British Rail Class 365

The British Rail Class 365 Networker Express are dual-voltage (25 kV AC and 750 V DC) electric multiple-unit trains built by ABB York from 1994 to 1995. These were the last units to be built at the York factory before its closure. They received front-end cab modifications to equip them with cab air-conditioning, installed by WAGN, the design of which has given them the nickname "Happy Trains" as a result of its 'grinning' air intake.[2]

British Rail Class 365 Networker Express
Class 365 Networker Express in Great Northern livery by Hugh Llewelyn.jpg
365523 at King's Cross in Great Northern livery, September 2015
365517 Standard Class.jpg
The interior of refurbished Standard Class
In service1995 – Present
ManufacturerABB York
Family nameNetworker
Refurbished2013–2016 (Ilford Depot)
Number built41 units
Number in service21 units
(19 units in storage, one was written off in the Potters Bar rail crash of May 2002)
Formation4 cars per unit
Fleet numbers365501–365541
Operator(s)Great Northern
Car length20.89 m (68 ft 6 12 in) (DMOC)
20.06 m (65 ft 9 34 in) (Other vehicles)
Width2.81 m (9 ft 2 58 in)[1]
Height3.77 m (12 ft 4 38 in)
Maximum speed100 mph (161 km/h)[1]
Weight151.62 t (149.23 long tons; 167.13 short tons)
Power output1,256 kW (1,684 hp)
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC Overhead
750 V DC Contact shoe (removed)
Coupling systemTightlock
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge


Class 365 with original front end

In the early 1990s, the Networker family was entering large-scale service in the Network SouthEast sector – both third-rail 'Networker' EMUs (Class 465/Class 466) and 'Network Turbo' DMUs (Class 165/Class 166) were in service, with proposals for others, including a so-called "Universal Networker", intended as Class 371 and 381, that would have dual-voltage capability. However, by 1992, no work had been done in the development of these due to a lack of funding, so a replacement plan was required. For this, the Class 465 was modified for longer-distance services – a prototype was converted from an existing unit (designated as Class 465/3) to determine suitability, before funding was authorised for the purchase of 41 dual-voltage EMUs, each of four cars. These became the Class 365.[3][4][5]


Although specified as a dual-voltage unit, Class 365s have never operated with this capability since they were built with only one system of traction current pickup. Units 365 501 to 365 516, which worked briefly for Network SouthEast before the franchise was given to Connex South Eastern, were originally supplied only with DC shoe gear for use on the 750 V third-rail system[6] (with the exception of unit 365 502, which ran briefly on the AC network during testing and commissioning and was the main reason for this unit being chosen as the one subleased from Connex South Eastern to WAGN to bolster unit availability in the aftermath of the Potters Bar Crash in 2002). In this configuration the maximum speed was 90 mph (145 km/h).[7]

When they transferred to West Anglia Great Northern for use with 25 kV AC overhead line traction supply, the shoes and associated equipment were removed and a Brecknell Willis high speed pantograph was installed, along with other operator and voltage-specific modifications and testing by Bombardier Transportation at its Doncaster Works, shortly before the works were closed.[citation needed]

However, the 365s retain the original 750 V DC bus, meaning that when on 25 kV overhead lines the current is collected as AC, rectified to DC for the onboard systems, and then inverted back to AC for the 3-phase traction motors. For running on overhead lines the maximum speed was raised to 100 mph (161 km/h).[8]

Basic equipment consists of:

Dynamic (rheostatic) braking on the two Driving Motor coaches is available in addition to disc brakes, via a system of brake blending.

In common with the whole Networker fleet, wheel slide protection (WSP) operates on every axle. Under braking conditions a blowdown valve releases air from the brake cylinder of any axle if the rotational speed varies significantly from the average axle speed on the train.[9]

Internal LED Passenger Information Display Systems (PIDS) and Auto-Announcers are fitted across the fleet.[8]

Current operationsEdit

365537 in Great Northern livery at London Kings Cross

Great NorthernEdit

The interior of the refurbished First Class section

Govia Thameslink Railway (GTR) took over all operations of the Class 365s in September 2014, having inherited the units from First Capital Connect. They are currently used under the Great Northern brand and are nowadays used predominantly on peak-time services on the following corridors, operating in formations of up to 12 coaches:

Since May 2018, the 365s have been replaced on off-peak services by both the Class 387 and Class 700 units, as part of the new GTR timetable.[10]

Starting in January 2014, the fleet underwent a refurbishment by Bombardier Transportation at their Ilford site, some of which were completed on a two-part basis with a second stage starting from the summer of 2014.[11] The first unit to be put back into service was 365 517, which began operations on 16 January 2014.[11] The initial refurbishment comprised new seat upholstery, new flooring, interior and exterior repaint and an engineering overhaul to maintain reliability.[11]

365535 in First Capital Connect livery at Kings Lynn

The second stage of upgrades has brought the units in line with the latest disability regulations by installing two wheelchair bays, new external door buttons and vestibule grab handles, a new wheelchair-accessible toilet, a new fully automated passenger information system with audio and visual announcements, and a call-for-aid in the wheelchair and toilet areas. This was retrofitted to units that had already undergone refurbishment prior to the start of works.[11] Work was due to be completed in Autumn 2016.[12] In 2017, the Class 365 fleet was replaced on services to Cambridge and King's Lynn by newer Class 387 "Electrostar" units. Great Northern has retained 21 Class 365s[13] to operate peak-time limited stop services between London King's Cross and Peterborough and Royston.[14]

In March 2015, it was confirmed that the remaining 19 Class 365s, would be cascaded to Great Western Railway (GWR) once released from Thameslink services, to operate newly electrified services in the Thames Valley.[15] However, in June 2016, GWR ordered additional Electrostar units for these services, so the 365s have not been transferred.[16]

In late 2015 Eversholt Rail was awarded a contract for a First in Class installation of ETCS Level 2 for a Class 365 train operated by Govia Thameslink. It included an option to retrofit the rest of the fleet in time for the installation of ETCS Level 2 on the East Coast Main Line.[17]

On 15 February 2018, Great Northern moved the first two debranded Class 365 units to be withdrawn from service to secure storage at Ely Papworth Sidings. These were 365501 and 365505.

Former operationsEdit

365530 in obsolete Network SouthEast livery arriving at Cambridge on 15 May 2004 with a service from King's Lynn.

South East EnglandEdit

The first 16 units were fitted for use on the 750 V DC lines, entering service on 16 August 1996 for Network SouthEast. Following franchising, they became part of the South Eastern franchise, operated from 13 October that year by Connex South Eastern, then by South Eastern Trains.[3][4] All were transferred to WAGN in 2004.


In April 2018, ten Class 365s were subleased from Great Northern to Abellio ScotRail in response to a rolling stock shortage which was caused by the delayed entry to service of the new Class 385 units and a number of DMUs which are due to go off lease and transfer to Arriva Rail North. They entered service on 23 June 2018 on Glasgow to Edinburgh services after modifications and driver training.[18][19][20] The last day in passenger service for ScotRail was Tuesday 12th March 2019.[21]


  • 365526 – DMOC B and PTOSL were damaged in the Potters Bar rail crash in 2002.[22] Three coaches are in store at Railcare's Wolverton Works. The DMOC was written off as it was deemed to be beyond economical repair (and was used and eventually destroyed by the MoD for training purposes) while the PTOSL was deemed to be repairable if needed. The vehicles were bought from the insurance company, Lloyds, by HSBC Rail (UK) Ltd, the leasing agents of the Class 365s at that time, as a source of spare bodyshells and parts.[citation needed]
  • 365531 – DMOC A was damaged in a fatal collision with a tractor at Black Horse Drove crossing in October 2005.[23]
  • 365532 – DMOC A was damaged in a collision with a tractor at Hatson's User-Worked Crossing in September 2011[24]
  • 365512 – DMOC B was damaged in a fatal collision with a car at Pleasants crossing in July 2012.[25]
  • A Class 365 unit collided at low speed with another it was due to couple onto at Cambridge station on 30 May 2015. Three passengers sustained slight injuries.[26]
  • 365520 – DMOC B was damaged in a collision with a Land Rover at Nairns User-Worked Crossing in August 2016[27]

Fleet detailsEdit

Class Operator No. Built Year Built Unit nos.
Class 365 Great Northern 21 1994–95 365502, 365504, 365506, 365508, 365510–365512, 365514, 365516, 365518, 365520, 365522, 365524, 365528, 365530, 365532, 365534, 365536, 365538–365540
Off Lease 19 365501, 365503, 365505, 365507, 365509, 365513, 365515, 365517, 365519, 365521, 365523, 365525, 365527, 365529, 365531, 365533, 365535, 365537, 365541
Other 1 365526[nb 1]


Varamis Rail was proposing to make use of an unspecified number of Class 365s for parcel services.[28] However, the exact class of unit is yet to be announced, as the company is reported to be looking at a number of options.


A total of twelve units have been named. 365505 and 365515 were named by Connex South Eastern, and have subsequently been removed. Vinyl nameplates with a pink backing were applied to the driving vehicles, behind the cab doors, by First Capital Connect. Following a repaint into Govia Thameslink Railway colours most were removed, however several have since been reapplied in the same style but with a light blue backing.

  • 365505 - Spirit of Ramsgate
  • 365506 – The Royston Express[29]
  • 365513 – Hornsey Depot
  • 365514 – Captain George Vancouver
  • 365515 - Spirit of Dover
  • 365517 – Supporting Red Balloon
  • 365518 – The Fenman
  • 365521 – Steven
  • 365527 – Passengers' Champion
  • 365530 – The Interlink Partnership
  • 365533 – Max Appeal
  • 365536 – Rufus Barnes – Chief Executive of London Travelwatch for 25 years
  • 365537 – Daniel Edwards – Cambridge Driver 1974–2010



  1. ^ Remaining vehicles stored out of use after the Potters Bar rail crash


  1. ^ a b c Class 365 Electric Multiple Unit[permanent dead link] – Eversholt Rail Group. Retrieved 9 April 2013.
  2. ^ Reed, Brian (2007). Traction Recognition. Ian Allan. ISBN 978-0-7110-3277-4.
  3. ^ a b Class 365 Networker Express – Kent Rail
  4. ^ a b Class 365 Networker Express. Southern E-Group. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  5. ^ Class 365 Networker Express – TheRailwayCentre.Com. Retrieved 18 December 2010.
  6. ^ Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.9 (Class 365 Unit Formation) January 1998.
  7. ^ Connex South Eastern: Train Operating Manual Classes 365,465,466. p.A.6 (Unit information) January 1998.
  8. ^ a b First Capital Connect: Class 365 Drivers' Guide p.3 (General information & differences between 313’s, 315’s, 317’s & 365’s) 2009.
  9. ^ The Class 365 Drivers' Guide. First Capital Connect. 2009.
  10. ^ "May 2018 GTR timetable" (PDF).
  11. ^ a b c d "New-look train enters service on Great Northern route" (Press release). First Capital Connect. 16 January 2014. Archived from the original on 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
  12. ^ "Improved accessibility for passengers on Great Northern trains". Rail (Peterborough). 24 February 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
  13. ^ "Rolling Stock Perspective" (PDF). Department for Transport. May 2016. p. 38.
  14. ^ "Improvement Factsheet: Great Northern Outer Services". GTR. p. 2. Archived from the original on 17 April 2016. Retrieved 11 January 2017.
  15. ^ "First Great Western plans AT300s to Cornwall". Railway Gazette. London. 23 March 2015.
  16. ^ Rail magazine 802
  17. ^ "Intelligence Market", Railway Gazette International, 172 (1): 17, 2016, ISSN 0373-5346
  18. ^
  19. ^ Clinnick, Richard. "ScotRail hires in Class 365s for Glasgow-Edinburgh route". RAIL Magazine. RAIL Magazine. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  20. ^ Dalton, Alastair. "New ScotRail trains to ease crush on Edinburgh-Glasgow line". The Scotsman. The Scotsman. Retrieved 4 May 2018.
  21. ^ Clinnick, Richard (18 July 2018). "Green light for SR '385s' as windscreen design accepted". RAIL Magazine, Issue RAIL 857. Page 16: Bauer Media.CS1 maint: location (link)
  22. ^ Office of Rail Regulation – ORR: Accident & Incident Investigation – Potters Bar. Retrieved 13 February 2011
  23. ^ Black Horse Drove – RAIB Accident Report. Retrieved 11 February 2011
  24. ^ Hatson's Crossing – RAIB Accident Report. Retrieved 25 October 2013
  25. ^ "Driver killed in crash with train on 'user operated' level-crossing". London Evening Standard. 12 July 2012. Retrieved 1 January 2014
  26. ^ George, Martin (30 May 2015). "Low-speed train crash injures three people at Cambridge Station". Eastern Daily Press. Norwich. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
  27. ^ "Probe after train hits Land Rover on track". BBC News. 12 August 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2016.
  28. ^ Rail Magazine
  29. ^ Foskett, Ewan. "Train named for town at special ceremony". Royston Crow. 5 February 2011.

Further readingEdit

  • "Networker Express brake defect not a safety threat says Connex". Rail (344). Peterborough. 18 November 1998. p. 6. ISSN 0953-4563. OCLC 49953699.

External linksEdit