British left

(Redirected from British Left)

The British left can refer to multiple concepts. It is sometimes used a shorthand for groups aligned with the Labour Party. It can also refer to other individuals, groups and political parties that have sought egalitarian changes in the economic, political, and cultural institutions of the United Kingdom. Various subgroups with a national scope are active. Liberals and progressives believe that equality can be accommodated into existing capitalist structures, but they differ in their criticism of capitalism and on the extent of reform and the welfare state. Anarchists, communists, socialists, and social democrats, among others, with international imperatives are also present within this macro-movement.[1][2][3]

History edit

Leftism in the United Kingdom is thought to stretch back to the 17th century from roots arising in the aftermath of the English Civil War. Classical liberalism was an early example of a notable leftist British movement that was later thought of as right-wing.[4]

Notions of socialism in Great Britain have taken many different forms from the utopian socialism and philanthropism of Robert Owen through to the reformist electoral project enshrined in the birth of the Labour Party. Below follows historical and contemporary leftist movements.

Historical edit

Contemporary edit

Key figures edit

The following is a list of figures considered significant for the British Left.

Activists edit

Journalists edit

Politicians edit

Thinkers edit

Left-wing electoral organisations active in Britain edit

Timeline of parties in the broad socialist movement

The largest political party associated with the British left is the centre-left Labour Party, which is also the biggest political party in the UK by membership levels, with 415,000 members as of July 2022.[27] Labour has 197 seats in the House of Commons (not including two MPs elected as Labour who as of 2021 have their whip withdrawn), and has been the Official Opposition since May 2010. The current Leader of the Labour Party is Keir Starmer, who was elected as the party's leader on 4 April 2020.

The second largest party on the British left, by membership, is the centre-left Scottish National Party (SNP), which has 72,186 members as of March 2023, despite only being active in Scotland.[28] The third largest party on the British left is the Green Party of England and Wales, whose membership reached 50,000 in September 2019.[29] The party has one Member of Parliament, Caroline Lucas, who was first elected as the MP for Brighton Pavilion at the 2010 United Kingdom general election. She was also Leader of the party from 2008–2012 and then co-leader with Jonathan Bartley from 2016–2018.

The other three political parties on the left and with representation in parliament are the centre-left Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) of Northern Ireland; the centre-left Plaid Cymru (who are only active in Wales) and Sinn Féin, also from Northern Ireland. The SNP has 45 MPs, Plaid has three MPs, the SDLP have two MPs, and Sinn Féin has seven, but the latter party does not sit in Westminster as it refuses to take the parliamentary Oath of Allegiance. In total the British left therefore have 248 out of 650 MPs.

Labour Party edit

Labour Party individual membership, excluding affiliated members and supporters

The biggest party on the political left in the United Kingdom in terms of members and representation is the Labour Party, which was founded as the Labour Representation Committee (LRC) in 1900. With the party's rebranding as New Labour in the 1990s under the leadership of Tony Blair, the party accepted a number of economic policies associated with the Right, causing it to be identified as centrist (Blair himself stated that his ministry would have governed from the political centre) rather than socialist, despite adding democratic socialism to the party's constitution, and was no longer considered as being a party of the Left; Blair described New Labour's ideology as Third Way, like Bill Clinton's Democratic Party in the United States. The Labour Party under Blair's leadership accepted many of the neoliberal economic policies enforced by the previous Conservative Party governments in the 1980s and 1990s, and continued in successive Conservative governments in the 2010s.[30][31]

When Ed Miliband was elected as Leader of the Labour Party in 2010, he announced the abandonment of the New Labour agenda, and promised to return to socialism,[32] clamp down on tax avoidance, introduce a wealth tax in the form of a mansion tax, raise income tax for high earners, and break up the banks.[33] The party was subsequently criticised by some, including Blair himself, as straying leftwards from the centre ground of British politics,[34] and that Miliband was a more traditional left-wing politician.[35] Others disputed this view, and put Labour's loss at the 2015 United Kingdom general election down to the party being too right-wing.[36][37]

Labour's status as a socialist party has been disputed by those who do not see the party as being part of the Left,[38][39][40] although the general consensus under Jeremy Corbyn was that Labour was closer to the Left on the left–right political spectrum.[41][42] As a result of this, there has always been tension between the Left and the Labour Party.[43][44][45] The Corbyn Labour Party leadership campaign, which led to a landslide victory at the 2015 Labour Party leadership election held in the month of September,[46] represented a revival of the Labour left and led to a significant increase in membership;[47] in the shadow cabinet reshuffle that followed, John McDonnell (chairman of the Labour Representation Committee) and Diane Abbott (member of the Socialist Campaign Group) were both appointed to Corbyn's shadow cabinet.[48] While not winning, Labour made significant gains in terms of vote share and modest improvements in terms of seats, enough to deny a Conservative majority and led to a hung parliament, at the 2017 United Kingdom general election,[49][50] which was taken as a vindication by some of the left turn.[51][52] The party fell in the 2019 United Kingdom general election to its lowest share of seats since 1935, although it was not the party's worst election in terms of vote share (it did better than in 1931, 1983, 1987, and 2010); many believe this was due to a complicated Labour Party manifesto and Brexit policy, a poor approach to campaigning, and the unpopularity of Corbyn's leadership.[53][54][55]

Internal groups edit

Magazine support edit

Green Party of England and Wales edit

In 2015, the membership of the Green Party of England and Wales quadrupled, and its support in national opinion polls sextupled.[56] Several factors contributed, including the collapse of the Lib Dem vote, the influence of social media and greater awareness among younger people about the rise of other left-wing parties in Europe such as: Podemos in Spain and Syriza in Greece, as well as a rise in anti-austerity movements across the UK and Europe.[57] Other factors included the Scottish independence referendum, which proved to be an inspiration for a new kind of politics. Other key factors had been the contrast in conferences of the Green Party and Labour in September 2014, and the media exclusion of the Greens during and following their successes at the European elections; a petition against the media blackout of the Green Party reached 260,000 signatures.[58]

The party also received a significant spike in membership during January 2015 following David Cameron's demand that the Greens be included in the leaders' debates for the 2015 general election. The Green Party has been included in a seven-way television debate.[59] The Greens' 2015 spring conference had a record 1,300 members attend; the party became the second-largest of the European Greens in this period, as well as increasing significantly in national polls from an average 1% to 7%. It beat the Liberal Democrats to fourth place at the 2014 European Elections with 8%, under a proportional voting system, having a third MEP elected. However the Greens achieved only a 1.6% vote share at the 2017 general election,[60] following a rejection by Labour of an election pact[61] and an increase in vote share by the two major parties.

In the 2019 general election, the Green Party increased their vote share by 65% to 2.7%.[62] In the 2021 United Kingdom local elections, the party made a net gain of 91 council seats, taking its national total to a record 444.[63] As with Labour, the status of the Greens as a party of the political left has been disputed.[64]

Internal groups edit

Other organisations edit

The now defunct Respect Party (formed in 2004), which at one point had the support of other left groups (such as the Socialist Workers Party and Socialist Resistance) and some electoral success, lost its last local councillors in 2014[65] and its sole MP George Galloway - who was also the party leader. Respect disbanded after twelve years, on 18 August 2016.[66]

The Trade Unionist and Socialist Coalition (TUSC), founded in 2010, comprises the Socialist Party, Socialist Workers Party and RMT trade union. As of 2016, TUSC had a small number of affiliated local councillors. Following the 2015 election of Jeremy Corbyn as Labour leader, TUSC floated plans for a future electoral pact with any Labour councillors standing on an anti-austerity platform;[67] subsequently TUSC stood fewer candidates in the 2016 and 2017 local elections, based on a case by case reckoning of the political stance of local Labour candidates.[68] In May 2017, TUSC confirmed that it would stand no candidates at the forthcoming general election,[68] and give full support to Labour.[69] In 2018, TUSC suspended electoral activity until further notice.[70] In September 2020, TUSC became active once again as its steering committee agreed it would stand candidates in the 2021 local elections.[71]

A new party, Left Unity, was formed in November 2013 and backed by a number of existing left-wing parties. Left Unity had an electoral pact with TUSC for the 2015 elections[72] but has since renounced independent electoral activity in favour of Labour.[73]

The Communist Party of Britain (CPB), is a split from (and effectively the political successor to) the historical Communist Party of Great Britain, once the largest British far-left organisation.[74] In 2017, the CPB announced that it would field no candidates at that year's general election, and give support to Labour instead.[75]

Some small left and far-left parties continue to contest elections independently, such as the Socialist Party of Great Britain (the oldest extant left-wing political party, having formed in 1904). Other parties and groups are electorally inactive, renounce participation in elections,[76][77][78] or work unofficially in support of, or advocate a vote for, the Labour Party.

Electorally active parties edit

Entryist groups within Labour Party edit
Parties working within TUSC edit
Others edit

Active only in Scotland edit

Active only in Wales edit

Local parties edit

Media and culture edit

The following is a list of media organisations and other progressive British cultural outputs explicitly associated with the Left.[87]

Comics edit

Events edit

Film edit

Independent news sources edit

Journals edit

Music edit

Publishing Houses edit

Publications affiliated to political organisations edit

Think tanks edit

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Williams, Raymond (April 1965). "The British Left". The New Left Review.
  2. ^ "The Left in Britain | CRL". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  3. ^ Murray, Andrew (October 2019). The Fall and Rise of the British Left. Verso Books. ISBN 978-1-78873-513-1.
  4. ^ Wright, Edmund, ed. (2006). The Desk Encyclopedia of World History. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 370, 374. ISBN 978-0-7394-7809-7.
  5. ^ Kale, Sirin (12 December 2019). "An Oral History of the 2010 Student Protests". Vice. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  6. ^ "British Library". Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  7. ^ Wills, Matthew (10 November 2020). "What Did the Diggers Really Believe?". JSTOR Daily. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  8. ^ "Occupy London: timeline of the St Paul's Cathedral protest camp". The Guardian. Press Association. 18 January 2012. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  9. ^ Francis, Patricia (7 June 2021). "Black Lives Matter: how the UK movement struggled to be heard in the 2010s". The Conversation. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  10. ^ Booth, Robert; correspondent, Robert Booth Social affairs (24 August 2022). "Enough is Enough movement gathers pace with Andy Burnham latest backer". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  11. ^ Seaton, Lola (11 September 2020). "The two faces of Extinction Rebellion". New Statesman. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  12. ^ "Is Extinction Rebellion Still 'Beyond Politics'?". Novara Media. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  13. ^ Townsend, Mark; editor, Mark Townsend Home Affairs (29 October 2022). "Roadblocks, soup hurling, superglue … Just Stop Oil protests divide activists on direct action". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 18 May 2023. {{cite news}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  14. ^ Partington, Richard; correspondent, Richard Partington Economics (14 February 2023). "Number of days lost to strikes is highest since the Thatcher era". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  15. ^ Gilbert, Jeremy (23 June 2022). "Union boss Mick Lynch is a media star – and Labour has much to learn about why". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  16. ^ SubZorro (7 May 2021). "Remembering Albert Meltzer 25 years on". Freedom News. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  17. ^ Harris, John (28 February 2014). "In search of Arthur Scargill: 30 years after the miners' strike". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  18. ^ Bastani, Aaron (4 May 2018). "Karl Marx at 200: Aaron Bastani picks five books to understand Marxism". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 19 May 2023.
  19. ^ O’Hagan, Sean (19 September 2020). "Owen Jones: 'A lot of people in the parliamentary Labour party are horrible'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  20. ^ "Tony Benn's Lessons for the Left". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  21. ^ "Tony Benn". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  22. ^ Statesman, New (17 May 2023). "The New Statesman's left power list". New Statesman. Retrieved 17 May 2023.
  23. ^ "Is This the Most Important Book So Far This Century?". Novara Media. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  24. ^ Loudis, Jessica (27 September 2017). "Why We Need Stuart Hall's Imaginative Left". The New Republic. ISSN 0028-6583. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  25. ^ Jones, Jonathan (24 March 2016). "William Morris: a Victorian socialist dreaming of a life in symmetry". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  26. ^ "A Century of Raymond Williams". Retrieved 18 May 2023.
  27. ^ Fisher, Andrew [@FisherAndrew79] (21 July 2022). "It was reported to the Labour NEC on Tuesday that membership had fallen to 415,000, including 33,000 members in arrears (e.g. ineligible to vote but may renew), so 382k paid-up members
    Membership was reported to be 570,000 in July 2020. That's a huge loss of members and revenue"
    (Tweet). Retrieved 10 August 2022 – via Twitter.
    {{cite web}}: CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  28. ^ "SNP says its membership has fallen to 72,000". BBC News. 16 March 2023. Retrieved 16 March 2023.
  29. ^ Jarvis, Chris (6 February 2020). "BREAKING: Green Party membership hits 50,000". Bright Green. Retrieved 24 September 2019.
  30. ^ Shafi, Jonathan (6 July 2013). "Labour, Neoliberalism and the Future". International Socialist. Archived from the original on 17 October 2021.
  31. ^ Hain, Peter (5 January 2015). "A smaller state? It's what got us into trouble to begin with". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  32. ^ "Ed Miliband: I'm bringing socialism back to Britain", The Daily Telegraph, September 2013.
  33. ^ "Labour will restore 50p top rate of income tax, says Ed Balls", The Guardian, January 2014
  34. ^ "Tony Blair says Labour 'left-wing' warning 'misinterpreted'". BBC News. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  35. ^ "Blair claims 'left-wing' comments about Miliband were 'misinterpreted'". ITV News. 31 December 2014. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  36. ^ Stanley, Tim (15 May 2015). "Labour didn't lose because it was too Left-wing. But it will lose again if it becomes too Right-wing". The Telegraph. London. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  37. ^ Wintour, Patrick (13 May 2015). "Labour did not lose election because it was too leftwing, says Unite chief". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  38. ^ Singh, Amit (8 May 2015). "The most embarrassing part of the election? Seeing people mistake Labour for a left-wing party". The Independent. London.
  39. ^ "Socialist Party :: Labour conference - no socialist policies". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  40. ^ "The Labour Party and socialism". Socialist Worker (Britain). Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  41. ^ "The uphill battle for left wing Labour". Opinium. 15 September 2015.
  42. ^ "9 charts that show the 'left-wing' policies of Jeremy Corbyn the public actually agrees with". The Independent. 23 July 2015.
  43. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn: 'We Didn't Go Far Enough'". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  44. ^ "Left-wing pressure groups in the Labour Party". Spartacus Educational. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  45. ^ "A Party with Socialists in It". Pluto Press. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  46. ^ ToHelm (13 September 2015). "Corbyn hails huge mandate as he sets out leftwing agenda". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  47. ^ "Labour claim membership surge after Corbyn election". Channel 4 News. 13 September 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  48. ^ "Jeremy Corbyn unveils 'unifying' shadow cabinet team". BBC News. 14 September 2015. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  49. ^ Agerholm, Harriet; Dore, Louis (9 June 2017). "Jeremy Corbyn increased Labour's vote share more than any leader since 1945". The Independent. Archived from the original on 9 June 2017.
  50. ^ Pickard, Jim (8 June 2017). "Jeremy Corbyn confounds critics with 'gobsmacking' gain". Financial Times.
  51. ^ Younge, Gary (10 June 2017). "Despite all the smears and distortions, this was a victory for hope - Gary Younge". The Guardian.
  52. ^ Weigel, David (9 June 2017). "American left sees hope in Britain's socialist surge". The Washington Post.
  53. ^ Helm, Toby (14 December 2019). "I take my share of responsibility for this defeat, says Jeremy Corbyn" – via
  54. ^ Proctor, Kate (13 December 2019). "Five reasons why Labour lost the election" – via
  55. ^ Proctor, Kate; Murray, Jessica (27 January 2020). "Labour defeat due to gimmicks and division, say members" – via
  56. ^ Ramsay, Adam (6 March 2015). "Today, Natalie Bennett must deliver the speech of her life". New Statesman. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  57. ^ See: list of political parties in the United Kingdom opposed to austerity.
  58. ^ ""Invite the Greens" petition handed in to the BBC". Green Party of England and Wales. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  59. ^ "Election 2015: Seven-party TV debate plan announced". BBC News. 23 January 2015. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
  60. ^ "Results of the 2017 General Election". BBC News. 9 June 2017.
  61. ^ Walker, Peter; Elgot, Jessica (19 April 2017). "Labour and Lib Dems reject Greens' call for electoral pact against Tories". The Guardian.
  62. ^ Benson, Imogen (13 December 2019). "2019 general election: Greens increase vote share by 60 per cent". Green World.
  63. ^ Harvey, Fiona (16 May 2021). "Green party co-leader tells Keir Starmer: My door is open for talks". The Guardian.
  64. ^ Moore, Suzanne (28 January 2015). "Forget the Greens – if the UK wants a truly leftwing party, it might have to grow its own". The Guardian. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  65. ^ Pidd, Helen (23 May 2014). "Labour gains control of Bradford as Respect fail". The Guardian.
  66. ^ Pidd, Helen (28 October 2013). "Who is the leader of the Respect party these days?". The Guardian.
  67. ^ Ian Silvera (14 September 2015). "Far-left TUSC seeks anti-austerity electoral pact with Jeremy Corbyn's Labour". International Business Times UK. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  68. ^ a b "Local elections 2017: The TUSC results" (PDF). 7 May 2017.
  71. ^ "Back at work! TUSC to stand in elections again against pro-austerity politicians". Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  72. ^ Hill, Dave. "On relations between Left Unity and TUSC". Left Unity. Retrieved 25 May 2015.
  73. ^ "General election: Left Unity calls for a Labour victory - Left Unity".
  74. ^ Wheeler, Brian (13 June 2012). "What happened to the Communist Party of Great Britain's millions?". BBC News.
  75. ^ Smith, Mikey (24 April 2017). "Communist Party backs Corbyn and won't stand any candidates in the election". Daily Mirror.
  76. ^ FRFI. "General election: Don't vote – fight for socialism!".
  77. ^ "The General Election – More Ruling Class Mystification". Leftcom. 13 May 2017. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  78. ^ "The ballot box won't give us a voice, collective action will!" (PDF). 2017.
  79. ^ a b c Somerville, Ewan (28 November 2019). "Every candidate standing in London constituencies this election". Evening Standard.
  80. ^ Wagner, Veronika (20 November 2019). "US health corporations are already embedded in the NHS. The question is how to get them out". Bright Green. Retrieved 31 August 2022.
  81. ^ Payne, Mark (12 November 2019). "'I'll be a voice for change': The former Hartlepool councillor now standing to be the town's MP". Hartlepool Mail.
  82. ^ "Editorial: Towards a general election". Socialist Party of Great Britain. November 2019.
  84. ^ Barberis, P. et al. Encyclopedia of British and Irish Political Organizations: Parties, Groups and Movements of the 20th Century. A&C Black, 2000, p161
  86. ^ "Why we are relaunching Workers Power".
  87. ^ Dean, Jonathan. "Left politics and popular culture in Britain: From left-wing populism to 'popular leftism'". Politics. 43 (1): 3–17 – via SAGE.
  88. ^ Burrows, Marc (30 March 2023). "Frankie Boyle's "shock" comedy was vile – no wonder he's given himself a makeover". New Statesman. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  89. ^ Gammie, Joe (8 December 2019). "Comedian Steve Coogan calls on people to vote tactically to boot out the Tories". mirror. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  90. ^ Lee, Stewart (6 September 2020). "The divided land of 'woke' and Tory". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  91. ^ "Alexei Sayle: Stand-up Communist – 3:AM Magazine". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  92. ^ "The Defiance of Durham". New Socialist. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  93. ^ Digital, Pretty Good. "Glastonbury Festival - Left Field". Glastonbury Festival - 22nd-26th June, 2022. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  94. ^ "The World Transformed". Progressive International. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  95. ^ Kellaway, Kate (31 August 2014). "When miners and gay activists united: the real story of the film Pride". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  96. ^ Williams, Hannah (11 August 2021). "Why Millennial Leftists Have Made a BBC Filmmaker a Cult Hero". The Atlantic. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  97. ^ devadmin (9 February 2023). "Ken Loach: "I don't agree you need a political cause to make a movie."". A Rabbit's Foot. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  98. ^ "About the New Statesman". New Statesman. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  99. ^ Chakelian, Anoosh (25 September 2017). ""Luxury communism now!" The rise of the pro-Corbyn media". New Statesman. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  100. ^ "How left or right-wing are the UK's newspapers? | YouGov". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  101. ^ Waterson, Jim; editor, Jim Waterson Media (27 September 2018). "New owners of Tribune shrug off criticism from former staffers". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2 April 2023. {{cite news}}: |last2= has generic name (help)
  102. ^ "Historical Materialism". Brill. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  103. ^ "A Brief History of the New Left Review". The New Left Review.
  104. ^ "Race & Class". Institute of Race Relations. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  105. ^ "About the Journal | Socialist Register". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  106. ^ Hattenstone, Simon (23 January 2017). "Brian Eno: 'We've been in decline for 40 years – Trump is a chance to rethink'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  107. ^ Nolan, Emma (8 August 2022). "Pink Floyd's Roger Waters: Every Political Issue He's Weighed In On". Newsweek. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  108. ^ Beaumont-Thomas, Ben; @ben_bt (25 August 2021). "Sam Fender: 'Leftie is now a slur in working-class towns'". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 5 April 2023.
  109. ^ "John Lennon and the Politics of the New Left". Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  110. ^ "Workers Revolutionary Party". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  111. ^
  112. ^ "Socialist Appeal - The International Marxist Tendency". Socialist Appeal. Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  113. ^ "Socialist Resistance". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  114. ^ "Socialist Standard". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  115. ^ "Socialist Studies".
  116. ^ "Socialist Worker (Britain)". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  117. ^ "Workers' Liberty". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  118. ^ "Sanctions will not solve conflict in Ukraine" (PDF).
  119. ^ "Tories split - strike now! - The Socialist 23 March 2016". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  120. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 20 July 2013. Retrieved 5 June 2013.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  121. ^ "World Socialist Web Site". Retrieved 24 March 2016.
  122. ^ "Values". Compass. Retrieved 2 April 2023.
  123. ^ Emily.Redding. "IPPR". Smart Thinking. Retrieved 2 April 2023.

Further reading edit