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California's congressional districts

California's Congressional districts since 2013.

California is the most populous U.S. state and as a result has the most representation in the United States House of Representatives, with 53 Representatives. Each Representative represents one congressional district.

1992: Court ordered districtsEdit

The 1990 census gave California seven additional congressional seats. Attempts by the legislature to draw up new districts were unsuccessful, as three different plans drawn up by the Democratic-controlled Legislature were vetoed by Republican governor Pete Wilson. In September 1991 the California Supreme Court took jurisdiction over the redistricting process to break the stalemate.[1][2] Districts were drawn up by a panel of retired judges.

2002: Bipartisan redistrictingEdit

After the 2000 census, the California State Legislature was obliged to complete redistricting[3] for House of Representatives districts (in accordance with Article 1, Section 4 of the United States Constitution) as well as California State Assembly and California State Senate districts. It was mutually decided by legislators that the status quo in terms of balance of power would be preserved - a so-called Incumbent Protection Plan.[4] A bipartisan gerrymandering effort was done, and districts were configured in such a way that they were dominated by one or the other party, with few districts that could be considered competitive. In some cases this resulted in extremely convoluted boundary lines.

In the 2004 elections, a win by less than 55 percent of the vote was quite rare. This was seen in only five out of 80 State Assembly seats and two out of 20 State Senate seats up for election. The congressional seats were even less competitive than the state legislative districts - just three of the 53 districts were won with less than 60 percent of the vote in 2004.

2012: Citizens Redistricting CommissionEdit

Proposition 11, a California ballot proposition known as the Voters FIRST Act, was approved by the voters on November 4, 2008. It removed from the California Legislature the responsibility for drawing the state's congressional districts, and gave the responsibility instead to a 14-member Citizens Commission.[5] The U.S. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of removing the responsibility from the legislature. The proposition also required that the districts drawn up (1) comply with the federal Voting Rights Act; (2) make districts contiguous; (3) respect, to the extent possible, the integrity of cities, counties, neighborhoods and "communities of interest"; and (4) to the extent possible, make districts compact. Several of these terms are not defined in law.

Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger had earlier proposed placing the redistricting process in the hands of retired judges, which was on the November ballot as an initiative in a special election (called by the Governor on June 14, 2005), Proposition 77. The special election was held on November 8, 2005. However, the initiative was overwhelmingly defeated, with 59 percent voting no. All initiatives, including those proposed by the Governor's allies and several independent initiatives, failed that year.

The California Citizens Redistricting Commission certified final district maps on August 15, 2011, and they took effect with the 2012 election.[6] The new districts are described as more "purple" than "red" or "blue" - that is, more mixed in electoral composition compared to the mostly "safe" districts of the previous decade, where incumbents were almost guaranteed re-election. An interactive map comparing the old districts with the new ones is available via the Los Angeles Times.[7]

These new districts, combined with demographic trends over several decades that favored the Democratic party, resulted in a gain of four House of Representatives seats for California Democrats in the 2012 elections.

Current districts and representativesEdit

List of members of the California United States House delegation, their terms in office, district boundaries, and their political ratings according to the CPVI. The delegation for the 116th Congress has a total of 53 members, with initially 46 Democrats (including Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi) and 7 Republicans (including minority leader Kevin McCarthy). This represents an increase in the Democrats' hold on California from the preceding 115th Congress; in the 2018 elections, Democrats were elected in 7 previously Republican-held seats. One seat is vacant since the resignation of Democrat Katie Hill on October 27, 2019.

District Representative Party CPVI Incumbent time in office District map
1st   Doug LaMalfa (R-Oroville) Republican R+11 January 3, 2013 – present  
2nd   Jared Huffman (D-San Rafael) Democratic D+22 January 3, 2013 – present  
3rd   John Garamendi (D-Walnut Grove) Democratic D+5 November 3, 2009 – present  
4th   Tom McClintock (R-Elk Grove) Republican R+10 January 3, 2009 – present  
5th   Mike Thompson (D-St. Helena) Democratic D+21 January 3, 1999 – present  
6th   Doris Matsui (D-Sacramento) Democratic D+21 March 10, 2005 – present  
7th   Ami Bera (D-Elk Grove) Democratic D+3 January 3, 2013 – present  
8th   Paul Cook (R-Yucca Valley) Republican R+9 January 3, 2013 – present  
9th   Jerry McNerney (D-Stockton) Democratic D+8 January 3, 2007 – present  
10th   Josh Harder (D-Turlock) Democratic EVEN January 3, 2019 - present  
11th   Mark DeSaulnier (D-Concord) Democratic D+21 January 3, 2015 – present  
12th   Nancy Pelosi (D-San Francisco) Democratic D+37 June 2, 1987 – present  
13th   Barbara Lee (D-Oakland) Democratic D+40 April 21, 1998 – present  
14th   Jackie Speier (D-Hillsborough) Democratic D+27 April 8, 2008 – present  
15th   Eric Swalwell (D-Dublin) Democratic D+20 January 3, 2013 – present  
16th   Jim Costa (D-Fresno) Democratic D+9 January 3, 2005 – present  
17th   Ro Khanna (D-Fremont) Democratic D+25 January 3, 2017 – present  
18th   Anna Eshoo (D-Atherton) Democratic D+23 January 3, 1993 – present  
19th   Zoe Lofgren (D-San Jose) Democratic D+24 January 3, 1995 – present  
20th   Jimmy Panetta (D-Carmel Valley) Democratic D+23 January 3, 2017 – present  
21st   TJ Cox (D-Fresno) Democratic D+5 January 3, 2019 - present  
22nd   Devin Nunes (R-Tulare) Republican R+8 January 3, 2003 – present  
23rd   Kevin McCarthy (R-Bakersfield) Republican R+14 January 3, 2007 – present  
24th   Salud Carbajal (D-Santa Barbara) Democratic D+7 January 3, 2017 – present  
25th Vacant EVEN October 27, 2019 - present  
26th   Julia Brownley (D-Westlake Village) Democratic D+7 January 3, 2013 – present  
27th   Judy Chu (D-Monterey Park) Democratic D+16 July 14, 2009 – present  
28th   Adam Schiff (D-Burbank) Democratic D+23 January 3, 2001 – present  
29th   Tony Cárdenas (D-Pacoima) Democratic D+29 January 3, 2013 – present  
30th   Brad Sherman (D-Sherman Oaks) Democratic D+18 January 3, 1997 – present  
31st   Pete Aguilar (D - Redlands) Democratic D+8 January 3, 2015 – present  
32nd   Grace Napolitano (D-Norwalk) Democratic D+17 January 3, 1999 – present  
33rd   Ted Lieu (D-Torrance) Democratic D+16 January 3, 2015 – present  
34th   Jimmy Gomez (D-Los Angeles) Democratic D+35 July 11, 2017 – present  
35th   Norma Torres (D-Pomona) Democratic D+19 January 3, 2015 – present  
36th   Raul Ruiz (D-Coachella) Democratic D+2 January 3, 2013 – present  
37th   Karen Bass (D-Los Angeles) Democratic D+37 January 3, 2011 – present  
38th   Linda Sánchez (D-Whittier) Democratic D+17 January 3, 2003 – present  
39th   Gil Cisneros (D-Yorba Linda) Democratic EVEN January 3, 2019 - present  
40th   Lucille Roybal-Allard (D-Los Angeles) Democratic D+33 January 3, 1993 – present  
41st   Mark Takano (D-Riverside) Democratic D+12 January 3, 2013 – present  
42nd   Ken Calvert (R-Corona) Republican R+9 January 3, 1993 – present  
43rd   Maxine Waters (D-Los Angeles) Democratic D+29 January 3, 1991 – present  
44th   Nanette Barragán (D-San Pedro) Democratic D+35 January 3, 2017 – present  
45th   Katie Porter (D-Irvine) Democratic R+3 January 3, 2019 - present  
46th   Lou Correa (D-Santa Ana) Democratic D+15 January 3, 2017 – present  
47th   Alan Lowenthal (D-Long Beach) Democratic D+13 January 3, 2013 – present  
48th   Harley Rouda (D-Laguna Beach) Democratic R+4 January 3, 2019 - present  
49th   Mike Levin (D-San Juan Capistrano) Democratic R+1 January 3, 2019 - present  
50th   Duncan D. Hunter (R-Alpine) Republican R+11 January 3, 2009 – present  
51st   Juan Vargas (D-San Diego) Democratic D+22 January 3, 2013 – present  
52nd   Scott Peters (D-San Diego) Democratic D+6 January 3, 2013 – present  
53rd   Susan Davis (D-San Diego) Democratic D+14 January 3, 2001 – present  

Historical district boundariesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Supreme Court takes over remapping job". Sacramento Bee. September 26, 1991. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
  2. ^ "Court Remap Plan Could Cut Democrats' Clout in California". Washington Post. December 4, 1991. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
  3. ^ The word "gerrymandering" is replaced with redistricting as the word "gerrymandering" refers, by definition, to the redrawing of districts to the advantage of a single party or for partisan gain
  4. ^ "Latinos May Gain Few Seats in Redistricting; Politics: Their push for more representation in Congress clashes with Democrats' desire to protect incumbents as district boundaries are redrawn". Los Angeles Times. August 26, 2001. Retrieved September 5, 2011.
  5. ^ "Citizens Commission website: background". Archived from the original on September 2, 2011. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
  6. ^ Redistricting Commission
  7. ^ "California's citizen commission final district maps: Find out what's changed where you live". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved September 5, 2011.