the far-right leagues. He resigned his posts on 27 January 1934, when the opposition press attributed Stavisky's suicide to a government cover-up.
Deputy Prime minister and last premiershipEdit
In Léon Blum's Popular Front government of 1936, Chautemps represented the Radical-Socialist Party as a Minister of State and succeeded Blum at the head of the government from June 1937 to March 1938. The franc was devalued, but government finances remained in difficulty. Pursuing the program of the Popular Front, he proceeded in the nationalisation of the railroads to create the SNCF. However, in January 1938, he formed a new government consisting solely of ministers from the nonsocialist republican centre- left. In February, he granted married women financial and legal independence (until then, wives had been dependent on their husbands to take action involving family finances) and allowed them to go to university and to open bank accounts. His government also repealed Article 213 of the code: "the husband owes protection to his wife, the wife obedience to the husband". However, the husband remained "head of the household" with "the right to choose the household’s place of residence". His government fell on 10 March.
Runup to World War IIEdit
Chautemps subsequently served from April 1938 to May 1940 as deputy prime minister in the governments of Édouard Daladier and Paul Reynaud. After the latter resigned, as he was again deputy prime minister, now to Marshal Philippe Pétain.
World War IIEdit
France declared war on Germany in September 1939, and in May 1940, the German Army invaded and swept aside all opposition. With the fall of Dunkirk on 5 June and the defeat of the French Army imminent, Chautemps, dined with Paul Baudouin on the 8th, and declared that the war must be ended and that Pétain saw his position most clearly. On the 11th, during a Cabinet meeting, Chautemps suggested for Churchill to be invited back to France to discuss the hopeless situation; he attended a conference at Tours on 13 June. The Cabinet met again on the 15th and was almost evenly split on the question of an armistice with Germany. Chautemps now suggested that to break the deadlock, that they should get a neutral authority to enquire what the German terms would be, which if honourable, the Cabinet could agree to study. If not, the Cabinet would agree to fight on. The Chautemps proposal passed by 13 to 6.
On 16 June, Charles de Gaulle, now in London, telephoned Reynaud to give him the British government's offer of joint nationality for French and British in a Franco-British union. A delighted Reynaud put it to a stormy Cabinet meeting and was supported by five of his ministers. Most of the others were persuaded against him by the arguments of Pétain, Chautemps and Jean Ybarnégaray, the last two seeing the offer as a device to make France subservient to Britain as an extra dominion. Georges Mandel, who had a Jewish background, was flinging accusations of cowardice around the room, and Chautemps and others replied in kind. Reynaud clearly would not accept Chautemps's proposal and later resigned.
Chautemps broke with Pétain's government after he had arrived in the United States on an official mission and lived there for much of the rest of his life. After World War II, a French court convicted him in absentia for collaborating with the enemy; he was amnestied in 1954.
Chautemps's First Ministry, 21 February – 2 March 1930Edit
- Camille Chautemps (Radical) – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior
- Aristide Briand (PRS) – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- René Besnard (Radical) – Minister of War
- Charles Dumont (AD) – Minister of Finance
- Maurice Palmade (Radical) – Minister of Budget
- Louis Loucheur (RI) – Minister of Labour, Hygiene, Welfare Work, and Social Security Provisions
- Théodore Steeg (Radical) – Minister of Justice
- Albert Sarraut (Radical) – Minister of Marine
- Charles Daniélou (RI) – Minister of Merchant Marine
- Laurent Eynac (RI) – Minister of Air
- Jean Durand (Radical) – Minister of Public Instruction and Fine Arts
- Claudius Gallet – Minister of Pensions
- Henri Queuille (Radical) – Minister of Agriculture
- Lucien Lamoureux (Radical) – Minister of Colonies
- Édouard Daladier (Radical) – Minister of Public Works
- Julien Durand (Radical) – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
- Georges Bonnet (Radical) – Minister of Commerce and Industry
Chautemps's Second Ministry, 26 November 1933 – 30 January 1934Edit
- Camille Chautemps – President of the Council and Minister of the Interior – Radical Socialist Party
- Joseph Paul-Boncour – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Édouard Daladier – Minister of War
- Georges Bonnet – Minister of Finance
- Paul Marchandeau – Minister of Budget
- Lucien Lamoureux – Minister of Labour and Social Security Provisions
- Eugène Raynaldy – Minister of Justice
- Albert Sarraut – Minister of Marine
- Eugène Frot – Minister of Merchant Marine
- Pierre Cot – Minister of Air
- Anatole de Monzie – Minister of National Education
- Hippolyte Ducos – Minister of Pensions
- Henri Queuille – Minister of Agriculture
- Albert Dalimier – Minister of Colonies
- Joseph Paganon – Minister of Public Works
- Alexandre Israël – Minister of Public Health
- Jean Mistler – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
- Laurent Eynac – Minister of Commerce and Industry
Chautemps's Third Ministry, 22 June 1937 – 18 January 1938Edit
- Camille Chautemps – President of the Council – Radical Socialist Party
- Léon Blum – Vice President of the Council – French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO)
- Yvon Delbos – Minister of Foreign Affairs – Radical Socialist Party
- Édouard Daladier – Minister of National Defense and War – Radical Socialist Party
- Marx Dormoy – Minister of the Interior – SFIO
- Georges Bonnet – Minister of Finance – Radical Socialist Party
- André Février – Minister of Labour – SFIO
- Vincent Auriol – Minister of Justice – SFIO
- César Campinchi – Minister of Marine – Radical Socialist Party
- Pierre Cot – Minister of Air – Radical Socialist Party
- Jean Zay – Minister of National Education – Radical Socialist Party
- Albert Rivière – Minister of Pensions – SFIO
- Georges Monnet – Minister of Agriculture – Radical Socialist Party
- Marius Moutet – Minister of Colonies – SFIO
- Henri Queuille – Minister of Public Works – Radical Socialist Party
- Marc Rucart – Minister of Public Health – Radical Socialist Party
- Jean-Baptiste Lebas – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones – SFIO
- Fernand Chapsal – Minister of Commerce
- Paul Faure – Minister of State – SFIO
- Maurice Viollette – Minister of State – usr
- Albert Sarraut – Minister of State – Radical Socialist Party
- Léo Lagrange – Under-Secretary of State for the Sports, the Leisure activities and the Physical Education -i.e. acting like Minister for the Sports- – SFIO
Chautemps's Fourth Ministry, 18 January – 13 March 1938Edit
- Camille Chautemps – President of the Council – Radical Socialist Party
- Édouard Daladier – Vice President of the Council and Minister of National Defense and War
- Yvon Delbos – Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Albert Sarraut – Minister of the Interior
- Paul Marchandeau – Minister of Finance
- Paul Ramadier – Minister of Labour
- César Campinchi – Minister of Justice
- William Bertrand – Minister of Military Marine
- Paul Elbel – Minister of Merchant Marine
- Guy La Chambre – Minister of Air
- Jean Zay – Minister of National Education
- Robert Lassalle – Minister of Pensions
- Fernand Chapsal – Minister of Agriculture
- Théodore Steeg – Minister of Colonies
- Henri Queuille – Minister of Public Works
- Marc Rucart – Minister of Public Health
- Fernand Gentin – Minister of Posts, Telegraphs, and Telephones
- Pierre Cot – Minister of Commerce
- Georges Bonnet – Minister of State
- Ludovic-Oscar Frossard – Minister of State in charge of the Services of the Presidency of the Council
- Dictionnaire universel de la Franc-Maçonnerie by Monique Cara and Jean-Marc Cara and Marc de Jode (ed. Larousse, 2011)
- Williams, 2005, p.259.
- Griffiths, Richard, Pétain, Constable, London, 1970, p.p.197, ISBN 0-09-455740-3
- Griffiths, 1970, p.197.
- [France since 1870: Culture, Politics and Society by Charles Sowerine]
- Griffiths, 1970, p.197.
- Griffiths, 1970, p.231.
- Griffiths, 1970, p.235.
- Griffiths, 1970, p.237.
- Webster, Paul, Pétain's Crime, Pan Macmillan, London, 1990, p.40, ISBN 0-333-57301-3
- Griffiths, 1970, p.239.
- Encyclopædia Britannica