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In mathematics, a Brjuno number is a special type of irrational number.


Formal definitionEdit

An irrational number   is called a Brjuno number when the infinite sum


converges to a finite number


  •   is the denominator of the nth convergent   of the continued fraction expansion of  .
  •   is a Brjuno function


The Brjuno numbers are named after Alexander Bruno, who introduced them in Brjuno (1971); they are also occasionally spelled Bruno numbers or Bryuno numbers.


The Brjuno numbers are important in the one–dimensional analytic small divisors problems. Bruno showed that germs of holomorphic functions with linear part   are linearizable if   is a Brjuno number. Jean-Christophe Yoccoz (1995) showed in 1987 that this condition is also necessary for quadratic polynomials. For other germs the question is still open.


Intuitively, these numbers do not have many large "jumps" in the sequence of convergents, in which the denominator of the (n + 1)th convergent is exponentially larger than that of the nth convergent. Thus, in contrast to the Liouville numbers, they do not have unusually accurate diophantine approximations by rational numbers.

Brjuno functionEdit

The real Brjuno function   is defined for irrational x and satisfies

  for all irrational x between 0 and 1.

See alsoEdit


  • Brjuno, Alexander D. (1971), "Analytic form of differential equations. I, II", Trudy Moskovskogo Matematičeskogo Obščestva, 25: 119–262, ISSN 0134-8663, MR 0377192
  • Lee, Eileen F. (Spring 1999), "The structure and topology of the Brjuno numbers" (PDF), Proceedings of the 1999 Topology and Dynamics Conference (Salt Lake City, UT), Topology Proceedings, 24, pp. 189–201, MR 1802686
  • Marmi, Stefano; Moussa, Pierre; Yoccoz, Jean-Christophe (2001), "Complex Brjuno functions", Journal of the American Mathematical Society, 14 (4): 783–841, doi:10.1090/S0894-0347-01-00371-X, ISSN 0894-0347, MR 1839917
  • Yoccoz, Jean-Christophe (1995), "Théorème de Siegel, nombres de Bruno et polynômes quadratiques", Petits diviseurs en dimension 1, Astérisque, 231, pp. 3–88, MR 1367353