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The Business Roundtable (BRT) is a non-profit association based in Washington, D.C. whose members are chief executive officers of major U.S. companies. Unlike the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, whose members are entire businesses, BRT members are exclusively CEOs. BRT promotes public policy favorable to business interests such as NAFTA, while also promoting broader public policy initiatives such as No Child Left Behind and opposing others such as the Trump administration's family separation policy. In 2019, BRT redefined its definition of the purpose of a corporation, putting the interests of employees, customers, suppliers and communities on par with shareholders. BRT members include Jeffrey Bezos of Amazon, Tim Cook of Apple, and Mary Barra of General Motors.[1][2][3][4]

Contents

HistoryEdit

In 1972, March Group, co-founded by Alcoa chairman John D. Harper (April 6, 1910 - 26 July, 1985)[5][6][7] and General Electric CEO Fred Borch, the Construction Users Anti-Inflation Roundtable, founded by retired U.S. Steel CEO Roger Blough, and the Labor Law Study Group (LLSG) merged to form Business Roundtable.[8]

March Group consisted of chief executive officers who met informally to consider public policy issues; the Construction Users Anti-Inflation Roundtable was devoted to containing construction costs; and the Labor Law Study Committee was largely made up of labor relations executives of major companies.[9] Harper was the newly founded group's first president, followed by Thomas Murphy of General Motors, Irving Shapiro of DuPont, then Clifford Garvin of Exxon. [10]

In 2010, the Washington Post characterized the group as President Obama's "closest ally in the business community."[11]

On August 19, 2019, the group updated its decades-old definition of the purpose of a corporation, doing away with its bedrock principle that shareholder interests must be placed above all else. The statement, signed by nearly 200 chief executive officers from major U.S. corporations, makes a "fundamental commitment to all of our stakeholders," including customers, employees, suppliers and local communities.[12]

ActivitiesEdit

 
U.S. Secretary of Labor Alexander Acosta addressing the Business Roundtable in June 2017

The Business Roundtable played a key role in defeating an anti-trust bill in 1975 and a Ralph Nader plan for a consumer protection agency in 1977. It also helped dilute the Humphrey-Hawkins Full Employment Act. But the Roundtable's most significant victory was in blocking labor law reform that sought to strengthen labor law to make it more difficult for companies to intimidate workers who wanted to form unions. The AFL-CIO produced a bill in 1977 that passed the House. But the Roundtable voted to oppose the bill, and through its aggressive lobbying, it prevented the bill's Senate supporters from rounding up the 60 votes in the Senate necessary to withstand a filibuster.

In fiscal policy, the Roundtable was responsible for broadening the 1985 tax cuts signed into law by Ronald Reagan, lobbying successfully for sharp reductions in corporate taxes. In trade policy, it argued for opening foreign markets to American trade and investment. The Omnibus Trade Act of 1988 reflected the thinking of the Business Roundtable. In 1990, the Roundtable urged George Bush to initiate a free trade agreement with Mexico. In 1993, the Roundtable lobbied for NAFTA and against any strong side agreements on labor and the environment. It provided the money and leadership for the main pro-NAFTA lobby.

The Roundtable also successfully opposed changes in corporate governance that would have made boards of directors and CEOs more accountable to stockholders. In 1986, the Roundtable convinced the Securities and Exchange Commission to forgo new rules on merger and acquisitions, and in 1993 convinced President Clinton to water down his plan to impose penalties on excessive executive salaries. Citicorp CEO, John Reed, chairperson of the Roundtables Accounting Task Force, argued that Clinton's plan would have had negative effects on U.S. competitiveness. The Roundtable's Health, Welfare, and Retirement Income Task Force, chaired by Prudential Insurance CEO Robert C. Winters, cheered President Bush's plan, which consisted mainly of subsidies to the health care industry. The nation's health care system works well for the majority of Americans, the Roundtable announced in a June 1991 statement. "We believe the solutions lie not in tearing down the present system, but in building upon it."

It has issued press releases, submitted editorials, given congressional testimony, and distributed position advertisements. After the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 was signed into law in January 2002, the Roundtable issued a press release stating that it had "strongly supported passage of the legislation" and was "actively working with states on implementation."[13]

The Business Roundtable also acts as a major lobby that aims to extend or maintain administrators' rights/power in large companies. For example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission adopted the so-called "shareholders’ access to proxy" rule, which aimed to empower shareholders in the proposition and nomination of administrators of big corporations. The Business Roundtable was strongly against that rule, as its president John Castellani reported to the Washington Post about removing this rule: "this is our highest priority [...] Literally all of our members have called about this".[14] And they got the upper hand: the SEC rule was finally dropped after intense lobbying and lawsuits.

In June 2018, Business Roundtable issued a statement urging the White House “Administration to end immediately the policy of separating accompanied minors from their parents,” and condemned the practice as “cruel and contrary to American values.” Authored by the organization's Immigration Committee chairman, Chuck Robbins, the statement also commended bipartisan lawmakers for working together to reform immigration policies, and was widely supported by the Business Roundtable chair and membership.[15][16]

LegislationEdit

The Business Roundtable wrote a letter to members of the House strongly endorsing the Customer Protection and End User Relief Act (H.R. 4413; 113th Congress).[17] According to the Business Roundtable letter, a survey of chief financial officers and corporate treasurers "underscores the urgent need for the end-user provisions" in this bill because "eighty-six percent of respondents indicated the fully collateralizing over-the-counter (OTC) derivatives would adversely impact business investment, acquisitions, research and development, and job creation."[17] The letter concluded that the Business Roundtable "supports efforts to increase transparency in the derivatives markets and enhance financial stability for the U.S. economy through thoughtful new regulation while avoiding needless costs."[17]

Purpose of a CorporationEdit

On August 19, 2019, the Business Roundtable released a new "Statement on the purpose of a Corporation." Signed by nearly 200 chief executive officers including Amazon's Jeffrey Bezos, Apple's Tim Cook, General Motors' Mary Barra and Oracle's Safra Catz, the group seeks to "move away from shareholder primacy," a concept that had existed in the group's principles since 1997, and move to "include commitment to all stakeholders." It notes that "business play a vital role in the economy" because of jobs, fostering innovation and providing essential services. But it places shareholder interests on the same level as those of customers, employees, suppliers and communities. "Each of our stakeholders is essential," the statement says. "We commit to deliver value to all of them, for the future success of our companies, our communities and our country."[18][19] [20]

Board of DirectorsEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Greenhouse, L. (1991, March 7). The Business Roundtable is mentioned by G. William Domhoff in Who Rules America? Domhoff argues that the Business Roundtable supports the network of corporate control and influence over the economy, politics, and media. Perils to conservatives in a conservative court. New York Times, Retrieved from https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE1D81E3EF934A35750C0A967958260
  2. ^ Cowan, A.L. (1993, March 26). Methods in Stock Option Madness. New York Times, Retrieved from https://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0CE2DC163FF935A15750C0A965958260
  3. ^ Jenkins, C., & Eckert, C. M. (2000). The right turn in economic policy: Business elites and the new conservative economic. Sociological Forum, 15(2), 312.
  4. ^ Lichtman, A. J. (2008). White Protestant Nation: The Rise of the American Conservative Movement. Atlantic Monthly Press. (p. 338)
  5. ^ "JOHN D. HARPER, 91, SERVED AS CHAIRMAN OF ALCOA UNTIL 1975"; The New York Times Archives; The New York Times, July 28, 1985, pg. 001028.
  6. ^ "Retired Alcoa Board Chairman John D. Harper Dies at Age 75"; Times Wire Services; Los Angeles Times; July 31, 1985.
  7. ^ "John D. Harper"; Find A Grave.
  8. ^ Beder, Sharon Suiting Themselves: How Corporations Drive the Global Agenda; Earthscan; 2012, pgs. 11-12. ISBN 9781844073313
  9. ^ Businessrountable.org "Archived Content"
  10. ^ Power and Accountability by Robert A. G. Monks and Nell Minow; HarperBusiness; 1991, pg. 49. ISBN 9780887305344
  11. ^ Montgomery, Lori (June 23, 2010). "Business leaders say Obama's economic policies stifle growth". Washington Post. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  12. ^ Yaffe-Bellany, David; Gelles, David (2019-08-19). "Shareholder Value Is No Longer Everything, Top C.E.O.s Say". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  13. ^ "ISSUE: No Child Left Behind" via ParentAdvocates.org, under headline, "The Business Roundtable Supports the No Child Left Behind Legislation". Retrieved August 21, 2019.
  14. ^ Washington Post; May 13, 2010.
  15. ^ Murray, Alan (June 20, 2019). "'This Is a Fundamental Issue:' Why Cisco CEO Chuck Robbins Challenged Trump on Border Separations". Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  16. ^ Robbins, Chuck (June 19, 2019). "Business Roundtable Statement on Immigration". Retrieved June 27, 2019.
  17. ^ a b c Cutler, Alexander M. (16 June 2014). "BRT Letter to House on the Customer Protection and End-User Relief Act". Business Roundtable. Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  18. ^ "Business Roundtable Redefines the Purpose of a Corporation to Promote 'An Economy That Serves All Americans'". www.businessroundtable.org. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  19. ^ Fitzgerald, Maggie (2019-08-19). "The CEOs of nearly 200 companies just said shareholder value is no longer their main objective". CNBC. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  20. ^ Benoit, David. "Move Over, Shareholders: Top CEOs Say Companies Have Obligations to Society". WSJ. Retrieved 2019-08-19.
  21. ^ "Board of Directors". Business Roundtable. Retrieved 7 March 2019.
  22. ^ Business Roundtable, Official website, Leadership

External linksEdit