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The CCTV New Year's Gala, also known as the Spring Festival Gala, and commonly abbreviated in Chinese as Chunwan, is a Chinese New Year special produced by China Central Television (CCTV). Shown on the eve of Chinese New Year on its flagship CCTV-1, cable channel CCTV-3, satellite channel CCTV-4, second flagship CCTV-7, children's channel CCTV-14, ultra high definition channel CCTV-4K and internationally through the China Global Television Network, the broadcast has a yearly viewership of over 700 million viewers,[1][2] making it one of the premier television events of China.

CCTV New Year's Gala
Directed byZhao An
Jin Yue
Lang Kun
Ha Wen
Feng Xiaogang
... others
Presented byKang Hui
Zhu Xun
Ren Luyu
Li Sisi
Negmat Rahman
Ending theme"Can't Forget Tonight" (Chinese: 难忘今宵)
Country of originPeople's Republic of China
Original language(s)Mandarin
Running timeAround 270 minutes
Original networkChina Central Television
Original releaseFebruary 12, 1983 (1983-02-12) –
CCTV New Year's Gala
Simplified Chinese中央广播电视总台春节联欢晚会
Traditional Chinese中央廣播電視總台春節聯歡晚會
Commonly abbreviated as
Simplified Chinese央视春晚
Traditional Chinese央視春晚
Further abbreviated as

The Gala has the largest audience of any entertainment show in the world,[3] and is recognized by Guinness World Records as the world's most watched television program.[4][5] The 2018 edition of the Gala drew more than one billion viewers to the broadcast.[6] The special is a variety show, often featuring music, dance, comedy, and drama performances. It has become a ritual for many Chinese families, including overseas Chinese, to watch the show on Chinese New Year's Eve. Many Chunwan performers have emerged as household names in China solely as a result of their recurring appearances on the program.


History and significanceEdit

The first CCTV New Year's Gala was held in 1983.[7] It was the successor to Beijing Television's irregular New Year's Eve broadcasts, which date back to 1956. In the 1983 show, a unique and live New Year-related stage was set up at CCTV in Beijing, with performers in drama, dance, music and other categories selected from all over the country. Since then, at the eve of every Lunar New Year, the program begins at 8:00 pm and lasts until roughly 0:30 am on the first day of the New Year. Both the cost and the scale of the program are increasing each year. The evolution of the New Year's Gala is, in many ways, representative of China's technological growth since 1983, with a significantly new look around every five years.[citation needed] Research commissioned by China Television Research (CTR) in 2007 indicated that an estimated 93.6% of families watched the Gala on television,[citation needed] although these ratings have been disputed.[citation needed]

The program has received extremely large audiences, which have grown significantly over the years. The CCTV New Year's Gala is currently the most watched annual Arts and Performance event anywhere in the world,[citation needed] and as such, its influence has reached political, economic, and ethical territories. As the Chinese New Year's Eve is a time when the family gathers, the typical situation involves a large 3-generation family gathered in front of their TV set while making dumplings for the first New Year's meal. The Gala adds a mood of celebration in the house as people laugh, discuss and enjoy the performance. It has become an ingrained tradition on Mainland China to watch the New Year's Gala on New Year's Eve, and the estimated audience numbers over 700 million people.[citation needed]

Rural areas that had previously been unfamiliar with concepts such as television would hold great gatherings on New Year's Eve to watch the program. The CCP Government has often emphasized rural areas being able to receive the New Year's Eve Gala as a progress in their economic development.[citation needed]

Some sources indicate that the Gala's popularity has been on the decline, although official sources from CCTV continue to claim the annual TV rating for the Gala to be above 90%.[8] Although consumerism has increased and younger people in urban areas are more likely to spend New Year's Eve outside their homes, the Gala has become an ingrained tradition in many Chinese families.

While Beijing has been the main event venue, the Gala of 1996 was the first to be broadcast also from separate studios in Nanjing and Shanghai, and that experience, since 2016, has become a permanent part of the night-long broadcast with the Gala not only staged live from the CCTV's Beijing studios but from four other major Chinese cities, to emphasize the network's and the event's national reach.

In 2009, CCTV vowed to ban all lip-syncing at the gala.[citation needed]

In 2011, Dashan made another appearance in the gala, alongside several foreign nationals of various ages, all engaging in fluent Mandarin conversation, including one of Russian nationality, an Australian and a Kenyan. The 2011 show was also noted for the appearances of various "ordinary people" performers who were selected by popular vote in a TV competition months prior.

The 'ordinary people' portrayals continued in 2012; several amateurs performed on the show. Coinciding with the rise of amateur performers is the decline of nationalist and political rhetoric. In both 2011 and 2012 versions of the Gala, imagery of national leaders were removed from the show. The 2012 gala was directed by Ha Wen, wife of host Li Yong. In a break with tradition, the 2012 Gala removed the announcements of embassies overseas sending New Year's greetings, as well as the "My Favorite New Year's Gala Act" voting announcement. It also did not conclude with a rendition of "Can't Forget Tonight", thus breaking the practice for the first time.[9]

The 2013 version of the Gala, the 30th in its history, concluded with the rendition of "Can't Forget Tonight" for the first time in a year.

2015's Gala edition saw "Can't Forget Tonight" being accompanied by viewer-submitted videos from all over China singing the classic song.

The Gala is also broadcast with subtitles and since recently on air commentary[disambiguation needed] on the China Global Television Network television stations, with the latter also featuring blow by blow updates from People's Republic of China and abroad and in 2016 a panel discussion by experts. By midnight, all international channels end their simulcast to give way to live television of the midnight Chinese New Year fireworks and celebrations nationwide and from worldwide.

Since 2016 the Gala has also been aired on Southeast Asia's flagship free-to-air terrestrial channel 8TV was live telecast (since 2016) on Chinese New Year's Eve at 20:00-Chinese New Year First Day 00:39 MST, On delayed (since 2017-now) on Chinese New Year's Eve at 23:00-Chinese New Year First Day 02:00 MST before closedown and repeat telecast on Chinese New Year First Day at 07:00–10:00 MST as first international television broadcaster outside of People's Republic of China to air the Chinese New Year by CCTV-4 Asia as taping production.

Synopsis and featuresEdit

Although the show has evolved greatly since its creation, its format and structure has remained largely consistent. The broadcast is primarily hosted by four people, all of whom are usually popular CCTV personalities. As a variety show which aims to appeal to as many different demographics as possible, the Gala traditionally features a number of different acts. Phone numbers are also provided for viewers so they can vote on their favorite act of the Gala; the results of the vote are revealed 15 days later during CCTV's Lantern Festival gala.

Comedy acts such as xiangsheng and sketches (such as those of Gala regular Zhao Benshan) are often featured, with the latter usually invoking real-life issues (such as unity, respect for the elderly, or education) that use the New Year's holiday as a frame for its social commentary. The hosts of the Gala itself are often incorporated into these comedy acts as well.

Musical acts are also featured during the Gala, featuring various genres of Chinese music ranging from traditional folk songs to modern C-pop acts. A medley of songs representing China's major minority ethnic groups (the Mongols, Manchus, Hui, Tibetans, Uyghurs, Miao, Zhuang among others) is also traditionally featured. Dance acts are also incorporated into the program, either alongside a live performer, or as a stand-alone act.

Performances of acrobatics and stage magic (often featuring foreign magicians) are also usually featured during the Gala. The emphasis on traditional Chinese arts performances such as Chinese opera has decreased over the years (and all but reduced to a 10-minute slot after midnight), since CCTV-3 airs its own New Year's special consisting exclusively of opera performances.

The final countdown to the New Year is led by the hosts near the end of the show; traditionally, the Gala has closed with a performance of the song "Can't forget tonight" (难忘今宵), originally performed by Li Guyi.


In the early days of the Gala in the 1980s, the show focused almost entirely on arts and entertainment. Programming that was chiefly political in nature was very rare, reflecting the general openness of Chinese society in the 1980s and the departure of Maoist political dogma from the lives of ordinary people. Communist Party leaders took an interest in the show as early as 1984, when then-general secretary Hu Yaobang watched the show and resolved to learn how to sing "My Chinese Heart" by singer Cheung Ming-man. Then, in 1990, Communist Party general secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng appeared on the show, ostensibly to participate in the celebration rather than disseminate a political agenda.[10]

Programming with heavy political undertones began appearing in the gala in the 1990s. As audiences grew, the show became a ritualized event of national significance and experienced increased state involvement in its production. Often, segments of the show became devoted to celebrating the previous year's "national achievements" and a preview of significant events of the upcoming year. In 2008, state media reported that major officials from the Propaganda Department of the Communist Party and the State Administration for Radio Film and Television were on scene during the gala's rehearsal to supervise its production.[11] In that same year, a segment featuring migrant workers was inserted into the show on the recommendation of Premier Wen Jiabao.[12]

Throughout the years, officials in charge of propaganda and media control, including Ding Guangen, Li Changchun, and Liu Yunshan, have paid visits to the Chunwan production team. Commenting on the political evolution of the Gala over the years, Takungpao said that Chunwan has evolved from a "year-end tea party" to a "conference for disseminating political propaganda.[10]

Imagery of party leadershipEdit

Beginning in the 1990s, the show has consistently included one segment featuring a video montage of Communist Party leaders accompanied by background music. Shown every year were images of those considered paramount leaders, including Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao. In 2007 and 2008, the video footage featured the entire line-up of Politburo Standing Committee members. Between 2011 and 2014, imagery of national leaders were absent from the show, and the amount of political content varied from year to year. For example, the 2011 show featured a rendition of a patriotic song that emphasized Hu Jintao's Harmonious Society and Scientific Development Concept ideologies. In 2012 there was minimal political content, though parts of the show alluded to "building a strong nation" and the 18th Party Congress which was to be held in the fall of that year. The 2014 show, however, was again peppered with political enhancements throughout that paid homage to general secretary Xi Jinping's "Chinese Dream" ideology, in addition to several nationalistic-themed songs. The 2015 show, reportedly one of the most closely managed affairs in years,[13] prominently featured Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign, with three comedy routines being linked to the theme. In addition, in a remarkable departure from convention, the 2015 show also featured Xi Jinping exclusively in a lengthy video montage during an opera-style song entitled "Give my Heart to You".[14] The heavy emphasis on political content continued in 2016; that edition, believed to be one of the most political affairs since the show's inception, saw a return of the more familiar line-up of national leaders. Since 2017, however, the gala has not shown imagery of national leaders, opting instead of showcase various aspects of economic development.[15]

In 1990, Jiang Zemin, then serving as general secretary, and Li Peng, the Premier, made a surprise on-stage appearance on the Chunwan just after the clock struck midnight. Jiang delivered a speech on stage. This six-minute live segment was the only instance national leaders participated in the program in its history.[12]

National unityEdit

National unity and Chinese reunification has been a theme on the show since the 1990s. For example, in 2009 and 2010, in response to criticism that Chunwan was too focused on the tastes and preferences of audiences from northern China, producers introduced a feature that involved a wide range of provincial TV stations to reflect regional differences and interests. In 2012, the New Year's countdown included the hosts reading out couplets in Shanghainese, Cantonese, and Henan dialect.

Every year, the program almost always involves performers from Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan. In some years, the affiliation of artists with any of these entities were stated explicitly on screen, but this practice has not always been consistently applied. A similar practice was adopted for foreign artists.[16]


The People's Liberation Army is featured in the show's programming every year, usually in the form of a song, although sometimes military-themed sketch comedies have also appeared. Many of the Gala's most prominent singers have a background in the performing arts troupe of the PLA, including Yan Weiwen, Song Zuying, Dong Wenhua and Peng Liyuan.[10]


Workers Arena lighting effects (1985)Edit

In the 1985 edition, the gala was held in the Workers Indoor Arena. But it has been strongly criticized by the media due to poor live effects.[17]

Dark Three Minutes (2007)Edit

The 2007 edition of the gala was panned by critics online as lacking in creativity and novelty.[18] The 2007 gala also gained infamy for the mass breakdown referred to as the "dark three minutes" where the six hosts, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn and Liu Fangfei collectively started a chain of misread and mistimed lines. Zhang Zequn was the first to read his lines incorrectly, obviously reciting the wrong chunlian, although the audience still applauded. Li Yong then mentioned the transition from the year bingxu (year of the dog) to dinghai (year of the pig) and a greeting to "mother comrades across the country" before being cut off by Zhu Jun's loud declaration that the new year had almost arrived. Liu Fangfei, who was relatively new to the gala, then read a line that was obviously incomplete, followed by seconds of dead air. Zhou Tao tried following it up, only to be interrupted by Li Yong. Zhou then gave Li Yong an annoyed stare, obviously visible as the camera was focused on her. Zhu Jun then interrupted Li Yong again, only to be interrupted by Zhou Tao before the ten-second countdown began.[19] Host Zhang Zequn has since then apologized on his CCTV blog.

The three minutes of mismanagement, along with the general dullness of the programming led some Chinese online forums to criticize the 2007 Gala as "the worst in 20 years", citing Zhao Benshan's skit as the only bright point.[citation needed]

Role of Women in Society (2015)Edit

Some observers have criticized the Gala for resisting larger trends in Chinese society, such as the increased role of women in society and changing gender norms. The 2015 skit "Goddesses and Tomboys" (女神和女汉子) faced particular derision online for its portrayal of strong female roles in society and its insensitive depiction of the "sheng nu" phenomenon.[20]

Despite the criticisms, the Gala is still a ratings powerhouse, a program in which other TV stations, some of which have gained prominence in their own right (notably Hunan TV) have scheduled their own New Year's specials on different days to avoid competing with the CCTV gala.[21][anachronism]

"Ugly Monkey" (2016)Edit

In 2016, the Gala was criticized for planning to include a "virtual mascot", modeled in 3D based on a painting of a monkey by Han Meilin that was described as "a monster" and "ugly" by many.[22] The digital mascot was also mocked on various Chinese social networks.[23]

Blackface (2018)Edit

The 2018 edition was criticized for a comedy skit focusing on China-Africa relations, and in particular, the country's investments in African railways. The skit featured Chinese actress Lou Naiming wearing blackface and a prosthetic buttocks to portray the mother of an African woman. The woman had asked the host to pose as her husband so she wouldn't be subjected to an arranged date. However, after the host exposed the ruse by introducing her wife, the woman's mother excuses it, declaring her love for China and its people. The skit was ridiculed by viewers and social media, especially among local groups and diaspora, for its invocation of African stereotypes.[24]

Eminent performersEdit

As the program is watched by more Chinese than any other, not just from China itself but also from overseas Chinese and viewers abroad via CCTV's international channels, a performance in the New Year's Gala could propel a relatively unknown name into household talk and national celebrity (and possible international hit status) overnight.


The presenters at the gala are sometimes hosts of their own television shows. Zhao Zhongxiang, for example, was an eminent narrator for television documentaries as well as newsreader for the widely watched Xinwen Lianbo program. Li Yong was the host of the variety show Lucky 52. Ni Ping was host of Zongyi Daguan (Chinese: 综艺大观), a variety show popular in the 1990s.

Year Director Presenters TV ratings*(%)[25] Multi-screen ratings(%)* Viewers(Million)
1983 Huang Yihe Deng Zaijun, Ma Ji, Jiang Kun, Wang Jingyu, Liu Xiaoqing N/A N/A N/A
1984 Huang Yihe Zhang Shufen, Zhao Zhongxiang, Lu Jing, Huang A'yuan, Jiang Kun, Jiang Lili, Chen Sisi N/A N/A N/A
1985 Huang Yihe Ma Ji, Jiang Kun, Zhang Yu, Zhu Yuanyi, Banban N/A N/A N/A
1986 Huang Yihe Zhao Zhongxiang, Wang Gang, Jiang Kun, Liu Xiaoqing, Fang Shu, Gu Yongfei N/A N/A N/A
1987 Deng Zaijun Li Moran, Wang Gang, Li Xiaofen, Jiang Kun N/A N/A N/A
1988 Deng Zaijun Sun Daolin, Wang Gang, Jiang Kun, Hou Yaowen, Xue Fei, Wei Hua N/A N/A N/A
1989 Zhang Xiaohai Zhang Xiaohai, Li Moran, Zhao Zhongxiang, Jiang Kun, Kan Lijun, Li Yang N/A N/A N/A
1990 Huang Yihe Zhao Zhongxiang N/A N/A N/A
1991 Lang Kun Zhao Zhongxiang, Hu Miao, Ni Ping, Zhang Hongming, Li Ruiying N/A N/A N/A
1992 Zhao An Yang Lan, Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping N/A N/A N/A
1993 Zhang Ziyang Liang Yanling, Li Qing'an, Zhang Yongquan, Yang Lan, Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping N/A N/A N/A
1994 Lang Kun Ni Ping, Cheng Qian N/A N/A N/A
1995 Zhao An Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Xu Gehui N/A N/A N/A
1996 Zhang Xiaohai Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping
Shanghai – Cheng Qian, Yuan Ming
Xi'an, Shaanxi – Zhang Xiao, Zhou Tao
1997 Yuan Dewang Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Cheng Qian, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Ya Ning N/A N/A N/A
1998 Meng Xin Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Ya Ning, Wang Xuechun N/A N/A N/A
1999 Liu Tiemin, Huang Xiaohai, Chen Yulu Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun N/A N/A N/A
2000 Zhao An, Zhang Xiaohai Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Zhao An, Zhao Wei, Zhang Xiaohai, Deric Wan, Brenda Wang, Pu Cunxin, Niu Qun, Feng Gong, Yang Lan, Jiang Kun, Bai Yansong, Wen Qing, Zhao Lin, Cao Ying, Li Xiaomeng, Cui Yongyuan, Wen Xingyu, Ju Ping N/A N/A N/A
2001 Wang Xianping, Wang Xiansheng, Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Zhang Zheng, Cao Ying 33.2 N/A 638
2002 Chen Yulu Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Wang Xiaoya, Wen Qing
Shenzhen, Guangdong – Cao Ying, Zhang Zheng
35.1 N/A N/A
2003 Jin Yue Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong 33.8 N/A N/A
2004 Yuan Dewang Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong 36.4 N/A N/A
2005 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing 37.6 N/A N/A
2006 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei 31.7 N/A N/A
2007 Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei 31.4 N/A N/A
2008 Chen Linchun, Zhang Xiaohai Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei, Bai Yansong 32.4 N/A N/A
2009 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Bai Yansong, Zhu Xun 34.8 N/A N/A
2010 Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Ren Luyu, Ouyang Xiadan 30.9 N/A N/A
2011 Chen Linchun, Ma Dong, Liu Gang Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Li Yong, Zhang Zequn, Zhu Xun 31.0 N/A N/A
2012 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Sa Beining, Li Sisi 32.8 N/A 770
2013 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Sa Beining, Li Sisi 31.2 N/A 750
2014 Feng Xiaogang Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Li Sisi, Zhang Guoli 30.9 33.15 705
2015 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Kang Hui, Li Sisi, Sa Beining, Zhu Xun, Bi Fujian, Negmat Rahman *28.37 29.60 690
2016 Lü Yitao Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Zhou Tao, Li Sisi, Sa Beining, Negmat Rahman
Xi'an, Shaanxi – Zhu Xun, Xu Jie (Shaanxi Broadcast Corporation, SXBC)
Guangzhou, Guangdong – Ren Luyu, Deng Lu (Guangdong Radio and Television, GRT)
Quanzhou, Fujian – Li Jiaming, Zhao Linshuo (Quanzhou TV)
Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia – Ma Yue, Ourentuya (Inner Mongolia TV, NMTV)
*N/A 30.98 1033
2017 Yang Dongsheng Beijing – Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Negmat Rahman, Kang Hui, Zhu Xun
Liangshan, Sichuan – Yang Fan, Ahore-Ri (Sichuan Radio & Television, SRT)
Shanghai – Meng Shengnan, Cao Kefan (Shanghai Meida Group, SMG)
Guilin, Guangxi – Zhang Lei, Gao Feng (Guangxi Television, GXTV)
Harbin, Heilongjiang – Guan Tong, Zhou Wei (Heilongjiang Television, HLJTV)
*N/A 30.88 *N/A
2018 Yang Dongsheng Beijing – Kang Hui, Zhu Xun, Ren Luyu, Li Sisi, Negmat Rahman
Sanya, Hainan – Zhang Zequn, Wang Si (Hainan Television)
Qiandongnan, Guizhou – Ma Yue, Dou Aili (Guizhou Television, GTV)
Tai'an and Qufu, Shandong – Li Jiaming, Li Yi (Shandong Television, SDTV)
Zhuhai, Guangdong – Yang Fan, Gui Jiachen (Zhuhai Television, ZHTV)
2019 Liu Zhen Beijing – Kang Hui, Zhu Xun, Ren Luyu, Li Sisi, Negmat Rahman
Jinggangshan, Jiangxi – Zhang Yu, Yin Song (Jiangxi Television, JTV)
Changchun, Jilin – Zhang Zequn, Yang Fan (Jilin Television)
Shenzhen, Guangdong – Yang Fan, Pangwei (Shenzhen Media Group, SZMG)

There have been over twenty hosts in total, beginning in the first show in 1983. The first production of the show was hosted by Jiang Kun, Liu Xiaoqing, Ma Ji and Wang Jingyu. The 1983 production was notably ad-libbed, with improvised dialogue between the hosts. Over the years, the delivery of the hosts became much more scripted and stilted over time. In later years Zhao Zhongxiang and Wang Gang gained prominence. Ni Ping appeared in over ten galas beginning in 1991, making her the most veteran female host.

Into the 2000s, the 'mainstay' hosts were Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Dong Qing and Li Yong. Zhu Jun holds the record for most appearances, having appeared in 21 consecutive galas starting in 1997.

Shanghainese stand-up comedian Zhou Libo has repeatedly turned down offers from CCTV to host the show.

Notes for rating and viewers dataEdit

  • TV ratings before 2001 are not available.
  • 2001–2014 Data source: CSM Media Research.[26]
  • TV rating of 2015 may not be accurate and needs additional citations for verification.(No reliable data found)
  • Reliable data of 2016 TV rating has not been released officially.
  • Multi-screen live rating includes TV live ratings, online video live ratings and VOSDAL ratings.
  • Ratings and viewers data in 2014,2015,2016 is released by CCTV itself.

Recurring PerformersEdit

The following is a list of people who have gained their fame largely from their performances at the Gala, or whose names have become frequently associated with the Gala. This list is not to be confused with the "guest stars" list below, which identifies celebrities who were famous in their own right prior to their appearance at the Gala.

Guest appearancesEdit

These performers have made appearances at the Gala. They are listed by alphabetical order based on the name they are known by internationally.[28]

See alsoEdit

Main sponsorEdit

International BroadcastEdit


  1. ^ "7 ways to celebrate Chinese New Year". CNN. February 8, 2013. It's also probably the biggest show on the planet, attracting 700 million viewers, six times the Super Bowl's audience.
  2. ^ "Lee Min-ho invited to China TV festival". The Korea Times. January 20, 2014. Watched by some 750 million people, it has become the single most viewed program among Chinese viewers annually. Last year, it broke the Guinness World Record in terms of viewership.
  3. ^ Louisa Lim (November 28, 2012). "Will China's First Lady Outshine Her Husband?". NPR. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  4. ^ "The world's most-watched television show airs tonight". Time.
  5. ^ "Celine Dion to Perform on China Central Television's New Year's Gala Show". The Hollywood Reporter. February 6, 2013. ...and is widely considered the most watched television program in the world today.
  6. ^ "'Chun Wan': CCTV Spring Festival Gala attracts more than a billion viewers".
  7. ^ The First Spring Festival Gala. Xinhua News Agency. January 30, 2011
  8. ^ Latham, K. Pop Culture China!: Media, Arts, and Lifestyle. ABC-CLIO, 2007. pp.60 ISBN 978-1-85109-582-7.
  9. ^ "联合早报网".
  10. ^ a b c "Understanding the Politics of Chunwan". Ta Kung Po. January 31, 2014.
  11. ^ "中宣部、广电总局领导审看春晚 要求格调健康". Chinanews. January 31, 2008.
  12. ^ a b "盘点中央领导与央视春晚故事:江泽民曾亲临现场". Tencent News. January 30, 2014.
  13. ^ "Xi Jinping the Star in China's Lunar New Year TV Gala". Wall Street Journal (blog). February 19, 2015.
  14. ^ ""把心交给你" 春晚独捧习近平". Voice of America. February 19, 2015.
  15. ^ Shen Lu and Hilary Whiteman (February 8, 2016). "Lunar New Year TV gala: The worst ever? – CNN". CNN.
  16. ^ e.g. The titles of Jay Chou's appearance would be introduced on screen as Jay Chou (Taiwan, China) (Chinese: 周杰伦(中国台湾)), or in the case of Andy Lau, as Andy Lau (Hong Kong, China) (Chinese: 刘德华(中国香港))
  17. ^ "新世纪春晚亮点:打开大门 推出新星 符号化语言". February 1, 2011.
  18. ^ 春晚好不好 各说各的话 Is the Gala good? So many opinions. Meizhou Daily. February 19, 2007
  19. ^ Chunwan screw-ups: Viewpoints and analysis: 春晚名嘴集体掌了自己嘴 孔庆东博客炮轰春晚. Enjoy February 24, 2007
  20. ^ The coming of age of Chinese feminism. Al Jazeera. May 17, 2015
  21. ^ CCTV gala gets mixed reactions. China Daily. February 19, 2007
  22. ^ Coonan, Clifford (February 8, 2016). "Year of the Monkey keeps Chinese upbeat despite troubles". The Irish Times. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  23. ^ "猴年春晚吉祥物"康康":比我丑的不是没有!". February 7, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  24. ^ Taylor, Adam (February 16, 2018). "China's televised New Year's Gala featured a blackface skit about Africans". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  25. ^ Data reference:CSM media research 2001–2014 央视春晚收视数据全披露
  26. ^ CSM media research
  27. ^ "Peng Liyuan Glamour – – The Elegant Style of China's First Lady". Theodora's Fashion. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  28. ^ "2013中央电视台春节联欢晚会节目单". Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  29. ^ "CCTV New Year Gala 2016". Retrieved December 3, 2016.

External linksEdit