British Rail Class 465

The British Rail Class 465 Networker is a class of 147 electric multiple units built by Metro-Cammell, British Rail Engineering Limited (BREL) and ABB Rail between 1991 and 1994, designed for fast acceleration and high reliability. They were operated by Network SouthEast until 1996, and then by Connex South Eastern until 2003, South Eastern Trains until 2006 and Southeastern to the present day.

British Rail Class 465 Networker
465174 leaving London Victoria (27244523631).jpg
Southeastern 465176 at London Victoria in 2016
465173 DMSO Interior.jpg
The refreshed interior of 465173 in 2013
In service13 October 1992 - [1]
ManufacturerBritish Rail Engineering Limited
ABB Rail
Built atHolgate Road carriage works (BREL & ABB)
Washwood Heath (Metro-Cammell)
Family nameNetworker
Constructed1991 - 1994
Number built147 sets
Formation4 cars per set
Capacity334 seats (465/0, 465/1)
331 seats (465/2)
319 seats (465/9)[2]
Car length
  • 20.89 m (68 ft 6 in) (DMSO, DMCO)
  • 20.06 m (65 ft 10 in) (Other vehicles)[3]
Width2.81 m (9 ft 3 in)[3]
Height3.77 m (12 ft 4 in)
Maximum speed75 mph (121 km/h)[3]
WeightTotal - 136 tonnes (133.9 long tons; 149.9 short tons)
Power output1,608 hp (1,199 kW)
Electric system(s)750 V DC third rail
Current collection methodContact shoe
Coupling systemTightlock
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge


Connex South Eastern 465034 in Network SouthEast livery at Waterloo East in July 2003
Connex South Eastern 465020 in Connex livery at Waterloo East in January 2003
South Eastern Trains 465238 at Greenwich in December 2005

The Network SouthEast sector of British Rail began the planning for the development of the Class 465 Networker in 1988, and invited a tender for 710 of the units to be built.[4] The Class 465 was introduced in order to replace the 41-year-old Class 415 (4EPB) slam-door EMUs.[5]

The first was delivered in December 1991 and the last in April 1995.[6][7] As part of the privatisation of British Rail, the 97 465/0 and 465/1s were sold to Eversholt Rail Group and the 50 Class 465/2s to Angel Trains.[8][9]

All trains were originally supplied in Network SouthEast livery and branded "Kent Links Networker".[5] They are mostly used on suburban routes out of London Victoria, Charing Cross, Blackfriars and Cannon Street to destinations in South London and Kent.[10]

Two manufacturersEdit

The easiest way to tell the two makes apart: The BREL unit on the right has more circular shaped corners on the window whilst the Metro Cammell unit on the left has less curvature on the corners of the window

Both manufacturers' units look similar in design; the major differences are the lack of aircraft-style overhead air vents on those produced by Metro-Cammell (465/2), and the BREL (465/0) and ABB (465/1) units also feature slightly different dot matrix displays on the front and rear of the train to show the route number and destination, they also have different traction motors with the BREL units having Brush Traction motors whilst the Metro Cammell units have their own traction motors. There are other minor differences in door switches and audible chimes, window shapes and exterior panelling.[4] The maximum speed of a Class 465 Networker is 75 mph (120 km/h)[11] and they are designed only for 750 V DC third rail operation. A Solid State Traction Converter package controls 3-phase AC Traction motors, which allows for Rheostatic or Regenerative Dynamic braking.[11] Primary braking system is electro-pneumatically actuated disc brakes, which is blended with the Dynamic brakes.[11] Tachometers on every axle of the unit provide for Wheel Slip/Slide Protection.[11]

Traction equipment replacementEdit

Plans were drawn up in 2007 to improve reliability of the BREL and ABB units (Class 465/0 and 465/1) by the installation of new traction equipment.[12] The new package was developed by Hitachi Rail.[13] It was retrofitted across all 97 465/0 and 465/1s trains over the course of 2009/2010.[14] Brush Traction, the supplier/manufacturer of the original traction equipment, worked as consultants to assist in retro-fitting the new equipment.[12][15]


Some Class 465/2 EMUs were given a 'Networker Weald' refresh - one of those treated was 465907 at Ashford International
The interior of the First Class compartment, located in each DMCO vehicle at both front and rear of the train.
The refreshed interior of a Standard Class saloon.

In 2005, the first 34 465/2 units (465201-465234) were given an extensive refurbishment at Doncaster Works.[1] This included new interior panelling, new flooring, new lighting, new seat moquette (in the same grey and blue design as on the Class 375 Electrostars) and the addition of a new first class seating area at the front and rear of the units, amongst other changes.[1][16][17] This was done to allow them to be transferred to outer-suburban routes alongside the Class 375s. They would be replaced on inner suburban services by Class 376s. They were reclassified as a separate sub-fleet designated 465/9 (465901–465934) and replaced the remaining Class 423 slam-door stock.[1][18] The last in Network SouthEast livery was repainted in September 2007.[19]

Between 2010 and 2012, all Class 465/0 and 465/1s had an overhaul by RailCare of door systems, air systems, couplings and trailer bogies.[20]

Accidents and incidentsEdit

On 2 March 2018, Class 465 units formed some of the trains that became stranded in the Lewisham area due to inclement weather affecting conductor rails. Units 465003 and 465164 were amongst the nine involved.[21]

Fleet detailsEdit

465027 at Bromley South

Production and numberingEdit

Class Introduced Manufacturer Number Number Range Comments
Class 465/0 1991-93 BREL 50 465001-050 - Repainted units: 465001-050 (All Completed)
Currently going under refurbishment for better disabled access (Completed 7/7/2020)
Class 465/1 1993-94 ABB 47 465151-197 - Repainted units: 465151-197 (All Completed)
Class 465/2 1991-93 Metro-Cammell 16 465235-250 - Repainted units: 465235-250 (All Completed)
Class 465/3 1992 ABB 1 465301 Demonstrator for Universal Networker (Class 365)
Class 465/9 1991-93 Metro-Cammell 34 465901-934 Converted from 465/2 units. (465201 - 465234)
- Repainted units: 465901-934 (All Completed)
Currently going under refurbishment for better disabled access (in progress)

Detailed specificationsEdit

 Specification   Sub-class / related class 
 465/0   465/1   465/2   465/9   466 
Currently owned by: Eversholt Rail Group[8] Eversholt Rail Group[8] Angel Trains[9] Angel Trains[9] Angel Trains
Operated by: Southeastern (previously Network SouthEast, Connex South Eastern and South Eastern Trains)
Routes used on: Metro & Outer Suburban Metro & Outer Suburban Metro & Outer Suburban Outer Suburban Metro, Outer Suburban & Branch Lines
Built: 1991-1993 by BREL York 1993-1994 by ABB York 1991-1993 by Metro-Cammell 1991-1993 by Metro-Cammell
Refurbished 2005 by Wabtec, Doncaster Works
Improvement works for better toilets & disabled access 2016-17 (in progress)
1993-1994 by Metro-Cammell
Construction: Welded aluminium alloy
Doors: Air powered sliding plug
Gangways: Within 4-coach unit only Within 2-coach unit only
Electrical Equipment: Hitachi IGBT inverter technology GEC-Alsthom Solid state Traction Converter using GTO inverters. Solid state Auxiliary Converter. Wheel Slip/Slide protection
Traction motors: Four Brush TIM970 three-phase induction motors of 280 kW (380 hp) GEC-Alsthom G352AY three-phase induction motors of 280 kW (380 hp)
Couplers: Tightlock (with underslung electrical/air connector box)
Suspension: Primary: spring Secondary: airbag
Bogies: BREL P3/T3 SRP BP62/BT52 BREL P3/T3
Maximum speed: 75 mph (121 km/h)
Dimensions: 20.89 or 20.06 x 2.81 m
Train brakes: Primary: Disc Secondary: Rheostatic (and Regenerative capable but currently disabled)
Mass: 28.6–38.9 t (28.1–38.3 long tons; 31.5–42.9 short tons)
Multiple working: Within Class 365, Class 465 and Class 466. Additionally Class 319 (via Coupling Changeover Switch for assistance only)
Southeastern Class 465


  1. ^ a b c d Class 465/466: Kent Link Networker Page 3 - Kent Rail. Retrieved 2013-01-01.
  2. ^ South Eastern Franchise Invitation to Tender Department for Transport November 2017
  3. ^ a b c 465/2 - GEC-ALSTOM - Angel Trains. Retrieved 2013-04-09.
  4. ^ a b Classes 465 and 466 - Welcome to the Southern E-Group Web Site. Retrieved 2010-12-17
  5. ^ a b Class 465/466: Kent Link Networker Page 1 - Kent Rail. Retrieved 2013-01-01.
  6. ^ Networker: Dawn of a New Era The Railway Magazine issue 1090 February 1992 page 18
  7. ^ Last Networker Rail issue 252 10 May 1995 pagec 4
  8. ^ a b c Class 465 Eversholt Rail Group
  9. ^ a b c Class 465 South Eastern Angel Trains
  10. ^ Our trains Southeastern
  11. ^ a b c d Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. (Unit information) January 1998.
  12. ^ a b Networkers get a traction transplant Railway Gazette International 24 January 2008
  13. ^ Networkers to get Hitachi traction package The Railway Magazine issue 1275 July 2007 page 77
  14. ^ Class 465 traction upgrade in full flow The Railway Magazine issue 1304 December 2009 page 79
  15. ^ Class 465 Trains With New Hitachi Traction Drive Handed Back to Southeastern as Scheduled Hitachi Rail 30 April 2009
  16. ^ SET launches refurbished 465/9s Entrain issue 43 July 2005 page 56
  17. ^ New look for South Eastern Networkers The Railway Magazine issue 1251 July 2005 page 75
  18. ^ Refreshing the 465s Rail issue 520 17 August 2005 pages 40-43
  19. ^ After 21 years, no more NSE Rail issue 575 26 September 2007 page 9
  20. ^ Eversholt Rail Group Completes Class 465/0 and 465/1 Fleet Refurbishment Eversholt Rail 21 May 2012
  21. ^ "Self-detrainment of passengers onto lines that were still electrically live at Lewisham, London 2 March 2018" (PDF). Rail Accident Investigation Branch. Retrieved 25 March 2019.

External linksEdit