By Candlelight is a 1933 American pre-Code comedy film directed by James Whale. The film is based on the Austrian play Candle Light by Siegfried Geyer and Karl Farkas. The film stars Elissa Landi, Paul Lukas, Nils Asther, and Dorothy Revier. A musical version adapted by Rowland Leigh, Cole Porter, Robert Katscher and Edwin Gilbert premiered in 1938 under the title You Never Know, but was a critical and box office flop that closed after only 78 performances.
U.S. theatrical poster
|Directed by||James Whale|
|Produced by||Carl Laemmle, Jr.|
|Written by||Ruth Cummings|
F. Hugh Herbert
Hans Kraly (adaptation)
Karen DeWolf (additional dialogue)
|Based on||Candle Light|
by Karl Farkas and Siegfried Geyer
|Cinematography||John J. Mescall|
|Edited by||Ted Kent|
David Berg (uncredited)
|Distributed by||Universal Pictures|
During a European train journey, a nobleman's butler Josef (Paul Lukas) is mistaken for his employer Prince Alfred von Romer (Nils Asther) by a beautiful woman, Marie (Elissa Landi), and he does nothing to disillusion her. In due course, the Prince himself arrives and is mistaken for his servant.
TV Guide noted a "pleasant comedy given a sparkling look by talented, classy director Whale"; while Allmovie wrote, "By Candlelight is chock full of delightfully double-entendre pre-Code dialogue and dextrous directorial touches"; The Radio Times said "Universal studios' James Whale, the star director of its famous horror cycle, trespasses here on territory more generally associated with Paramount and Ernst Lubitsch. While not quite up to the rival studio's standard of sophisticated romantic comedies peopled by aristocrats, this is a more than respectably assembled film, well directed and well acted, particularly by Lukas"; and The New York Times noted "a pleasantly amusing diversion. It is shallow and somewhat obvious in spots, but its little intrigue is set forth with admirable cunning by James Whale and others...The audience yesterday afternoon chuckled with glee when the Prince in brass buttons brought in the champagne, doing the butler's duties in a meticulous fashion." 
- "By Candlelight". TV Guide.
- "By Candlelight (1934) - Trailers, Reviews, Synopsis, Showtimes and Cast - AllMovie". AllMovie.
- Robin Karney. "By Candlelight". RadioTimes.
- "Movie Review - By Candlelight - Elissa Landi and Paul Lukas in a Light and Amiable Tale of a Butler's Deception". Retrieved July 24, 2015.