Burning of Jaffna Public Library

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The burning of the Jaffna Public Library (Tamil: யாழ் பொது நூலகம் எரிப்பு, Yāḻ potu nūlakam erippu; Sinhala: යාපනය මහජන පුස්තකාලය ගිනිබත් කිරීම, Yāpanaya mahajana pustakālaya ginibat kirīma) took place on the night of June 1, 1981, when an organized mob of Sinhalese individuals went on a rampage, burning the library.[1] It was one of the most violent examples of ethnic biblioclasm of the 20th century.[Term][3] At the time of its destruction, the library was one of the biggest in Asia, containing over 97,000 books and manuscripts.[4][5]

Burning of Jaffna library
Part of 1981 anti-Tamil pogrom
Burnt shell of the library
LocationJaffna, Sri Lanka
DateJune 1, 1981[1][2] (+6 GMT)
TargetPrimarily Sri Lankan Tamil
Attack type
Rioting, burning, shooting, arson
Petrol bomb
Sri Lankan government (Jayewardene cabinet)
Sri Lanka Police
Pro Sinhalese mob gang
Government employees
No. of participants
MotiveEthnic cleansing

Background edit

The library was built in many stages starting from 1933, from a modest beginning as a private collection. Soon, with the help of primarily local citizens, it became a full-fledged library. The library also became a repository of archival material written in palm leaf manuscripts, original copies of regionally important historic documents in the contested political history of Sri Lanka and newspapers that were published hundreds of years ago in the Jaffna peninsula. It thus became a place of historic and symbolic importance to all Sri Lankans.[6][7]

Eventually, the first major wing of the library was opened in 1959 by then Jaffna mayor Alfred Duraiappah. The architect of the Indo-Saracenic style building was S. Narasimhan from Madras, India. Prominent Indian librarian S.R. Ranganathan served as an advisor to ensure that the library was built to international standards. The library became the pride of the local people as even researchers from India and other countries began to use it for their research purposes.[6][7]

The riot and the burning edit

Damaged dome with holes made by shelling

On Sunday, May 31, 1981, the Tamil United Liberation Front (TULF), a regionally popular democratic party, held a rally in which two policemen Sergeant Punchi Banda and constable Kanagasuntharam were shot and killed by PLOTE gunmen.[8]

That night police and paramilitaries began a pogrom that lasted for three days. The head office of TULF party was destroyed. The Jaffna MP V. Yogeswaran's residence was also destroyed.[2]

Four people were pulled from their homes and killed at random. Many business establishments and a local Hindu temple were also deliberately destroyed.[2]

On the night of June 1, according to many eyewitnesses, police and government-sponsored paramilitias set fire to the Jaffna public library and destroyed it completely.[3][2] Over 97,000 volumes of books along with numerous culturally important and irreplaceable manuscripts were destroyed.[7] Among the destroyed items were scrolls of historical value and the works and manuscripts of philosopher, artist and author Ananda Coomaraswamy and prominent intellectual Prof. Dr. Isaac Thambiah. The destroyed articles included memoirs and works of writers and dramatists who made a significant contribution toward the sustenance of the Tamil culture, and those of locally reputed physicians and politicians.[7]

The office of the Eelanaadu, a local newspaper, was also destroyed. Statues of Tamil cultural and religious figures were destroyed or defaced.[2]

The Movement for Inter-Racial Justice and Equality (MIRJE) who sent an investigative team to Jaffna after the riot concluded:

"After careful inquiries there is no doubt that the attacks and the arson were the work of some 100-175 police personnel."[9]

Nancy Murray wrote in a journal article in 1984 that several high-ranking security officers and two cabinet ministers Gamini Dissanayake and Cyril Mathew were present in the town of Jaffna, when uniformed security men and plainclothes[10][11][12] mob carried out organized acts of destruction.[13] After 20 years the government-owned Daily News newspaper, in an editorial in 2001, termed the 1981 event an act by "goon squads let loose by the then government".[14]

Reaction edit

Two cabinet ministers, who saw the destruction of government and private properties from the verandah of the Jaffna Rest House (a government-owned hotel), claimed that the incident was

an unfortunate event, where [a] few policemen got drunk and went on a looting spree all on their own

The national newspapers did not report the incident. In subsequent parliamentary debates some majority Sinhalese members told minority Tamil politicians that if Tamils were unhappy in Sri Lanka, they should leave for their 'homeland' in India.[3] A direct quote from a United National Party member is

If there is discrimination in this land which is not their (Tamil) homeland, then why try to stay here. Why not go back home (India) where there would be no discrimination. There are your kovils and Gods. There you have your culture, education, universities, etc. There you are masters of your own fate

- Mr. W.J.M. Lokubandara, MP in Sri Lanka's Parliament, July 1981.[15][Reaction]

Of all the destruction in Jaffna city, it was the destruction of the Jaffna Public Library that was the incident which appeared to cause the most distress to the people of Jaffna.[16][17] Twenty years later, the mayor of Jaffna Nadarajah Raviraj still grieved at the recollection of the flames he saw as a university student.[3]

For Tamils, the devastated library became a symbol of "physical and imaginative violence". The attack was seen as an assault on their aspirations, the value of learning and traditions of academic achievement. The attack also became the rallying point for Tamil rebels to promote the idea to the Tamil populace that their race was targeted for annihilation.[3][7]

President Ranasinghe Premadasa edit

In 1991 the then president of Sri Lanka Ranasinghe Premadasa publicly proclaimed that

During the District Development Council elections in 1981, some of our party members took many people from other parts of the country to the North, created havoc and disrupted the conduct of elections in the North. It is this same group of people who are causing trouble now also. If you wish to find out who burnt the priceless collection of books at the Jaffna Library, you have only to look at the faces of those opposing us.

He was accusing his political opponents within his UNP party, Lalith Athulathmudali and Gamini Dissanayake, who had just brought an impeachment motion against him, as directly involved in the burning of the library in 1981.[15]

President Mahinda Rajapakse edit

In 2006 the president of Sri Lanka Mahinda Rajapakse was quoted as saying,

The UNP is responsible for mass-scale riots and massacres against the Tamils in 1983, vote-rigging in the Northern Development Council elections and [the] burning of the Jaffna library

He was also further quoted as saying in reference to a prominent local Tamil poet, reminding the audience that

Burning the Library sacred to the people of Jaffna was similar to shooting down Lord Buddha

He concluded in that speech that as a cumulative effect of all these atrocities, the peaceful voice of the Tamils is now drowned in the echo of the gun; referring to the rebel LTTE's terrorism.[18]

Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe edit

In 2016, Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe as the leader of the United National Party apologized for the burning of the library which happened during a UNP government. He was interrupted by the shouting of Joint Opposition MPs for which he claimed[19]

We are giving jobs to people. We are opening industries. By the time President Maithripala Sirisena celebrates his second anniversary of assuming office, we will have completed a massive amount of development work in the North. The Jaffna Library was burnt during the time of our government. We regret it. We apologize for it. Do you also apologize for the wrongs you committed?

Government investigation edit

According to Orville H. Schell, Chairman of the Americas Watch Committee, and Head of Amnesty International's 1982 fact-finding mission to Sri Lanka, the UNP government at that time did not institute an independent investigation to establish responsibility for these killings in May and June 1981 and take measures against those responsible.[20][15] No one has been indicted for the crimes yet.

Reopening edit

Jaffna Public Library being rebuilt, with partly burned right-wing. At the front is a statue of Saraswati, the Hindu goddess of learning.

In 1982, one year after the initial destruction, the community sponsored Jaffna Public Library Week and collected thousands of books. Repairs on parts of the building were in progress when the Black July pogrom-induced civil conflict began in 1983. By 1984, the library was fully renovated; however, the library was damaged by bullets and bombs. The military forces were stationed in the Jaffna Fort and the rebels positioned themselves inside the library creating a no man's land as the fighting intensified. In 1985, after an attack on a nearby police station by Tamil rebels, soldiers entered the partially restored building and set off bombs that shredded thousands of books yet again.[21] The library was abandoned with its shell and bullet-pocked walls, blackened with the smoke of burnt books.[3][22]

As an effort to win back the confidence of the Tamil people[7] and also to mollify international opinion, in 1998 under president Chandrika Kumaratunga, the government began the process to rebuild it with contributions from all Sri Lankans[23] and foreign governments.[24] Approximately US$1 million was spent and over 25,000 books were collected. By 2001 the replacement building was complete but the 2003 reopening of the rebuilt library was opposed by the rebel LTTE. This led all 21 members of the Jaffna municipal council, led by Mayor Sellan Kandian, to tender their resignation as a protest against the pressure exerted on them to postpone the reopening.[25] Eventually the library was opened to the public.[26]

See also edit

Notes edit

  • ^ Term: Biblioclasm, which the Oxford English Dictionary defines as the deliberate destruction of books, a cultural offense of the first magnitude. Some of the ancient calamities are the destruction of the Alexandria library in Egypt. A well-known historic event was the destruction of thousands of books made from the bark of trees and bearing the wisdom of Mayan culture, which were burnt in 1562 in Mexico, because a Spanish friar wanted to "cleanse" the natives of "devilish" thoughts. The late 20th century China's Red Guard wiped out artifacts and books in the takeover of Tibet in the 1960s. Pol Pot destroyed many books in the genocide of Cambodia in the 1970s. On August 25, 1992, the Serbs extended "ethnic cleansing" to the National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina in Sarajevo, resulting in 1.5 million books and manuscripts being incinerated in one night.[27]
  • ^ Context: In the post-colonial era the history of immigration patterns of various ethnic communities from India to Sri Lanka has become a dimension that fuels the ethnic conflict. Sinhala nationalists maintain that as they descend from the original "Yaksha" clans of Sri Lanka (later mixed with immigrants from India about 2600 years ago), they have special rights to scarce resources, jobs, and other opportunities. Government policies that have favored this interpretation has run into opposition from the minority Tamils who during the colonial period enjoyed a disproportionately large share of available opportunities. As a response, Tamils too began to emphasize their history of earlier immigration from India. The library held the only original copy of Yalpana Vaipava Malai that documented the rise and fall of the Tamil and Hindu dominated Jaffna kingdom in the north of the island nation.[28]
  • ^ Nancy Murray:  Director, Bill of Rights Education Project with American Civil Liberties Union.[29]
  • ^ Political situation: Sri Lanka's nation-building program became intimately linked with a Sinhalisation of the state directive. It was expected that the minorities would be assimilated into this new Sinhalese Buddhist nation-state. Moreover, the 1956 election marked the beginning of an era of ethnically based party politics.[30] One form of extremism and violence led to the other and by 1981 there were some minority radical Tamil youth who were legitimizing terrorist attacks against the state as a response to alleged state violence.[31]
  • ^ Reaction: Some majority Sinhalese politicians expressed no regrets and used subsequent parliamentary discussion to drive home the message sent by the library's destruction: if the Tamils were unhappy, they should leave Sri Lanka and return to their homeland, India. Thus the attack on the library was used to send a message of point of no return for negotiations and indicated a willingness to engage the political process with further violence. Thus radical elements within both the communities took over the direction of further conflict management and marginalizing those moderates who wanted to resolve the conflict peacefully.[3][15]

References edit

  1. ^ a b "Burning Of The Jaffna Public Library: Whodunit?". Colombo Telegraph. June 1, 2014.
  2. ^ a b c d e நீலவண்ணன். "மீண்டும் யாழ்ப்பாணம் எரிகிறது". Retrieved May 31, 2016.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "Destroying a symbol" (PDF). IFLA. Retrieved February 14, 2007.
  4. ^ "Fire at Kandy public library". BBC. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
  5. ^ Wilson, A.J. Sri Lankan Tamil Nationalism: Its Origins and Development in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries, p.125
  6. ^ a b "History of the Public Library". Dailynews. Archived from the original on March 10, 2007. Retrieved April 13, 2007.
  7. ^ a b c d e f "The reconstruction of the Jaffna library by Dr. Jayantha Seneviratne". PRIU. Archived from the original on December 24, 2005. Retrieved April 17, 2006.
  8. ^ T. Sabaratnam, December 11, 2003, Pirapaharan: Vol.1, Chap.22 The Burning of the Jaffna Library https://sangam.org/pirapaharan-vol-1-chap-22-the-burning-of-the-jaffna-library/
  9. ^ T. Sabaratnam, December 17, 2003 , Pirapaharan: Vol.1, Chap.23 Who Gave the Order? https://sangam.org/pirapaharan-vol-1-chap-23-who-gave-the-order/
  10. ^ "Chronology of events in Sri lanka". BBC. November 5, 2009. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
  11. ^ T. Sabaratnam, December 11, 2003, Pirapaharan: Vol.1, Chap.22 The Burning of the Jaffna Library https://sangam.org/pirapaharan-vol-1-chap-22-the-burning-of-the-jaffna-library/
  12. ^ T. Sabaratnam, December 17, 2003 , Pirapaharan: Vol.1, Chap.23 Who Gave the Order? https://sangam.org/pirapaharan-vol-1-chap-23-who-gave-the-order/
  13. ^ Nancy Murray (1984), Sri Lanka: Racism and the Authoritarian State, Issue no. 1, Race & Class, vol. 26 (Summer 1984)
  14. ^ "EDITORIAL, DAILY NEWS". Daily News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2004. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
  15. ^ a b c d "Over two decades after the burning down of the Jaffna library in Sri Lanka". The Independent. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
  16. ^ Peebles, Patrick (2006) [2006]. "chapter 10". The History of Sri Lanka. The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press. pp. 133 & 134. ISBN 0-313-33205-3.
  17. ^ Ponnambalam, Satchi (1983) [1983]. Sri Lanka: The National Question and the Tamil Liberation Struggle. London: Zed Books Ltd. pp. 207 & 261. ISBN 0-86232-198-0.
  18. ^ "Mahinda promises compensation for high-security zone". BBC. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
  19. ^ "Prime Minister Ranil Wickremesinghe Apologises in Parliament for Destruction of the Jaffna Public Library in 1981 when the UNP was in Power". dbsjeyaraj.com. December 7, 2016. Archived from the original on January 1, 2017. Retrieved January 1, 2017.
  20. ^ "Burning of the Jaffna Library". Amnesty International's 1982 fact-finding mission to Sri Lanka. Tamilnation.org.
  21. ^ "Destruction of Jaffna Public Library - May/June 1981". Tamil Nation. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  22. ^ "Up From The Ashes, A Public Library in Sri Lanka Welcomes New Readers". NPR.org. Retrieved January 9, 2017.
  23. ^ "Building a bridge of peace with bricks and books". The Sunday Times. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
  24. ^ "French government donates books to the Jaffna library". Museum Security. Archived from the original on July 12, 2007. Retrieved May 3, 2007.
  25. ^ "Jaffna library opening put off as Mayor, councilors resign". Tamilnet. Retrieved March 14, 2006.
  26. ^ "Story of Jaffna Library". The Hindu. Archived from the original on December 24, 2007. Retrieved March 15, 2006.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  27. ^ "Fragile Guardians of Culture By Nicholas A. Basbanes". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on January 29, 2007. Retrieved April 16, 2007.
  28. ^ "History from the LTTE". Frontline. Archived from the original on October 23, 2007. Retrieved April 15, 2007.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  29. ^ "Nancy Murray: Hyper-Nationalism and Our Civil Liberties". Democracy Now. Archived from the original on March 17, 2006. Retrieved March 15, 2006.
  30. ^ Bastian, Sunil (1999). The Failure of State Formation, Identity Conflict and Civil Society Responses – The Case of Sri Lanka (PDF) (Thesis). University of Bradford. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 7, 2009. Retrieved March 7, 2022.
  31. ^ "How it Came to This – Learning from Sri Lanka's Civil Wars By Professor John Richardson" (PDF). paradisepoisoned.com. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 11, 2008. Retrieved March 30, 2006.

Further reading edit

  • Rebecca Knuth (2003), Libricide: The Regime-Sponsored Destruction of Books and Libraries in the Twentieth Century. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-98088-X
  • Rebecca Knuth (2006), Burning Books and Leveling Libraries: Extremist Violence and Cultural Destruction. New York: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-99007-9
  • Nicholas A. Basbanes (2003), A Splendor of Letters: The Permanence of Books in an Impermanent World. New York: HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-008287-9

External links edit

9°39′44″N 80°0′42″E / 9.66222°N 80.01167°E / 9.66222; 80.01167