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Achilles tendon

  (Redirected from Calcaneal tendon)

The Achilles tendon or heel cord, also known as the calcaneal tendon, is a tendon of the back of the leg, and the thickest in the human body.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8] It serves to attach the plantaris, gastrocnemius (calf) and soleus muscles to the calcaneus (heel) bone. These muscles, acting via the tendon, cause plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle, and (except soleus) flexion at the knee.

Achilles tendon
1123 Muscles of the Leg that Move the Foot and Toes b.png
The achilles tendon or calcaneal tendon is attached to the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.
Details
Location Back of the lower leg
Identifiers
Latin tendo calcaneus, tendo Achillis
MeSH D000125
TA A04.7.02.048
FMA 51061
Anatomical terminology

Abnormalities of the Achilles tendon include inflammation (Achilles tendinitis), degeneration, rupture, and becoming embedded with cholesterol deposits (xanthomas).

Contents

StructureEdit

 
The achilles tendon, tendo calcaneus attaches distally to the calcaneual tuberosity, and arrises superiorly from the triceps surae complex of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles.
 
Achilles tendon at foetus

The Achilles tendon connects muscle to bone, like other tendons, and is located at the back of the lower leg. The Achilles tendon connects the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles to the calcaneal tuberosity on the calcaneus (heel bone).[9] The tendon begins near the middle of the calf, and receives muscle fibers on its inner surface, particularly from the soleus muscle, almost to its lower end. Gradually thinning below, it inserts into the middle part of the back of the calcaneus bone. The tendon spreads out somewhat at its lower end, so that its narrowest part is about 4 centimetres (1.6 in) above its insertion.[10]

The tendon is covered by the fascia and skin, and stands out prominently behind the bone; the gap is filled up with areolar and adipose tissue. A bursa lies between the tendon and the upper part of the calcaneus. It is about 15 centimetres (6 in) long. Along the side of the muscle, and superficial to it, is the small saphenous vein. The sural nerve the outer border of the tendon about 10cm below where it attaches to the bone.[10] The tendon is the thickest tendon in the human body. [10] It can receive a load stress 3.9 times body weight during walking and 7.7 times body weight when running.[11]

The blood supply to the Achilles tendon is poor, and mostly via a recurrent branch of the posterior tibial artery, and some through arterial branches passing through surrounding muscles.[10]

FunctionEdit

Acting via the Achilles tendon, the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles cause plantar flexion of the foot at the ankle. This action brings the sole of the foot closer to the back of the leg. The gastrocnemius also flexes the leg at the knee. Both muscles are innervated by the tibial nerve.[12] Because the fibres of the tendon spiral about 90 degrees, fibres from the gastrocnemius tend to attach to the outer part of the bone, whereas fibres from the solus tend to attach closer to the midline.[10]

Vibration of the tendon without vision has a major impact on postural orientation.[13] Vibration of the tendon causes movement backwards and the illusion of a forward body tilt in standing subjects.[14] This is because vibrations stimulate muscle spindles in the calf muscles. The muscle spindles alert the brain that the body is moving forward, so the central nervous system compensates by moving the body backwards.

Clinical significanceEdit

InflammationEdit

Inflammation of the Achilles tendon is called Achilles tendinitis. Achilles tendinosis is the soreness or stiffness of the tendon, particularly worse when exercising, and generally due to overuse.[15] The most common symptoms are pain and swelling around the affected tendon.[16] The pain is typically worse at the start of exercise and decreases thereafter.[17] Stiffness of the ankle may also be present.[18] Onset is generally gradual.[16]

It commonly occurs as a result of overuse such as running.[18][17] Other risk factors include trauma, a lifestyle that includes little exercise, high-heel shoes, rheumatoid arthritis, and medications of the fluoroquinolone or steroid class.[16] Diagnosis is generally based on symptoms and examination.[17]

While stretching and exercises to strengthen the calf are often recommended for prevention, evidence to support these measures is poor.[19][20][21] Treatment typically involves rest, ice, non-steroidal antiinflammatory agents (NSAIDs), and physical therapy.[16][18] A heel lift or orthotics may also be helpful.[18][17] In those in who symptoms last more than six months despite other treatments, surgery may be considered.[18] Achilles tendinitis is relatively common.[18]

DegenerationEdit

Achilles tendon degeneration (tendinosis) is typically investigated with either MRI or ultrasound. In both cases, the tendon is thickened, may demonstrate surrounding inflammation by virtue of the presence of paratenonitis, retrocalcaneal or retro-achilles bursitis. Within the tendon, increased blood flow, tendon fibril disorganisation and partial thickness tears may be identified. Achilles tendinosis frequently involves the mid portion of the tendon, however may involve the insertion where this is known as enthesopathy. Though enthesopathy may be seen in the context of advancing age, it is also associated with arthritis such as gout and the seronegative spondyloarthitides. Achilles tendinosis is a known risk factor for calf muscle tears.[22]

RuptureEdit

Achilles tendon rupture is when the Achilles tendon breaks.[23] Symptoms include the sudden onset of sharp pain in the heel.[16] A snapping sound may be heard as the tendon breaks and walking becomes difficult.[24]

Rupture typically occurs as a result of a sudden bending up of the foot when the calf muscle is engaged, direct trauma, or long-standing tendonitis.[24][23] Other risk factors include the use of fluoroquinolones, a significant change in exercise, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, or corticosteroid use.[25][23] Diagnosis is typically based on symptoms and examination and supported by medical imaging.[23] Achilles tendon rupture occurs in about 1 per 10,000 people per year.[23] Males are more commonly affected than females.[25] People in their 30s to 50s are most commonly affected.[23]

Prevention may include stretching before activity.[24] Treatment may be by surgery or casting with the toes somewhat pointed down.[26][23] Relatively rapid return to weight bearing (within 4 weeks) appears okay.[26][27] The risk of re-rupture is about 25% with casting.[23] If appropriate treatment does not occur within 4 weeks of the injury outcomes are not as good.[28]

XanthomasEdit

Tendon xanthomas are cholesterol deposits that commonly develop in the Achilles tendon of people with lipid metabolism disorders such as familial hypercholesterolemia.[29]

Neurological examEdit

The Achilles' tendon is often tested as part of a neurological examination. In this examination, the tendon is hit with a tendon hammer. This tests the S1 and S2 spinal nerves: a normal response is plantar flexion (downward movement) of the foot.[30]

Other animalsEdit

The Achilles tendon is short or absent in great apes, but long in arboreal gibbons and humans.[31] It provides elastic energy storage in hopping,[32] walking, and running.[31] Computer models suggest this energy storage Achilles tendon increases top running speed by >80% and reduces running costs by more than three-quarters.[31] It has been suggested that the "absence of a well-developed Achilles tendon in the nonhuman African apes would preclude them from effective running, both at high speeds and over extended distances."[31]

HistoryEdit

The oldest-known written record of the tendon being named for Achilles is in 1693 by the Flemish/Dutch anatomist Philip Verheyen. In his widely used text Corporis Humani Anatomia he described the tendon's location and said that it was commonly called "the cord of Achilles."[33][34] The tendon has been described as early as the time of Hippocrates, who described it as the "tendo magnus" (Latin: great tendon) and by subsequent anatomists prior to Verheyen as "chorda Hippocratis".[34]

Verheyen referred to the mythological account of Achilles being held by the heel by his mother Thetis when she dipped him in the River Styx as a baby to render his body invulnerable. As the heel by which she held him was not touched by the water, it was his one vulnerable spot (hence the expression "Achilles' heel") and he was eventually killed by a poison dart to the heel. The name thus also refers to the particularly disabling and painful effect of an injury to this tendon.[34] The first closed rupture was described by Ambroise Pare in the sixteenth century.[34]

The Achilles tendon is also known as the "tendo calcaneus" (Latin: calcaneal tendon).[34] Because eponyms (names relating to people) have no relationship to the subject matter, most anatomical eponyms also have scientifically descriptive terms. The term calcaneal comes from the Latin calcaneum, meaning heel.

See alsoEdit

Additional imagesEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ encyclopedia britannica.
  3. ^ The Science of the Skeleton and Muscles By Louise Spilsbury‏، Richard Spilsbury‏, page 32.
  4. ^ Elements of human anatomy: general, descriptive, and practical By Tobias Gibson Richardson.
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  6. ^ Robert Kennedy's Musclemag International Encyclopedia of Bodybuilding.
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  11. ^ Giddings, VL; Beaupré, GS; Whalen, RT; Carter, DR (2000). "Calcaneal loading during walking and running". Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. 32 (3): 627–34. doi:10.1097/00005768-200003000-00012. PMID 10731005. 
  12. ^ Drake, Richard L.; Vogl, Wayne; Tibbitts, Adam W.M. Mitchell; illustrations by Richard; Richardson, Paul (2005). Gray's anatomy for students. Philadelphia: Elsevier/Churchill Livingstone. p. 546. ISBN 978-0-8089-2306-0. 
  13. ^ Effects of bilateral Achilles tendon vibration on postural orientation and balance during standing, 2007 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  14. ^ Ceyte, Hadrien; Cian, Corinne; Zory, Raphael; Barraud, Pierre-Alain; Roux, Alain; Guerraz, Michel (April 2007). "Effect of Achilles tendon vibration on postural orientation". Neuroscience Letters. 416 (1): 71–75. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2007.01.044. PMID 17300868. 
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  22. ^ Koulouris G, Ting AY, Jhamb A, Connell D, Kavanagh EC (2007). "Magnetic resonance imaging findings of injuries to the calf muscle complex". Skeletal Radiol. 36 (10): 921–7. doi:10.1007/s00256-007-0306-6. PMID 17483942. 
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  33. ^ Veheyen, Philip (1693), Corporis humani anatomia, Leuven: Aegidium Denique, p. 269, retrieved 12 Mar 2018, Vocatum passim chorda Achillis, & ab Hippocrate tendo magnus. (Appendix, caput XII. De musculis pedii et antipedii, p. 269) 
  34. ^ a b c d e Klenerman, L. (April 2007). "The early history of tendo Achillis and its rupture". The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. British Volume. 89–B (4): 545–547. doi:10.1302/0301-620X.89B4.18978. PMID 17463129. 

External linksEdit