Brown County, Texas

Brown County is a county in west-central Texas. As of the 2020 census, the population was 38,095.[1][2] Its county seat is Brownwood.[3] The county was founded in 1856 and organized in 1858.[4] It is named for Henry Stevenson Brown, a commander at the Battle of Velasco, an early conflict between Texians and Mexicans.

Brown County
The Brown County Courthouse in Brownwood
The Brown County Courthouse in Brownwood
Map of Texas highlighting Brown County
Location within the U.S. state of Texas
Map of the United States highlighting Texas
Texas's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 31°46′N 99°00′W / 31.77°N 99°W / 31.77; -99
Country United States
State Texas
Founded1858
Named forHenry Stevenson Brown
SeatBrownwood
Largest cityBrownwood
Area
 • Total957 sq mi (2,480 km2)
 • Land944 sq mi (2,440 km2)
 • Water13 sq mi (30 km2)  1.3%
Population
 (2020)
 • Total38,095
 • Density40/sq mi (15/km2)
Time zoneUTC−6 (Central)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−5 (CDT)
Congressional district11th
Websitewww.browncountytx.org

The Brownwood, TX Micropolitan Statistical Area includes all of Brown County.

HistoryEdit

Indigenous peoples lived here for thousands of years before Europeans entered the area. The historic inhabitants were the Penteka (also known to the Europeans as Comanche), who occupied this area at the time of European colonization.[5] In 1721, the Marqués de San Miguel de Aguayo expedition is said to have passed through the county.[6]

In 1838, land surveys were made of the area.[5] In 1856, Welcome W. Chandler from Mississippi became the first settler, arriving with his family, John H. Fowler, and seven slaves. They built a log cabin on Pecan Bayou. The county was formed from Comanche and Travis Counties. It is named after Henry Stevenson Brown, an American pioneer from Kentucky.[5][7] In 1858, the county was formally organized.[7] Brownwood was designated as the county seat.[8]

In 1874, John Wesley Hardin and gang celebrated his 21st birthday in Brown and Comanche Counties. Deputy Charles Webb drew his gun, provoking a gunfight that ended Webb's life. A lynch mob was formed, but Hardin and his family were put into protective custody. The mob broke into the jail and hanged his brother Joe and two cousins. Hardin fled.[9] The Fort Worth-Brownwood stage was robbed five times in two months of 1875.[5] Oil was discovered on the H. M. Barnes farm near Grosvenor in 1879.[5]Texas Rangers killed two fence cutters in 1886, in the ongoing battle between farmers and ranchers over fencing open range.[5] By the next year, cotton had become the county's most important crop.[5] Pulitzer-Prize winner Katherine Ann Porter was born in 1890 at Indian Creek.[10] The Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railway was built to the county in 1892.[5][11] The Gulf, Colorado and Santa Fe Railway was built into Brownwood in 1895.[5] In 1903, the GC&SF extended the line to Menard.

Also in 1903, the county voted itself a dry county. Alcohol did not become legal again until the 1950s.[5]

In 1909, the boll weevil moved into the county, destroying the cotton economy.[5] The first commercial production of oil came from the efforts of Jack Pippen at Brownwood in 1917.[5] The first large field began producing from a depth of 1,100 feet (340 m) in 1919 near Cross Cut.[5] In 1926, an oil boom followed the success of the White well on Jim Ned Creek; some 600 wells were drilled in several fields in the county during this time.[5] By 1991, more than 50,561,000 barrels (8,038,600 m3) of oil had been taken from Brown County lands since 1917.[5]

In 1940, work began on Camp Bowie.[12] The first German prisoners of war arrived in 1943; many had been members of Erwin Rommel's Afrika Korps.[13]

In 1889, Howard Payne College[14] and Daniel Baker College[15] were established in Brownwood. They combined under the name Howard Payne College in 1953.[5]

GeographyEdit

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 957 sq mi (2,480 km2), of which 13 sq mi (34 km2) (1.3%) are covered by water.[16]

Major highwaysEdit

Adjacent countiesEdit

DemographicsEdit

Historical population
Census Pop.
1860244
1870544123.0%
18808,4141,446.7%
189011,42135.7%
190016,01940.3%
191022,93543.2%
192021,682−5.5%
193026,38221.7%
194025,924−1.7%
195028,60710.3%
196024,728−13.6%
197025,8774.6%
198033,05727.7%
199034,3714.0%
200037,6749.6%
201038,1061.1%
202038,0950.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[17]
1850–2010[18] 2010[19] 2020[20]
Brown County, Texas - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[19] Pop 2020[20] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 28,478 26,672 74.73% 70.01%
Black or African American alone (NH) 1,303 1,353 3.42% 3.55%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 170 134 0.45% 0.35%
Asian alone (NH) 160 269 0.42% 0.71%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 14 27 0.04% 0.07%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 36 96 0.09% 0.25%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 492 1,333 1.29% 3.50%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 7,453 8,211 15.95% 21.55%
Total 38,106 38,095 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

As of the census[21] of 2000, 37,674 people, 14,306 households, and 10,014 families resided in the county. The population density was 40 people per square mile (15 per km2). The 17,889 housing units averaged 19 per square mile (7 per km2). The racial makeup of the county was 87.35% White, 4.01% Black or African American, 0.53% Native American, 0.37% Asian, 6.08% from other races, and 1.66% from two or more races. About 15.38% of the population was Hispanic or Latino of any race.

Of the 14,306 households in the county, 31.40% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 10.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.00% were not families. About 26.50% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 2.98.

In the county, the population was distributed as 25.80% under the age of 18, 10.10% from 18 to 24, 24.70% from 25 to 44, 22.90% from 45 to 64, and 16.40% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100, there were 97.40 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.10 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $30,974, and for a family was $37,725. Males had a median income of $30,169 versus $19,647 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,624. About 14.00% of families and 17.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over.

MediaEdit

The Brownwood Bulletin is the local daily newspaper, an American Consolidated Media company that also serves media online through its website. Brown County is part of the Abilene/Sweetwater/Brownwood television media market. Area television stations include KRBC-TV, KTXS-TV, KXVA, KTAB-TV, and KIDU-LD.

CommunitiesEdit

CitiesEdit

TownEdit

Census-designated placesEdit

Unincorporated communitiesEdit

Ghost townsEdit

PoliticsEdit

United States presidential election results for Brown County, Texas[22]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 13,698 85.73% 2,107 13.19% 174 1.09%
2016 12,017 85.68% 1,621 11.56% 388 2.77%
2012 11,895 85.29% 1,904 13.65% 148 1.06%
2008 12,052 79.95% 2,822 18.72% 200 1.33%
2004 11,640 81.67% 2,523 17.70% 90 0.63%
2000 9,609 74.37% 3,138 24.29% 173 1.34%
1996 6,524 55.35% 4,138 35.11% 1,125 9.54%
1992 5,313 42.07% 4,264 33.76% 3,053 24.17%
1988 6,810 58.68% 4,763 41.04% 33 0.28%
1984 8,468 67.29% 4,070 32.34% 47 0.37%
1980 6,515 56.41% 4,867 42.14% 167 1.45%
1976 4,483 44.41% 5,577 55.25% 35 0.35%
1972 5,990 72.76% 2,171 26.37% 72 0.87%
1968 2,997 34.84% 3,999 46.49% 1,606 18.67%
1964 2,070 28.38% 5,214 71.49% 9 0.12%
1960 3,512 48.26% 3,720 51.11% 46 0.63%
1956 3,664 53.26% 3,195 46.44% 21 0.31%
1952 4,635 55.02% 3,778 44.85% 11 0.13%
1948 1,071 16.53% 5,059 78.06% 351 5.42%
1944 430 12.13% 2,426 68.45% 688 19.41%
1940 663 12.76% 4,523 87.06% 9 0.17%
1936 448 10.05% 3,971 89.08% 39 0.87%
1932 330 7.54% 4,024 91.98% 21 0.48%
1928 2,033 50.46% 1,992 49.44% 4 0.10%
1924 396 9.99% 3,467 87.48% 100 2.52%
1920 397 16.30% 1,708 70.11% 331 13.59%
1916 181 7.95% 1,986 87.22% 110 4.83%
1912 115 6.81% 1,433 84.84% 141 8.35%

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Brown County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2022.
  2. ^ "Brown County, Texas". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved February 23, 2021.
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  4. ^ "Texas: Individual County Chronologies". Texas Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2008. Archived from the original on May 13, 2015. Retrieved May 20, 2015.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Leffler, John. "Brown County, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Society. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  6. ^ Chipman, Donald E; Joseph, Harriet Denise (1999). Notable Men and Women of Spanish Texas. University of Texas Press. pp. 83–102. ISBN 978-0-292-71218-8.
  7. ^ a b Aston, B W; Taylor, Ira Donathon (1997). Along the Texas Forts Trail. University of North Texas Press. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-57441-035-8.
  8. ^ "Brownwood, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  9. ^ Metz, Leon Claire (1998). "Charlie Webb Goes Down". John Wesley Hardin: Dark Angel of Texas. University of Oklahoma Press. pp. 133–138. ISBN 978-0-8061-2995-2.
  10. ^ "Indian Creek, Texas". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes - Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  11. ^ Duncan, Patrick L. "Fort Worth and Rio Grande Railway". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  12. ^ White, Lonnie J. "Camp Bowie". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  13. ^ Hurt, PhD, R Douglas (2008). The Great Plains during World War II. University of Nebraska Press. pp. 312–347. ISBN 978-0-8032-2409-4.
  14. ^ Lively, Jeannie F. "Howard Payne University". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  15. ^ Temple, Louann Atkins. "Daniel Baker College". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved November 30, 2010.
  16. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  17. ^ "Decennial Census of Population and Housing by Decade". US Census Bureau.
  18. ^ "Texas Almanac: Population History of Counties from 1850–2010" (PDF). Texas Almanac. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 9, 2022. Retrieved April 19, 2015.
  19. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Brown County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  20. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Brown County, Texas". United States Census Bureau.
  21. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 14, 2011.
  22. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved July 19, 2018.

External linksEdit

Coordinates: 31°46′N 99°00′W / 31.77°N 99.00°W / 31.77; -99.00