CRuMs or Crumalia[2] is a proposed clade of microbial eukaryotes, whose name is an acronym of the following constituent groups: i) collodictyonids also known as diphylleids, ii) rigifilids and iii) mantamonadids as sister of the Amorphea.[4][1] It more or less supersedes Varisulca, as Ancyromonadida are inferred not to be specifically related to the orders Diphylleida/Collodictyonida, Rigifilida and Mantamonadida.

Collodictyon pseudopodoa
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Clade: Opimoda
Clade: Podiata
Clade: CRuMs
Brown et al. 2018[1]
  • Crumalia Zmitrovich, Perelygin & Zharikov 2022[2]
  • Varisulca Cavalier-Smith 2013 emend. 2021[3]



Ancyromonadida Cavalier-Smith 1998 emend. Atkins 2000

Malawimonadea Cavalier-Smith 2003


Amoebozoa Lühe 1913 emend. Cavalier-Smith 1998


Breviatea Cavalier-Smith 2004

Apusomonadida Karpov & Mylnikov 1989

Opisthokonta (inc. fungi & animals)


Mantamonadida Cavalier-Smith 2004

Rigifilida Karpov & Mylnikov 1989

Diphylleida Cavalier-Smith 1993


  1. ^ a b c Brown, Matthew W.; Heiss, Aaron A.; Kamikawa, Ryoma; Inagaki, Yuji; Yabuki, Akinori; Tice, Alexander K; Shiratori, Takashi; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Hashimoto, Tetsuo; Simpson, Alastair; Roger, Andrew (2018-01-19). "Phylogenomics Places Orphan Protistan Lineages in a Novel Eukaryotic Super-Group". Genome Biology and Evolution. 10 (2): 427–433. doi:10.1093/gbe/evy014. PMC 5793813. PMID 29360967.
  2. ^ a b Zmitrovich, Ivan V.; Perelygin, Vladimir; Zharikov, Mikhail V. (2022). "Nomenclature and rank correlation of higher taxa of eukaryotes". Folia Cryptogamica Petropolitana. INFRA-M, Moscow. ISBN 978-5-16-018531-6.
  3. ^ Cavalier-Smith T (December 2021). "Ciliary transition zone evolution and the root of the eukaryote tree: implications for opisthokont origin and classification of kingdoms Protozoa, Plantae, and Fungi". Protoplasma. 259: 487–593. doi:10.1007/s00709-021-01665-7. PMC 9010356.
  4. ^ Lax, Gordon; Eglit, Yana; Eme, Laura; Bertrand, Erin M.; Roger, Andrew J.; Simpson, Alastair G. B. (2018-11-14). "Hemimastigophora is a novel supra-kingdom-level lineage of eukaryotes". Nature. 564 (7736): 410–414. Bibcode:2018Natur.564..410L. doi:10.1038/s41586-018-0708-8. PMID 30429611. S2CID 205570993.