Bufo bankorensis

Bufo bankorensis (vernacular names: Central Formosa toad, Bankor toad) is a species of toad in the family Bufonidae.[2] It is endemic to Taiwan[2][3][4] and widely distributed at elevations up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) above sea level.[3][4] There has been doubts about its separatedness from Bufo gargarizans from China and even other species,[2] but it is currently considered a valid species.[2][3][4]

Bufo bankorensis
Bufo bankorensis.jpg
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Amphibia
Order: Anura
Family: Bufonidae
Genus: Bufo
B. bankorensis
Binomial name
Bufo bankorensis
Barbour, 1908
Bufo bankorensis Taroko Canyon Taiwan.jpg


Bufo bankorensis is a large toad that can reach 15 cm (5.9 in),[3] even 20 cm (7.9 in) in snout–vent length.[4] Females are larger than males.[4] The snout is short. Dorsolateral ridge is absent. The tympanum is not prominent. The parotoid glands are kidney-shaped. Skin is rough and covered with pointed tubercles of various size. Coloration is light brown color with orange, yellow, or black markings.[3]

Habitat and conservationEdit

Bufo bankorensis are found in a range of habitats at elevations up to 3,000 m (9,800 ft):[3][4] broadleaf forests, cultivated fields, mixed forests, and orchards.[1] They can be seen foraging on insects under street lights during rainy nights.[3][4] Breeding can take place in both streams and pools.[1][3][4] One study found that a temperate population could breed throughout the year, while a subtropical population only bred during the cooler part of year, from September to March.[5]

While Bufo bankorensis is a very common species, habitat loss remains a threat to it. It is also collected for food and traditional medicine.[1]


  1. ^ a b c d Lue Kuangyang; Chou Wenhao (2004). "Bufo bankorensis". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2004: e.T54582A11154827. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2004.RLTS.T54582A11154827.en.
  2. ^ a b c d Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h Lue, Kuang-Yang. "Bufo bankorensis". BiotaTaiwanica. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h Yang Yiru (2014). "Bufo bankorensis Barbour, 1908". In K. T. Shao (ed.). Taiwan Encyclopedia of Life (in Chinese). Forest Service and Academia Sinica. Retrieved 9 November 2017.
  5. ^ Huang, Wen-San; Yu, John Yuh-Lin (2005). "Reproductive characteristics of Bufo bankorensis at two elevations in Taiwan". Zoological Science. 22 (1): 111–117. doi:10.2108/zsj.22.111. PMID 15684591. S2CID 8418427.