Bureau of Customs

  (Redirected from Bureau of Customs (Philippines))

The Bureau of Customs (abbreviated BoC or BOC; Filipino: Kawanihan ng Adwana) is a Philippine government agency under the Department of Finance. The Bureau of Customs was established on February 6, 1902 by the Insular Government of the Philippine Islands of the United States of America, during the American Colonial Era of the Philippines.[1]

Bureau of Customs
Kawanihan ng Adwana
Bureau of Customs.svg
Emblem of the Bureau of Customs
Philippine Customs Flag.svg
Ensign of the Bureau of Customs
Common nameBureau of Customs
AbbreviationBoC, BOC
Agency overview
FormedFebruary 5, 1902
Jurisdictional structure
National agencyPhilippines
Operations jurisdictionPhilippines
HeadquartersPOM Building, Port Area,
Manila, Philippines
Agency executive
Parent agencyDepartment of Finance
Website
www.customs.gov.ph

FunctionEdit

The Bureau has the following duties under the Customs Modernization and Tariff Act (RA 10863):[citation needed]

(a) Assessment and collection of customs revenues from imported goods and other dues, fees, charges, fines and penalties accruing under the CMTA;

(b) Simplification and harmonization of customs procedures to facilitate movement of goods in international trade;

(c) Border control to prevent entry of smuggled goods;

(d) Prevention and suppression of smuggling and other customs fraud;

(e) Facilitation and security of international trade and commerce through an informed compliance program;

(f) Supervision and control over the entrance and clearance of vessels and aircraft engaged in foreign commerce;

(g) Supervision and control over the handling of foreign mails arriving in the Philippines for the purpose of collecting revenues and preventing the entry of contraband;

(h) Supervision and control on all import and export cargoes, landed or stored in piers, airports, terminal facilities, including container yards and freight stations for the protection of government revenue and prevention of entry of contraband;

(i) Conduct a compensation study with the end view of developing and recommending to the President a competitive compensation and remuneration system to attract and retain highly qualified personnel, while ensuring that the Bureau remains financially sound and sustainable;

(j) Exercise of exclusive original jurisdiction over forfeiture cases under the CMTA; and

(k) Enforcement of the CMTA and all other laws, rules and regulations related to customs administration.

HistoryEdit

 
Customs Building, Manila
 
Manila North Harbor

Prior to European colonization, people in the Philippines traded with others from Southeast Asia. Since money was not yet the medium of exchange, people bartered commodities. The rulers of the barangays collected tributes from the people before they were allowed to engage in trade. The practice of collecting tributes became part of the Customs Law of the Land.

The Spanish colonial eraEdit

During the Spanish Colonial Era of the Philippines, Spain passed three important statutes:

  • Spanish Customs Law which was similar to that of the Indies enforced in the country from 1582 to 1828. It was a concept of ad valorem levied on import and export.
  • A Tariff Board was established which drew up a tariff of fixed values for all imported articles on which ten percent (10%) ad valorem duty was uniformly collected.
  • Another Tariff Law was introduced in 1891, which established the specific duties on all imports and on certain exports and this lasted till the end of the Spanish rule in the Philippines.

The American colonial eraEdit

When the Americans came to the Philippines, the Military Government continued to enforce the Spanish Tariff Code of 1891, which remained in effect until the Philippine Commission enacted the Tariff Revision Law of 1901.

On October 24, 1900, the Philippine Commission passed Act No. 33 abolishing and changing the position of Captain of the Port to Collector of Customs in all ports of entry except the Port of Manila. The designation of the Captain of the Port in the Port of Manila was retained.

When the Civil Government was established in the Philippines, the most important laws passed by the Philippine Commission were the following:

  • Tariff Revision Law of 1902 based on the theory that the laws of Spain were not as comprehensive as the American Customs Laws to conform with the existing conditions of the country.
  • Philippine Administrative Act No. 355 passed by the Philippine Commission on February 6, 1902. The full implementation of this Act, however, was considered inadequate and incomplete, so the Customs Service Act No. 355, called the Philippine Customs Service Act was passed to amend the previous laws. After several modifications and amendments, the Philippine Customs Service finally became a practical counterpart of the American Customs Service.
  • Act No. 357 reorganized the Philippine Customs Service and officially designated the Insular Collector of Customs as Collector of Customs for the Port of Manila.
  • Act No. 625 abolished the Captain of the Port for the Port of Manila.
  • Public Act No. 430 transformed the Philippine Customs Service to a Bureau of Customs and Immigration under the supervision and control of the Department of Finance and Justice.

When the Department of Justice became a separate office from the Department of Finance, the customs service remained under the umbrella of the latter which set-up remained up to this time.

The Commonwealth GovernmentEdit

After the Philippine Commonwealth was established, the Philippine Legislature enacted Commonwealth Act No. 613 forming the Bureau of Immigration as a separate office from the Bureau of Customs.

On May 1, 1947, the Bureau of Customs has as its head the Insular Collector of Customs. He was assisted by the Deputy Insular Collector of Customs. Both officials were concurrently Collector of Customs and the Deputy Collector of Customs of the Port of Manila. The Republic Pursuant to the Executive Order No. 94 of Republic Act No. 52, the President of the Philippines reorganized the different departments, bureaus, offices and agencies of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. Consequently, the Insular Collector of Customs was changed to Collector of Customs for the Port of Manila. The reorganization took effect on July 1, 1947.

In 1957, Congress enacted the Tariff and Customs Code of the Philippines known as Republic Act No. 1937, otherwise known as the “Tariff Law of the Republic of the Philippines”. This took effect on July 1, 1957. The passage of this act by the defunct Congress of the Philippines subject to the provisions of the Laurel-Langley Agreement, became the first official expression of an autonomous Philippine Tariff Policy.

Before the passage of Republic Act 1937, all importations from the United States enjoyed full exemptions pursuant to the Tariff Act No. 1902 which was adopted by Republic Act No. 3 as the Tariff Laws of the Philippines.

The RepublicEdit

Pursuant to the Executive Order No. 94 of Republic Act No. 52, the President of the Philippines reorganized the different departments, bureaus, offices and agencies of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. Consequently, the Insular Collector of Customs was changed to Collector of Customs for the Port of Manila. The reorganization took effect on July 1, 1947.

In 1957, Congress enacted the Tariff and Customs Code of the Philippines known as Republic Act No. 1937, otherwise known as the “Tariff Law of the Republic of the Philippines”. This took effect on July 1, 1957. The passage of this act by the defunct Congress of the Philippines subject to the provisions of the Laurel-Langley Agreement, became the first official expression of an autonomous Philippine Tariff Policy.

2017 drug smuggling scandalEdit

On May 28, 2017, the Bureau of Customs (BOC) seized ₱6.4 billion worth of methamphetamine in two warehouses in Barangay Ugong of Valenzuela, Metro Manila. The BOC said that they acted on an intelligence report from the Chinese General Administration of Customs. The seizure was made in accordance to a Letter of Authority issued by BOC Commissioner Nicanor Faeldon. The BOC officials were accompanied by personnel of the National Bureau of Investigation and Philippine Drug Enforcement Agency who inspected the warehouses found the contraband in five metal cylinders.[2]

During the Senate and House hearings, details on how the shipment was smuggled into the Philippines were given. On May 16, 2017, the ship Guang Ping Voyage No. 1719S, which carried the container with the methamphetamine arrived at the Manila International Container Port (MICP) in Tondo, Manila. The cargo of the ship was lodged on the next day by Customs broker, Teejay Marcellana, who claims that the shipment contained kitchenware. The following day, the importer of the goods, EMT Trading, which is owned by Eirene Tatad, paid the customs and duties for the shipment. The firm says that they were not aware of the illegal drugs inside the shipment. The shipment was then passed through the green lane where shipments were not scanned through X-ray. According to protocol, shipments accepted by first-time importers or from China were not allowed to be passed through the green lane. A truck registered under Golden Strike Logistics transported the container from the MICP on May 23.[3] Chinese businessman Richard Tan, also known as Chen Ju Long, narrated during the congressional hearing that he called the Bureau of Customs at 11pm after he was informed about the illegal drugs shipment by Zhang Xiaohui of the Chinese General Administration of Customs. Customs broker, Mark Taguba claims that Tan was behind the smuggling of the drugs who says that he was hired by the businessman to "fix" the shipment through a middle man named Kenneth Dong.[3]

The Philippine Senate Blue Ribbon Committee investigated and called the BOC personnel with links to the case as either incompetent or corrupt.[4]

OrganizationEdit

Office of the Commissioner (OCOM)Edit

The Bureau of Customs is headed by a Commissioner, who is responsible for the general administration and management of the bureau. The Commissioner is assisted by six (6) Deputy Commissioners and an Assistant Commissioner, who supervises the Internal Administration Group, Revenue Collection Monitoring Group, Assessment and Operations Coordination Group, Intelligence Group, Enforcement Group, Management Information System and Technology Group and Post Clearance Audit Group.

Customs DistrictsEdit

The Bureau of Customs has 17 Customs Districts (as enumerated below). Each Customs District is headed and supervised by a District Collector, assisted by as many Deputy District Collectors as may be necessary. A Customs District has a designated “principal port of entry”. Generally, a principal port of entry has its “sub-port(s) of entry”.

Customs District Principal Port of Entry
Customs District I Port of San Fernando in San Fernando, La Union
Customs District II-A Port of Manila (POM) in Port Area, Manila
Customs District II-B Manila International Container Port (MICP) in Tondo, Manila
Customs District III Ninoy Aquino International Airport (NAIA) in Pasay City
Customs District IV Port of Batangas in Batangas City
Customs District V Port of Legazpi in Legazpi City
Customs District VI Port of Iloilo in Iloilo City
Customs District VII Port of Cebu in Cebu City
Customs District VIII Port of Tacloban in Tacloban City
Customs District IX Port Surigao in Surigao City
Customs District X Port of Cagayan De Oro in Cagayan De Oro City
Customs District XI Port of Zamboanga in Zamboanga City
Customs District XII Port of Davao in Davao City
Customs District XIII Port of Subic in Subic, Zambales
Customs District XIV Port of Clark in Clark, Pampanga
Customs District XV Port of Aparri in Aparri, Cagayan
Customs District XVI Port of Limay in Bataan

Customs District XVII Port of Limay

CommissionersEdit

 
Isidro Lapeña was Customs Commissioner from 2017-2018.
 
Juan Ponce Enrile was Customs Commissioner from 1966–1968.
Name Term
Start End
Insular Collectors of the Port of Manila (1902-1946)
Morgan Anhister 1902 1916
J.S. Stanley 1916 1918
Vicente Aldenese 1918 1937
Guillermo Gomez 1937 1945
Melencio Fabros 1945 1946
Commissioners (1946–present)
Alfredo de Leon 1947 1950
Alfredo Jacinto 1950 1954
Jaime Velasquez 1954 1955
Manuel P. Manahan 1955 1957
Eleuterio Capapas 1957 1960
Timoteo Y. Aseron 1960
Eleuterio Capapas 1960 1961
Rolando G. Geotina 1961
Cesar Climaco 1962
Norberto Romualdez 1962 1963
Rodrigo D. Perez, Jr. 1963 1964
Jose Lingad 1964
Alfredo D. de Joya 1964 1965
Pablo C. Mariano 1965
Jacinto T. Gavino 1965 1966
Juan Ponce Enrile 1966 1968
Rolando G. Geotina 1968 1975
Alfredo Pio de Roda, Jr. 1975 1977
Ramon J. Farolan 1977 1986
Wigberto Tañada 1986 1987
Alexander A. Padilla 1987
Salvador M. Mison 1987 1991
Tomas Apacible 1991 1992
Guillermo L. Parayno, Jr. 1992 1998
Pedro C. Mendoza, Jr. 1998
Nelson A. Tan 1998 1999
Renato A. Ampil 1999 2001
Titus V. Villanueva 2001 2002
Antonio M. Bernardo 2002 2004
George M. Jereos 2004 2005
Alberto D. Lina 2005
Alexander M. Arevalo July 2005 December 2005
Napoleon M. Morales January 2006 July 2010
Angelito A. Alvarez July 2010 September 2011
Rozanno Rufino B. Biazon September 2011 2013
John Philip Sevilla December 2013 April 2015
Alberto D. Lina April 2015 June 30, 2016
Nicanor Faeldon[5] June 30, 2016 August 30, 2017
Isidro Lapeña August 30, 2017 October 31, 2018
Rey Leonardo Guerrero October 31, 2018 present
References:[6][7][8]


See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Speech of President Corazon Aquino on the 86th Foundation Anniversary of the Bureau of Customs, February 5, 1988". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Presidential Museum and Library. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  2. ^ "Customs seizes P6.4-B worth of shabu in Valenzuela". Rappler. 28 May 2017. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  3. ^ a b Gavilan, Jodesz (14 August 2017). "TIMELINE: How P6.4-B worth of shabu was smuggled into PH from China". Rappler. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  4. ^ Parpan, Lara; Lardizapal, Cecille (31 July 2017). "Senate alleges corruption and incompetence in customs bureau over biggest haul yet of shabu smuggled into PH". CNN Philippines. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
  5. ^ "Faeldon is Customs chief: source". ABS-CBN News. 31 May 2016. Retrieved 31 May 2016.
  6. ^ "Commissioners". Bureau of Customs. Archived from the original on June 3, 2013. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  7. ^ "Sevilla quits as Customs chief". Manila: ABS-CBN News. 23 April 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.
  8. ^ "Alberto Lina is new Customs Chief". Bureau of Customs. 28 April 2015. Retrieved 24 August 2015.

External linksEdit