CMG New Year's Gala

(Redirected from CCTV New Year's Gala)

The CMG New Year's Gala, formerly known as The CCTV New Year's Gala, also known as the Spring Festival Gala, and commonly abbreviated in Chinese as Chunwan (literally "Spring evening"), is a Chinese New Year special produced by China Media Group (CMG). It is broadcast annually on the eve of Chinese New Year on its flagship CCTV-1 and internationally through the China Global Television Network[1] The Gala has the largest audience of any entertainment show in the world,[2] and is recognized by Guinness World Records as the world's most watched television program.[3][4] The 2018 edition of the Gala attracted more than one billion viewers.[5]

CMG New Year's Gala
Directed byVarious
Presented byVarious
Ending theme"Can't Forget Tonight" (Chinese: 难忘今宵)
Country of originChina
Original languageMandarin
Running timeAround 270 minutes
Original release
NetworkChina Media Group
ReleaseFebruary 12, 1983 (1983-02-12) –
CMG New Year's Gala
Simplified Chinese中央广播电视总台春节联欢晚会
Traditional Chinese中央廣播電視總台春節聯歡晚會
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese中国中央电视台春节联欢晚会
Traditional Chinese中國中央電視台春節聯歡晚會
Second alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese央视春晚
Traditional Chinese央視春晚
Further abbreviated as

The program is a variety show, often featuring music, dance, comedy, and drama performances. It has become a ritual for many Chinese families, including overseas Chinese, to watch the show on Chinese New Year's Eve. Many Chunwan performers have emerged as household names in China solely as a result of their recurring appearances on the program.

History edit

In the early 1980s, CCTV director Huang Yihe proposed the idea of hosting a televised party to celebrate the Chinese New Year, and the first CCTV New Year's Gala aired in 1983.[3] Operating on a very low budget, Huang was given a studio of 600 square meters (6,500 sq ft), which could accommodate only 60 staff members and 200 guests.[6] With no money for recording and editing, the show was improvised and broadcast live. It was hosted by Liu Xiaoqing, Ma Ji, Jiang Kun, and Wang Jingyu, and the studio had four telephones accepting live requests from callers nationwide.[6] The popular singer Li Guyi ended the night with nine performances, and the cohost Jiang Kun performed three xiangsheng comedies.[6] Huang and his colleagues took considerable political risk broadcasting the live show, as pop singers such as Li Guyi were at the time under attack by hardliners as "spiritual pollution", and one of her most popular songs, Hometown Love (乡恋), was still officially banned.[7] With the permission from Wu Lengxi, the Minister of Radio and Television who was in the audience, Li Guyi performed the song for the first time on national TV.[7]

After the first New Year Gala proved a huge hit with viewers nationwide, Wu was tasked with directing the second edition. At the time, China and Britain were under intense negotiation over the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the status of Hong Kong. Huang came up with the idea of inviting the amateur Hong Kong singer Cheung Ming-man to perform at his show.[7] It was then unprecedented for a Hong Kong entertainer to perform on Chinese TV and his request met significant resistance. Huang persistently lobbied government officials and eventually gained their approval. Cheung's performance of the patriotic song "My Chinese Heart" at the 1984 gala made him a household name in China.[7][6]

The program has attracted extremely large audiences, which have grown significantly over the years. The CCTV New Year's Gala is the most watched television program in the world, with one billion viewers in 2018.[5] As the Chinese New Year's Eve is a time when the family gathers, the typical situation involves a large 3-generation family gathered in front of their TV set while making dumplings for the first New Year's meal. The Gala adds a mood of celebration in the house as people laugh, discuss and enjoy the performance. It has become an ingrained tradition on Mainland China to watch the New Year's Gala on New Year's Eve. Rural areas that had previously been unfamiliar with concepts such as television would hold great gatherings on New Year's Eve to watch the program.[5]

In 2011, Dashan made another appearance in the gala, alongside several foreign nationals of various ages, all engaging in fluent Mandarin conversation, including one of Russian nationality, an Australian and a Kenyan. The 2011 show was also noted for the appearances of various "ordinary people" performers who were selected by popular vote in a TV competition months prior.

The 'ordinary people' portrayals continued in 2012; several amateurs performed on the show. Coinciding with the rise of amateur performers is the decline of nationalist and political rhetoric. In both 2011 and 2012 versions of the Gala, imagery of national leaders were removed from the show. The 2012 gala was directed by Ha Wen, wife of host Li Yong. In a break with tradition, the 2012 Gala removed the announcements of embassies overseas sending New Year's greetings, as well as the "My Favorite New Year's Gala Act" voting announcement. It also did not conclude with a rendition of "Can't Forget Tonight", thus breaking the practice for the first time.[8]

Beginning in the 1990s, the Gala has been broadcast to the Chinese diaspora and millions of television viewers around the world on CCTV-4 with dedicated simulcasts for foreign viewers on the CGTN network since 2016.

The Gala marked its pearl jubilee in 2013 and its ruby jubilee in 2023.

Politics edit

In the early days of the Gala in the 1980s, the show focused almost entirely on arts and entertainment. Programming that was chiefly political in nature was very rare, reflecting the general openness of Chinese society in the 1980s and the departure of Maoist political dogma from the lives of ordinary people. Communist Party leaders took an interest in the show as early as 1984, when then-General Secretary Hu Yaobang watched the show and resolved to learn how to sing "My Chinese Heart" by singer Cheung Ming-man. Then, in 1990, Communist Party General Secretary Jiang Zemin and Premier Li Peng appeared on the show, ostensibly to participate in the celebration rather than disseminate a political agenda; Jiang gave a speech expressing his well-wishes.[9] This six-minute live segment was the only instance national leaders participated in the program in its history.[10]

Programming with heavy political undertones began appearing in the gala in the 1990s. As audiences grew, the show became a ritualized event of national significance and experienced increased state involvement in its production. Often, segments of the show became devoted to celebrating the previous year's "national achievements" and a preview of significant events of the upcoming year. In 2008, state media reported that major officials from the Publicity Department of the Chinese Communist Party and the State Administration of Radio, Film, and Television were on scene during the gala's rehearsal to supervise its production.[11] In that same year, a segment featuring migrant workers was inserted into the show on the recommendation of Premier Wen Jiabao.[10]

Throughout the years, officials in charge of propaganda and media control, including Ding Guangen, Li Changchun, and Liu Yunshan, have paid visits to the Chunwan production team. Commenting on the political evolution of the Gala over the years, Takungpao said that Chunwan has evolved from a "year-end tea party" to a "conference for disseminating political propaganda.[9]

Imagery of party leadership edit

Beginning in the 1990s, the show has consistently included one segment featuring a video montage of Communist Party leaders accompanied by background music. Shown every year were images of those considered paramount leaders, including Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping, Jiang Zemin, and Hu Jintao. In 2007 and 2008, the video footage featured the entire line-up of Politburo Standing Committee members. Between 2011 and 2014, imagery of national leaders were absent from the show, and the amount of political content varied from year to year. For example, the 2011 show featured a rendition of a patriotic song that emphasized Hu Jintao's Harmonious Society and Scientific Development Concept ideologies. In 2012 there was minimal political content, though parts of the show alluded to "building a strong nation" and the 18th Party Congress which was to be held in the fall of that year. The 2014 show, however, was again peppered with political enhancements throughout that paid homage to General Secretary Xi Jinping's "Chinese Dream" ideology, in addition to several nationalistic-themed songs. The 2015 show, reportedly one of the most closely managed affairs in years,[12] prominently featured Xi Jinping's anti-corruption campaign, with three comedy routines being linked to the theme. In addition, in a remarkable departure from convention, the 2015 show also featured Xi Jinping exclusively in a lengthy video montage during an opera-style song entitled "Give my Heart to You".[13] The heavy emphasis on political content continued in 2016; that edition, believed to be one of the most political affairs since the show's inception, saw a return of the more familiar line-up of national leaders. Since 2017, however, the gala has not shown imagery of national leaders, opting instead of showcase various aspects of economic development or nationalist themes.[14]

Military edit

The People's Liberation Army is featured in the show's programming every year, usually in the form of a song, although sometimes military-themed sketch comedies have also appeared. Many of the Gala's most prominent singers have a background in the performing arts troupe of the PLA, including Yan Weiwen, Song Zuying, Dong Wenhua and Peng Liyuan.[9]

Controversies edit

Workers Arena lighting effects (1985) edit

In 1985, the gala was held in the Workers Indoor Arena. It had a live audience dispersed throughout the arena. Production staff were not equipped with walkie-talkies, so they improvised their communication with artists, running around or gesturing from a distance to give cues. This made the show appear uncoordinated and exceptionally slow on television; the edition lasted over six hours and remains the longest gala on record. The live audience was also milling about the arena for the duration of the show, which was distracting and noisy for the television audience. It was most strongly criticized for its poor lighting effects that made the stage difficult to see.[15]

Chen Peisi sues CCTV distributor (1998) edit

Chen Peisi and his artistic collaborator Zhu Shimao were household names in the 1990s, partly owing to their appearances on the gala. After their hit sketch piece in the 1998 show, a subsidiary of CCTV distributed their performances on VCD without gaining the pair's permission in advance. In 2000, Chen and Zhu sued the subsidiary and won; the court ordered restitution and rescinded their rights to Chen and Zhu's work. Thereafter, Chen and Zhu never appeared on the gala again.[16]

Dark three minutes (2007) edit

In the 2007 edition, just before the clock struck midnight, the six hosts of the show assembled on stage suffered a mass breakdown referred to as the "dark three minutes". Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn and Liu Fangfei collectively started a chain of misread and mistimed lines. Zhang Zequn was the first to read his lines incorrectly, obviously reciting the wrong chunlian, although the audience still applauded. Li Yong then mentioned the transition from the year bingxu (year of the dog) to dinghai (year of the pig) and a greeting to "mother comrades across the country" before being cut off by Zhu Jun's loud declaration that the new year had almost arrived. Liu Fangfei, who was relatively new to the gala, then read a line that was obviously incomplete, followed by seconds of dead air. Zhou Tao tried following it up, only to be interrupted by Li Yong. Zhou then gave Li Yong an annoyed stare, obviously visible as the camera was focused on her. Zhu Jun then interrupted Li Yong again, only to be in turn interrupted by Zhou Tao before the ten-second countdown began.[17] Host Zhang Zequn apologized for the incident on his CCTV blog.

Role of women in society (2015) edit

Some observers have criticized the Gala for resisting larger trends in Chinese society, such as the increased role of women in society and changing gender norms. The 2015 skit "Goddesses and Tomboys" (女神和女汉子), led by Jia Ling, faced particular derision online for its portrayal of strong female roles in society and its insensitive depiction of the "sheng nu" phenomenon.[18]

Ugly monkey (2016) edit

In 2016, the Gala was criticized for planning to include a "virtual mascot", modeled in 3D based on a painting of a monkey by Han Meilin that was described as "a monster" and "ugly" by many.[19] The digital mascot was also mocked on various Chinese social networks.[20]

Blackface (2018) edit

The 2018 edition was criticized for a comedy skit focusing on Africa–China relations, and in particular, China's investments in African railways. The skit featured Chinese actress Lou Naiming wearing blackface and a prosthetic buttocks to portray the mother of an African woman. The woman had asked the host to pose as her husband so she wouldn't be subjected to an arranged date. However, after the host exposed the ruse by introducing her wife, the woman's mother excuses it, declaring her love for China and its people. The skit was ridiculed by viewers and social media, especially among local groups and diaspora, for its invocation of African stereotypes.[21]

Absence of pig imagery edit

The 2007 and 2019 editions, despite celebrating the year of the pig in the Chinese zodiac, eschewed nearly all imagery and language invoking pigs. Some suspected this was due to official sensitivities shown towards Muslim minority groups in China (and in the latter case possibly due to an outbreak of African swine fever).[22]

Blackface (2021) edit

The 2021 show again featured performers in blackface wearing approximations of African clothing. Like in 2018 it received criticism both within China and internationally. The Chinese foreign ministry responded to criticism by saying that it was not an issue and that anyone saying otherwise must have ulterior motives.[23]

Directors and performers edit

Directors and hosts edit

Year Director Presenters TV ratings* (%)[24] Multi-screen ratings (%)* Viewers (Million)
1983 Huang Yihe Deng Zaijun, Ma Ji, Jiang Kun, Wang Jingyu, Liu Xiaoqing N/A N/A N/A
1984 Huang Yihe Zhang Shufen, Zhao Zhongxiang, Lu Jing, Huang A'yuan, Jiang Kun, Jiang Lili, Chen Sisi N/A N/A N/A
1985 Huang Yihe Ma Ji, Jiang Kun, Zhang Yu, Zhu Yuanyi, Ban Ban N/A N/A N/A
1986 Huang Yihe Zhao Zhongxiang, Wang Gang, Jiang Kun, Liu Xiaoqing, Fang Shu, Gu Yongfei N/A N/A N/A
1987 Deng Zaijun Li Moran, Wang Gang, Li Xiaofen, Jiang Kun N/A N/A N/A
1988 Deng Zaijun Sun Daolin, Wang Gang, Jiang Kun, Hou Yaowen, Xue Fei, Wei Hua N/A N/A N/A
1989 Zhang Xiaohai Zhang Xiaohai, Li Moran, Zhao Zhongxiang, Jiang Kun, Kan Lijun, Li Yang N/A N/A N/A
1990 Huang Yihe Zhao Zhongxiang N/A N/A N/A
1991 Lang Kun Zhao Zhongxiang, Hu Miao, Ni Ping, Zhang Hongming, Li Ruiying N/A N/A N/A
1992 Zhao An Yang Lan, Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping N/A N/A N/A
1993 Zhang Ziyang Liang Yanling, Li Qing'an, Zhang Yongquan, Yang Lan, Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping N/A N/A N/A
1994 Lang Kun Ni Ping, Cheng Qian N/A N/A N/A
1995 Zhao An Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Xu Gehui N/A N/A N/A
1996 Zhang Xiaohai Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping
Shanghai - Cheng Qian, Yuan Ming
Xi'an, Shaanxi - Zhang Xiao, Zhou Tao
1997 Yuan Dewang Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Cheng Qian, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Ya Ning N/A N/A N/A
1998 Meng Xin Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Ya Ning, Wang Xuechun N/A N/A N/A
1999 Liu Tiemin, Huang Xiaohai, Chen Yulu Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun N/A N/A N/A
2000 Zhao An, Zhang Xiaohai Zhao Zhongxiang, Ni Ping, Zhou Tao, Zhu Jun, Zhao An, Zhao Wei, Zhang Xiaohai, Deric Wan, Brenda Wang, Pu Cunxin, Niu Qun, Feng Gong, Yang Lan, Jiang Kun, Bai Yansong, Wen Qing, Zhao Lin, Cao Ying, Li Xiaomeng, Cui Yongyuan, Wen Xingyu, Ju Ping N/A N/A N/A
2001 Wang Xianping, Wang Xiansheng, Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Zhang Zheng, Cao Ying 33.2 N/A 638
2002 Chen Yulu Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Wang Xiaoya, Wen Qing
Shenzhen, Guangdong - Cao Ying, Zhang Zheng
35.1 N/A N/A
2003 Jin Yue Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong 33.8 N/A N/A
2004 Yuan Dewang Ni Ping, Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong 36.4 N/A N/A
2005 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing 37.6 N/A N/A
2006 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei 31.7 N/A N/A
2007 Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei 31.4 N/A N/A
2008 Chen Linchun, Zhang Xiaohai Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Liu Fangfei, Bai Yansong 32.4 N/A N/A
2009 Lang Kun Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Bai Yansong, Zhu Xun 34.8 N/A N/A
2010 Jin Yue Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Zhang Zequn, Ren Luyu, Ouyang Xiadan 30.9 N/A N/A
2011 Chen Linchun, Ma Dong, Liu Gang Zhu Jun, Zhou Tao, Dong Qing, Li Yong, Zhang Zequn, Zhu Xun 31.0 N/A N/A
2012 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Sa Beining, Li Sisi 32.8 N/A 770
2013 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Li Yong, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Sa Beining, Li Sisi 31.2 N/A 750
2014 Feng Xiaogang Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Bi Fujian, Li Sisi, Zhang Guoli 30.9 33.15 705
2015 Ha Wen Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Kang Hui, Li Sisi, Sa Beining, Zhu Xun, Bi Fujian, Negmat Rahman *28.37 29.60 690
2016 Lü Yitao Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Zhou Tao, Li Sisi, Sa Beining, Negmat Rahman
Xi'an, Shaanxi - Zhu Xun, Xu Jie (Shaanxi Broadcast Corporation, SXBC)
Guangzhou, Guangdong - Ren Luyu, Deng Lu (Guangdong Radio and Television, GRT)
Quanzhou, Fujian - Li Jiaming, Zhao Linshuo (Quanzhou TV)
Hulunbuir, Inner Mongolia - Ma Yue, Ourentuya (Inner Mongolia TV, NMTV)
*N/A 30.98 1033
2017 Yang Dongsheng Beijing - Zhu Jun, Dong Qing, Negmat Rahman, Kang Hui, Zhu Xun
Liangshan, Sichuan - Yang Fan, Ahore-Ri (Sichuan Radio & Television, SRT)
Shanghai - Meng Shengnan, Cao Kefan (Shanghai Meida Group, SMG)
Guilin, Guangxi - Zhang Lei, Gao Feng (Guangxi Television, GXTV)
Harbin, Heilongjiang - Guan Tong, Zhou Wei (Heilongjiang Television, HLJTV)
*N/A 30.88 *N/A
2018 Yang Dongsheng Beijing - Kang Hui, Zhu Xun, Ren Luyu, Li Sisi, Negmat Rahman
Sanya, Hainan - Zhang Zequn, Wang Si (Hainan Television)
Qiandongnan, Guizhou - Ma Yue, Dou Aili (Guizhou Television, GTV)
Tai'an and Qufu, Shandong - Li Jiaming, Li Yi (Shandong Television, SDTV)
Zhuhai, Guangdong - Yang Fan, Gui Jiachen (Zhuhai Television, ZHTV)
2019 Liu Zhen Beijing - Kang Hui, Zhu Xun, Ren Luyu, Li Sisi, Negmat Rahman
Jinggangshan, Jiangxi - Zhang Yu, Yin Song (Jiangxi Television, JTV)
Changchun, Jilin - Zhang Zequn, Yang Fan (Jilin Television)
Shenzhen, Guangdong - Yang Fan, Pangwei (Shenzhen Media Group, SZMG)
30.07 1, 173
2020 Yang Dongsheng Beijing - Ren Luyu, Negmat Rahman, Tong Liya, Yin Song, Zhang Shuyue
Zhengzhou - Zhang Zequn, Ma Yue, Pang Xiaoge, Mi Na
Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area - Myolie Wu, Daniel Liu, Xu Lunan
2021 Chen Linchun Ren Luyu, Negmat Rahman, Li Sisi, Long Yang, Zhang Tao
2022 Liu Zhen Ren Luyu, Negmat Rahman, Li Sisi, Sa Beining, Ma Fanshu
2023 Yu Lei Ren Luyu, Negmat Rahman, Ma Fanshu, Long Yang, Sa Beining, Wang Jianing
2024 TBD TBA

Notes for rating and viewers data edit

  • 2001–2014 Data source: CSM Media Research.[25]

Recurring Performers edit

As the program is watched by more Chinese than any other program, not just from China itself but also from overseas Chinese and viewers abroad via CCTV's international channels, a performance in the New Year's Gala could propel a relatively unknown name into household talk and national celebrity (and possible international hit status and social media stardom) overnight. Since the beginning of this program many great stars of Chinese pop music have been discovered, comedians started their careers, and Taiwan and Hong Kong singers earning not just exposure to mainland viewers but also attention from fans around the world watching the Gala live or on demand. An appearance by any major Mandopop star on the Gala will expose his or her music to overseas audiences, a newcomer's first song in the program guarantees not just fame and stardom but also a fanbase of millions of TV and online viewers.

The following is a list of people who have gained their fame largely from their performances at the Gala, or whose names have become frequently associated with the Gala through the years. This list is not to be confused with the "guest stars" list below, which identifies celebrities who were famous in their own right prior to their appearance at the Gala. These individuals have been part of the Gala's long history, and are very much the people that many viewers remember from past editions.

Guest appearances edit

These performers have made appearances at the Gala. They are listed by alphabetical order (by their last name, or if they perform under an artistic name, by that name) based on the common name they are known by internationally.[27]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "7 ways to celebrate Chinese New Year". CNN. February 8, 2013. It's also probably the biggest show on the planet, attracting 700 million viewers, six times the Super Bowl's audience.
  2. ^ Louisa Lim (November 28, 2012). "Will China's First Lady Outshine Her Husband?". NPR. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
  3. ^ a b "The world's most-watched television show airs tonight". Time.
  4. ^ "Celine Dion to Perform on China Central Television's New Year's Gala Show". The Hollywood Reporter. February 6, 2013. ...and is widely considered the most watched television program in the world today.
  5. ^ a b c Lo, Rebecca (February 1, 2019). "Why 'Chunwan', China's Lunar New Year gala, is the world's most-watched TV show". South China Morning Post. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  6. ^ a b c d 央视春晚“开创者”黄一鹤去世 曾力保张明敏不惜摔电话. Sohu (in Chinese). April 9, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  7. ^ a b c d "央视春晚开创者、首届春晚总导演黄一鹤去世,享年85岁". April 8, 2019. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  8. ^ "联合早报网".
  9. ^ a b c "Understanding the Politics of Chunwan". Ta Kung Po. January 31, 2014.
  10. ^ a b "盘点中央领导与央视春晚故事:江泽民曾亲临现场". Tencent News. January 30, 2014.
  11. ^ "中宣部、广电总局领导审看春晚 要求格调健康". Chinanews. January 31, 2008.
  12. ^ "Xi Jinping the Star in China's Lunar New Year TV Gala". Wall Street Journal (blog). February 19, 2015.
  13. ^ ""把心交给你" 春晚独捧习近平". Voice of America. February 19, 2015.
  14. ^ Shen Lu and Hilary Whiteman (February 8, 2016). "Lunar New Year TV gala: The worst ever? -". CNN.
  15. ^ "新世纪春晚亮点:打开大门 推出新星 符号化语言". February 1, 2011.
  16. ^ "陈佩斯靠种石榴东山再起 曾赢版权官司却遭封杀". Huashang Morning Post. March 31, 2010. Retrieved January 3, 2013.
  17. ^ Chunwan screw-ups: Viewpoints and analysis: 春晚名嘴集体掌了自己嘴 孔庆东博客炮轰春晚 Archived February 26, 2007, at the Wayback Machine. Enjoy February 24, 2007
  18. ^ The coming of age of Chinese feminism. Al Jazeera America. May 17, 2015
  19. ^ Coonan, Clifford (February 8, 2016). "Year of the Monkey keeps Chinese upbeat despite troubles". The Irish Times. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  20. ^ "猴年春晚吉祥物"康康":比我丑的不是没有!". February 7, 2016. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  21. ^ Taylor, Adam (February 16, 2018). "China's televised New Year's Gala featured a blackface skit about Africans". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved February 9, 2019.
  22. ^ Allen, Kerry (February 6, 2019). "中国央视2019猪年春晚传递出的五大信息". BBC中文网. Retrieved February 8, 2019.
  23. ^ "China New Year gala show sparks new racism controversy with blackface performance". Reuters. February 12, 2021. Retrieved February 12, 2021.
  24. ^ Data reference:CSM media research 2001-2014 央视春晚收视数据全披露
  25. ^ CSM media research
  26. ^ "Peng Liyuan Glamour - - The Elegant Style of China's First Lady". Theodora's Fashion. Retrieved October 11, 2014.
  27. ^ "2013中央电视台春节联欢晚会节目单". Retrieved February 9, 2013.
  28. ^ "CCTV New Year Gala 2016". February 7, 2016. Retrieved December 3, 2016.

External links edit