Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is a national park in Sumatra, Indonesia. The park located along the Bukit Barisan mountain range, has a total area of 3,568 km2, and spans three provinces: Lampung, Bengkulu, and South Sumatra. Together with Gunung Leuser and Kerinci Seblat national parks it forms a World Heritage Site, Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra.[1]

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan
IUCN category II (national park)
Map showing the location of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Map showing the location of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Bukit Barisan Selatan NP
Location in Sumatra
Map showing the location of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Map showing the location of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park
Bukit Barisan Selatan NP
Bukit Barisan Selatan NP (Indonesia)
LocationSumatra, Indonesia
Coordinates5°26′S 104°20′E / 5.433°S 104.333°E / -5.433; 104.333Coordinates: 5°26′S 104°20′E / 5.433°S 104.333°E / -5.433; 104.333
Area356,800 hectares (882,000 acres; 3,568 km2)
Established1982 (1982)
Governing bodyMinistry of Environment and Forestry
World Heritage site2004
Criteriavii, ix, x
Designated2004 (28th session)
Part ofTropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra
Reference no.1167
State PartyIndonesia
Endangered2011 (2011)–present

Flora and faunaEdit

The national park stretching along the Bukit Barisan mountain range is in average only 45 km wide but 350 km long. The northern part is mountainous with its highest point at Gunung Pulung (1,964 m), while its southern section is a peninsula.[1] It is covered by montane forest, lowland tropical forest, coastal forest and mangrove forest.[2]

Plants in the park include Nipa palm, Casuarina equisetifolia, Anisoptera curtisii and Gonystylus bancanus, as well as Sonneratia, Pandanus, Shorea and Dipterocarpus species. Large flowers in the park include the Rafflesia arnoldii, Amorphophallus decus-silvae, Amorphophallus titanum and the world's largest orchid the Grammatophyllum speciosum.[2]

The park is home to many endangered and threatened species, including:

Other animals in the park are the Malayan tapir, siamang, Sumatran surili, sun bear and lesser mouse-deer.[2] There are over 300 species of bird in the park, like the critically endangered Sumatran ground-cuckoo.[3]

Conservation and threatsEdit

The area was first protected by the Dutch East Indies government in 1935, that declared the South Sumatra I Nature Reserve.[4] The area became a national park in 1982.[5]

Since the 1970s there have been numerous squatters established within the park, and despite forced evictions in the early 1980s, their numbers increased since 1998. In 2006 it was estimated that the squatter encroachment by about 127,000 people covered an area of 55,000 ha. For the period between 1972 and 2006, it is estimated that 63,000 ha of primary forest cover has been lost.[4] This represents 20% of the forests lost to illegal agriculture. The World Wide Fund for Nature found that more than 450 km2 of park land is being used for growing coffee, and the organisation is now working with multinational coffee companies to help them avoid buying illegally grown coffee.[6]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b "Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra". UNESCO. Retrieved 2007-09-30.
  2. ^ a b c "Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park". Ministry of Forestry of Indonesia. Archived from the original on December 19, 2013. Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  3. ^ WWF: "Projects: Bukit Barisan Selatan", retrieved 18 December 2013
  4. ^ a b Levang, Patrice et al. (2012): "Landless Farmers, Sly Opportunists, and Manipulated Voters: The Squatters of the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park" in Conservation and Society, vol.10, issue 3, pg.243-255.
  5. ^ WWF Indonesia: "Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park", Retrieved 18 December 2013.
  6. ^ Leow, Claire (January 19, 2007). "Nestlé to scrutinize Indonesia coffee amid wildlife-endangerment fears". International Herald Tribune. Archived from the original on January 22, 2007. Retrieved June 12, 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)