Budget of NASA
As a federal agency, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) receives its funding from the annual federal budget passed by the United States Congress. The following charts detail the amount of federal funding allotted to NASA each year over its history to pursue programs in aeronautics research, robotic spaceflight, technology development, and human space exploration programs. As of 2018[update], NASA employs 17,336 people.
|Formed||July 29, 1958|
|Annual budget||US$20.7 billion (about 0.489% of total FY2018 budget at about US$4 trillion)|
Since its inception, the United States has spent $601.31 billion (in nominal dollars) on NASA. When adjusted for inflation the cumulative figure is $1.32 trillion, an average of $22.03 billion per year over its entire history.
Notes for table:
Sources for a part of these data: U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) (needs proper citation-link, numbers here differ from NASA Pocket Statistics),
Air Force Association's Air Force Magazine 2007 Space Almanac
Secondary references:   [full citation needed]
Cost of Apollo programEdit
NASA's budget peaked in 1964–66 when it consumed roughly 4% of all federal spending. The agency was building up to the first Moon landing and the Apollo program was a top national priority, consuming more than half of NASA's budget and driving NASA's workforce to more than 34,000 employees and 375,000 contractors from industry and academia.
In 1973, NASA submitted congressional testimony reporting the total cost of Project Apollo as $25.4 billion (about $153 billion in 2018 dollars).
Economic impact of NASA fundingEdit
A November 1971 study of NASA released by MRIGlobal (formerly Midwest Research Institute) of Kansas City, Missouri concluded that "the $25 billion in 1958 dollars spent on civilian space R & D during the 1958–1969 period has returned $52.5 billion through 1971 – and will continue to produce payoffs through 1987, at which time the total payoff will have been $181 billion. The discounted rate of return for this investment will have been 33 percent."
Other statistics on NASA's economic impact may be found in the 1976 Chase Econometrics Associates, Inc. reports and backed by the 1989 Chapman Research report, which examined 259 non-space applications of NASA technology during an eight-year period (1976–1984) and found more than:
- $21.6 billion in sales and benefits
- 352,000 (mostly skilled) jobs created or saved
- $355 million in federal corporate income taxes
A 2013 report prepared by the Tauri Group for NASA showed that NASA invested nearly $5 billion in U.S. manufacturing in FY 2012, with nearly $2 billion of that going to the technology sector. NASA also develops and commercializes technology, some of which can generate over $1 billion in revenue per year over multiple years
In 2014, the American Helicopter Society criticized NASA and the government for reducing the annual rotorcraft budget from $50 million in 2000 to $23 million in 2013, impacting commercial opportunities.
The 2017 Economic Impact Report prepared by NASA for their Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) and Small Business Technology Transfer (STTR) awards found that for FY 2016, these programs created 2,412 jobs, $474 million in economic output, and $57.3 million in fiscal impact with an initial investment of $172.9 million.
The perceived national security threat posed by early Soviet leads in spaceflight drove NASA's budget to its peak, both in real inflation-adjusted dollars and in a percentage of the total federal budget (4.41% in 1966). But the U.S. victory in the Space Race — landing men on the Moon — erased the perceived threat, and NASA was unable to sustain political support for its vision of an even more ambitious Space Transportation System entailing reusable Earth-to-orbit shuttles, a permanent space station, lunar bases, and a manned mission to Mars. Only a scaled-back Space Shuttle was approved, and NASA's funding leveled off at just under 1% in 1976, then declined to 0.75% in 1986. After a brief increase to 1.01% in 1992, it declined to about 0.49% in 2013.
To help with public perception and to raise awareness regarding the widespread benefits of NASA-funded programs and technologies, NASA instituted the Spinoffs publication. This was a direct offshoot of the Technology Utilization Program Report, a "publication dedicated to informing the scientific community about available NASA technologies, and ongoing requests received for supporting information." according to the NASA Spinoff about page the technologies in these reports created interest in the technology transfer concept, its successes, and its use as a public awareness tool. The reports generated such keen interest by the public that NASA decided to make them into an attractive publication. Thus, the first four-color edition of Spinoff was published in 1976.
The American public, on average, believes NASA's budget has a much larger share of the federal budget than it actually does. A 1997 poll reported that Americans had an average estimate of 20% for NASA's share of the federal budget, far higher than the actual 0.5% to under 1% that has been maintained throughout the late '90s and first decade of the 2000s. It is estimated that most Americans spent less than $9 on NASA through personal income tax in 2009.
However, there has been a recent movement to communicate discrepancy between perception and reality of NASA's budget as well as lobbying to return the funding back to the 1970–1990 level. The United States Senate Science Committee met in March 2012 where astrophysicist Neil deGrasse Tyson testified that "Right now, NASA's annual budget is half a penny on your tax dollar. For twice that—a penny on a dollar—we can transform the country from a sullen, dispirited nation, weary of economic struggle, to one where it has reclaimed its 20th-century birthright to dream of tomorrow." Inspired by Tyson's advocacy and remarks, the Penny4NASA campaign was initiated in 2012 by John Zeller and advocates the doubling of NASA's budget to one percent of the Federal Budget, or one "penny on the dollar."
Political opposition to NASA fundingEdit
Public opposition to NASA and its budget dates back to the Apollo era. Critics have cited more immediate concerns, like social welfare programs, as reasons to cut funding to the agency. Furthermore, they have questioned the return on investment (ROI) feasibility of NASA's research and development. In 1968, physicist Ralph Lapp argued that if NASA really did have a positive ROI, it should be able to sustain itself as a private company, and not require federal funding. More recently, critics have faulted NASA for sinking money into the Space Shuttle program, reducing funding available for its long-term missions to Mars and deep space. Manned missions to Mars have also been denounced for their inefficiency and large cost compared to unmanned missions. In the late 1990s climate change skeptic political groups opposed the Earth science aspects of NASA spending, arguing that spending on Earth science programs such as climate research was in pursuit of political agendas.
The NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017 was signed into law on March 21, 2017, and marked some changes to NASA's mission. It reaffirms interest in:
- long-term deep space exploration
- manned missions to the Moon by 2021 and Mars by 2033
- supersonic and hypersonic aircraft development
- exploration of Europa
- maintenance of current initiatives including the James Webb Space Telescope, the Orion spacecraft, the Space Launch System, and the International Space Station
The law also expanded the TREAT Astronauts Act, which provides medical diagnostic and treatment services to former astronauts. Absent from the law is any mention of NASA's earth science programs, which some critics believe is a politically motivated move.
The proposed NASA Authorization Act of 2018 would increase NASA's budget from $19.5 billion in FY 2017 to $20.74 billion in FY 2018, and again to $21.21 billion in FY 2019. This act supports the initiatives outlined in the NASA Transition Authorization Act of 2017, and adds a detailed outline of goals regarding NASA's earth science division.
- 1961—Apollo mission funding PL 87-98 A
- 1970—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Research and Development Act, PL 91-119
- 1984—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, PL 98-361
- 1988—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, PL 100-685
- 2005—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005, PL 109-155
- 2010—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2010
- 2014—(proposed) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2014 (H.R. 4412; 113th Congress)
- 2017—National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017, PL 115-10
- 2018—(proposed) National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2018 (H.R. 5503; 115th Congress)
- "Workforce Profile". NASA. Retrieved 17 September 2018.
- "It's Over. Trump Signs FY2019 Appropriations Bill". Retrieved 2019-02-25.
- White House Office of Management and Budget "Table 1.1—Summary of Receipts, Outlays, and Surpluses or Deficits (-): 1789–2023"
- % of total federal expenditures from: https://www.theguardian.com/news/datablog/2010/feb/01/nasa-budgets-us-spending-space-travel
- 1999–2010 based on federal outlays from: Federal budget (United States)#Total outlays in recent budget submissions
- "2011 Budget Overview" (PDF). nasa.gov.
- Berger, Brian (2011-04-13). "U.S. Budget Compromise Includes $18.5 Billion for NASA". Space.com. Retrieved 30 January 2012.
- 2015 NASA Budget Estimates
- "2016 NASA Budget Estimates" (PDF).
- Clark, Stephen (2014-12-14). "NASA gets budget hike in spending bill passed by Congress". Spaceflight Now. Retrieved 2014-12-15.
- "Agency fact sheet: NASA's FY 2017 budget request" (PDF). 2016. Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "S.442 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017". Retrieved March 21, 2017.
- "NASA receives $20.7 billion in omnibus appropriations bill". Science News. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- "NASA's FY 2020 Budget". The Planetary Society. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- Levine, Arnold S. (1983). "Chapter 4: The NASA Acquisition Process: Contracting For Research and Development". Managing NASA in the Apollo era : an administrative history of the U.S. civilian space program, 1958-1969. Scientific and Technical Information Branch, National Aeronautics and Space Administration. OCLC 317074611.
- United States. Congress. House. Committee on Science and Astronautics. (1973). 1974 NASA authorization: hearings, Ninety-third Congress, first session, on H.R. 4567. Page 1271. Washington: U.S. Govt. Print. Off.
- "Economic Impact of Stimulated Economic Activity.". nasa.gov. Retrieved 14 Nov. 2018.
- "The Economic Impact of NASA R&D Spending: Preliminary Executive Summary.", April 1975. Also: "Relative Impact of NASA Expenditure on the Economy.", March 18, 1975
- Bezdek, Roger H.; Wendling, Robert M. (January 9, 1992). "Sharing out NASA's spoils" (PDF). Nature. Nature Publishing Group. 355 (6356): 105–106. Bibcode:1992Natur.355..105B. doi:10.1038/355105a0. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- "NASA Socio-Economic Impacts". National Institute of Standards and Technology. Retrieved 14 Nov. 2018.
- Hirschberg, Mike. "Investing in Tomorrow’s Civil Rotorcraft" American Helicopter Society, July–August 2014. Accessed: 7 October 2014. Archived on 7 October 2014
- "2017 Economic Impact Report". nasa.gov. Retrieved 14 Nov. 2018.
- "About Spinoff". NASA. n.d. Archived from the original on 2014-12-08. Retrieved 26 Nov 2014.
- Launius, Roger D. "Public opinion polls and perceptions of US human spaceflight". Division of Space History, National Air and Space Museum, Smithsonian Institution.
- "Personal Income Tax Paid To NASA In 2009 By Income Level". NASACost.com.
- "Past, Present, and Future of NASA – U.S. Senate Testimony". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012.
- "Past, Present, and Future of NASA – U.S. Senate Testimony (Video)". Hayden Planetarium. 7 Mar 2012. Retrieved 4 Dec 2012.
- "Why We Fight – Penny4NASA". Penny4NASA. Retrieved 30 Nov 2012.
- "A Case for Cutting NASA's Budget". The New Republic. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- "NASA's Shuttle Program Cost $209 Billion — Was it Worth It?". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- "Should NASA Ditch Manned Missions to Mars?". Space.com. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
- Eric Berger (October 29, 2015) Republicans outraged over NASA earth science programs… that Reagan began. Ars Technica
- Cruz, Ted (2017-03-21). "S.442 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- Mosher, Dave (March 21, 2017). "Trump just signed a law that maps out NASA's long-term future — but a critical element is missing". Business Insider. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- "SST Committee Approves Bipartisan NASA Authorization Act of 2018". Committee on Science, Space, and Technology. 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- Babin, Brian (2018-04-17). "Text - H.R.5503 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2018". www.congress.gov. Retrieved 2018-12-05.
- National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005, PL 109-155 Archived 2010-12-10 at the Wayback Machine, US Government, December 30, 2005.
- "H.R. 4412 – Summary". United States Congress. Retrieved 9 June 2014.
- Ted, Cruz (21 March 2017). "Text - S.442 - 115th Congress (2017-2018): National Aeronautics and Space Administration Transition Authorization Act of 2017". www.congress.gov.
- Inflation Index
- Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2009
- Budget of the United States Government, Fiscal Year 2008
- The National Debt in FY 2007 – $406 Billion spent on interest payments compared to NASA at $16 Billion, Education at $61 Billion, and Department of Transportation at $56 Billion.
- Medicare, Medicaid, State Children's Health Insurance Program information
- U.S. Census Clock
- American Association for the Advancement of Science (Research and Development programs budget extract)
- NASA Appropriations and Authorizations: A Fact Sheet Congressional Research Service
- "NASA chief set to cut projects"[permanent dead link] Orlando Sentinel – Apr. 6, 2007
- "NASA budget $550M less than hoped" Florida Today – Feb. 15, 2007
- "NASA, other agencies denied pay raise" MSNBC and Space.com – Feb. 15, 2007
- "JPL faces program cuts with fewer NASA funds" Pasadena Star News – Feb. 7, 2007
- "NASA Spending Plan Reflects White House Policy" Space News/Space.com – Feb. 5, 2007
- "Highlights of NASA's FY 2008 Budget Request" Remarks by NASA Administrator Michael D. Griffin's during Feb. 5, 2007 press conference at NASA Headquarters
- "NASA's FY 2008 Budget Full Report (4.2Mb PDF) – Feb. 5, 2007
- "NASA's FY 2008 Budget" Budget Summary (710Kb PDF) – Feb. 5, 2007
- "NASA FY 2008 Budget" Presentation Chart (743 Kb PDF) – Feb. 5, 2007
- "Congress may trim NASA budget" Florida Today – Feb. 4, 2007
- "Should NASA be a spending priority?" The Position Page: The Blog of the Orlando Sentinel Editorial Board – Feb. 2, 2007
- "Coalition for Space Exploration Statement Regarding U.S. House of Representatives Budget Proposal" SpaceRef.com – Feb. 1, 2007
- "NASA faces budget cutbacks" Florida Today – Feb. 1, 2007
- "House budget proposal could delay shuttle replacement" Space News/Space.com – Jan. 31, 2007
- "NASA announces FY 08 budget press conference" NASA Media Advisory #M07-014 – Jan. 30, 2007
- "Planetary Society petitions President to save space science" SpaceRef.com – Jan. 22, 2007
- "IFPTE Calls for Balanced and Transparent NASA Budget Preserving Science & Aero, Core Technical Capabilities Achievable Within FY06 baseline" SpaceRef.com – Jan. 2, 2007
- NASA's portion of the Budget of the United States Government, FY 2007 Office of Management and Budget (through the U.S. Government Printing Office)
- NASA 2006 Strategic Plan
- NASA 2006 Pocket Statistics
- NASA FY2006 Budget breakdown
- NASA FY2006 Performance and Accountability Report
- H.R. 3070 – National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act of 2005 (from Congressional Budget Office, July 20, 2005 – Cost estimate for the bill as reported by the House Committee on Science on July 18, 2005)
- NASA Previous Years (FY2005, FY2004 and FY2003) Performance and Accountability Reports
- NASA FY2003 and Previous Years' Budget
- NASA Strategy based on long-term affordability Budget Chart – Jan. 14, 2004
- Midwest Research Institute homepage
- Table 1 – NASA's budget compared to other federal government expenditures (1999 Data)
- Table 2 – NASA's budget compared to various consumer expenditures (1997 Data)
- Table 3 – NASA's budget compared to the budgets of the 50 state governments (1997 Data)
- Table 4 – NASA's budget compared to revenues of various large corporations (1998 Data)
- NASA – Budget Documents, Strategic Plans and Performance Reports (NASA – Budget Information)