Bréguet Aviation

  (Redirected from Breguet Aviation)

The Société des Ateliers d'Aviation Louis Bréguet also known as Bréguet Aviation was a French aircraft manufacturer.

Société des Ateliers d'Aviation Louis Bréguet
IndustryAerospace
FateMerged with Dassault
SuccessorAvions Marcel Dassault-Bréguet Aviation
Founded1911
FounderLouis Charles Bréguet
Defunct1971
HeadquartersFrance
Key people
René Leduc
ProductsAircraft, Helicopter

The company was set up in 1911 by the aviation pioneer Louis Charles Breguet. Bréguet Aviation was extremely active during the First World War, producing numerous military aircraft, such as the pioneering metal Bréguet 14 day-bomber, for the Allies. During the interwar period, the firm's aircraft set several records for non-stop crossings of the Atlantic Ocean, as well as with the unconventional Bréguet-Dorand Gyroplane Laboratoire. It was active during the Second World War, surviving the conflict and largely focusing on commercial transport aircraft during the postwar years. Its most notable military programmes during the Cold War include the Bréguet 1150 Atlantic and the SEPECAT Jaguar. During 1971, Bréguet Aviation merged with Dassault to form Avions Marcel Dassault-Bréguet Aviation, which was subsequently rebranded as Dassault Aviation.

HistoryEdit

The company was founded during 1911 by Louis-Charles Breguet, an early French airplane designer and builder, and his brother, Jacques.[1] That same year, Bréguet's first airplane established a new speed record during a 10-kilometer (6.2-mile) flight. In 1912, Bréguet constructed his first seaplane.[1]

During the First World War, the company produced a range of military-orientated aircraft to assist the French war effort. In particular, it developed capable reconnaissance aircraft that saw used not only during the conflict but long into the 1920s as well.[1] During this time, Bréguet Aviation also played a pioneering role in the development of metal aircraft, such as the Bréguet 14 day-bomber (almost entirely made of aluminum), which was one of the most famous French combat aircraft of its era. The Bréguet-14's performance was such it was not only procured by the French military, but also exported to the fill the ranks of sixteen squadrons of the American Expeditionary Force.[1] Unable to meet wartime demands for its designs itself, production agreements were made with other firms to produce its aircraft as well. Between 1917 and 1919, just under 2,000 Bréguet-designed aircraft were license-produced by the aviation interest of French industrial conglomerate Michelin.[2]

During the interwar period, Bréguet-built aircraft set several records; one plane performed the first non-stop crossing of the South Atlantic in 1927, while another made a 4,500-mile (7,242-kilometer) flight across the Atlantic Ocean during 1933, which was the longest non-stop Atlantic flight up to that time.[1] During the 1930s, the firm developed the unconventional Bréguet-Dorand Gyroplane Laboratoire, which flew by a combination of blade flapping and feathering. on 22 December 1935, this aircraft established a Federation Aeronautique Internationale speed record of 67 miles per hour (108 kilometers per hour), while the type also set an altitude record of 517 feet (158 meters) during the following year.[1]

Bréguet was engaged in the rearmament efforts during the late 1930s, producing numerous military aircraft in the run-up to and during the Second World War.[1] After resuming normal operations in the immediatepostwar climate, the company largely focused on the development of commercial transports and other large aircraft designs. On 4 May 1955, the company's founder, Louis-Charles Bréguet, died in Paris, France.[1]

In response to a NATO specification for a long-range maritime patrol aircraft to replace the Lockheed P2V Neptune, Bréguet submitted its own design, the Br 1150, which was chosen as the winner in late 1958. Accordingly, a multinational consortium, Société d'Étude et de Construction de Bréguet Atlantic (SECBAT) was set up to develop and build this aircraft, which was named the 1150 Atlantic.[3][4] An initial order for 60 Atlantics – 40 for France and 20 for Germany – was placed in 1963; deliveries of the Atlantic commenced during 1965. The production line was reactivated following further orders from the Netherlands and Italy; this second production batch made its deliveries between 1972 and 1974.[5] During 1978, the French Government authorised development of an updated version of the Atlantic, the Atlantic Nouvelle Génération or Atlantique 2, which involved little change to either airframe and engines while equipment and avionics were extensively revised.[6][7] Deliveries started in 1989 with 28 eventually built, from an original requirement for 42.[8][9]

During the 1960s, Bréguet Aviation became involved in the multinational joint venture company SEPECAT (Société Européenne de Production de l'Avion d'École de Combat et d'Appui Tactique – the "European company for the production of a combat trainer and tactical support aircraft"[10]) together with the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) to produce the Jaguar strike aircraft.[11] Though based in part on the Breguet Br.121, using the same basic configuration and an innovative French-designed landing gear, the Jaguar was built incorporating major elements of design from BAC – notably the wing and high lift devices.[11] Production of components was split between Breguet and BAC, while the aircraft themselves would be assembled on two production lines; one in the UK and one in France,[12] To avoid any duplication of work, each aircraft component had only one source.[13] Early on, collaboration between BAC and Breguet went well;[14] however, following Dassault's takeover of Breguet in 1971, the firm encouraged acceptance of its own designs, such as the Super Étendard naval attack aircraft and the Mirage F1, for which it would receive more workshare and profit, over the Jaguar.[15][16]

AircraftEdit

  • Bréguet-Richet Gyroplane (1907) - experimental single-seat helicopter-like craft with four rotors.
  • Bréguet-Richet Gyroplane No.2 (1908) Tandem biplane with a pair of large inclined propellers providing both thrust and lift.
  • Bréguet Type I (1909) - Single-seat tractor configuration biplane with boxkite-like tail on booms.
  • Bréguet Type II (1910) - Development of the Type I, with a tricycle undercarriage and the tail carried at the end of a fuselage-like structure and a pair of booms.
  • Bréguet Type III (1910) - Development of Type II, three-seat, rotary engine
  • Bréguet Type IV (1911) - Experimental aircraft
 
Bréguet Type R.U1 No.40i at the Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris.
 
Bréguet 1100

Leduc aircraftEdit

Automobile productionEdit

Before 1914, in addition to producing aircraft, the firm produced a few six-cylinder engined cars.

During the Second World War the company produced an electric car powered by batteries and propelled by an "off-the-shelf" motor from Paris-Rhône.[18] The motor was capable of producing two different levels of output. "First gear" and "Reverse gear" were provided with 36 volts, while "Second gear" equated to 72 volts.[18] An advertisement for the car in 1941 claimed a range of 100 km (62 mi) between charges without mentioning that this range was only available where adhering to steady cruising speed of 20 km/h (12 mph).[18] Cruising at a steady 40 km/h (25 mph) would, on the same basis, have given a range of 65 km (40 mi).[18]

The car had a modern looking all-enveloping two-seater body with a relatively long tapered tail which contained the motor and some of the batteries.[18] It had four wheels, but the rear axle, which delivered power to the road, was relatively narrow. The car was actively marketed during 1941 which was a period of price instability.[18] In August 1941 the Bréguet electric car was priced at 56,000 francs: during the same month the Citroën Light bodied 11 (still listed, despite production by now being down to a trickle or suspended) was priced at 35,630 francs.[18]

The Bréguet electric car was produced not at the firm's principal plant at Toulouse but at a smaller plant at Anglet (between Biarritz and Bayonne).[18]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

CitationsEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h "Louis-Charles Bréguet". US Centennial of Flight Commission. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  2. ^ "History". Michelin. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
  3. ^ Air International November 1981, pp. 218, 252.
  4. ^ Elvert, Schirmann and Lang 2008, p. 182.
  5. ^ Air International November 1981, pp. 252–253.
  6. ^ Air International November 1981, pp. 216–218.
  7. ^ "Maritime Muscle". Flight International, 27 June 1981. p. 2014.
  8. ^ Lambert 1993, pp. 81–82.
  9. ^ Penny, Stewart. "Military Aircraft Directory Part 1". Flight International, 4 August 1999.
  10. ^ Wagner 2009, p. 122.
  11. ^ a b Jackson 1992, pp. 58, 71.
  12. ^ Bowman 2007, pp. 14–17.
  13. ^ Flight 16 October 1969, p. 600.
  14. ^ Jackson 1992, p. 58.
  15. ^ Wallace 1984, p. 27.
  16. ^ Jackson 1992, p. 77.
  17. ^ Avions Bréguet
  18. ^ a b c d e f g h "Automobilia". Toutes les voitures françaises 1948 (salon Paris oct 1947). Paris: Histoire & collections. Nr. 26: Page 18. 1998.

BibliographyEdit


External linksEdit