Breast milk(Redirected from Breastmilk)
Breast milk is the milk produced by the breasts (or mammary glands) of a human female to feed a child. Milk is the primary source of nutrition for newborns before they are able to eat and digest other foods; older infants and toddlers may continue to be breastfed, either exclusively or in combination with other foods from around six months of age when solid foods may be introduced.
The baby nursing from his or her own mother is the most common way of obtaining breast milk, but the milk can be pumped and then fed by baby bottle, cup and/or spoon, supplementation drip system, or nasogastric tube. In preterm children who do not have the ability to suck during their early days of life, avoiding bottles and tubes, and use of cups to feed expressed milk and other supplements is reported to result in better breastfeeding extent and duration subsequently. Breast milk can be supplied by a woman other than the baby's mother, either via donated pumped milk (generally from a milk bank or via informal milk donation), or when a woman nurses a child other than her own at her breast, a practice known as wetnursing.
The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, with solids gradually being introduced around this age when signs of readiness are shown. Supplemented breastfeeding is recommended until at least age two and then for as long as the mother and child wish. Breastfeeding offers health benefits to mother and child even after infancy. These benefits include a 73% decreased risk of sudden infant death syndrome, increased intelligence, decreased likelihood of contracting middle ear infections, cold and flu resistance, a tiny decrease in the risk of childhood leukemia, lower risk of childhood onset diabetes, decreased risk of asthma and eczema, decreased dental problems, decreased risk of obesity later in life, and a decreased risk of developing psychological disorders, including in adopted children.
Breastfeeding also provides health benefits for the mother. It assists the uterus in returning to its pre-pregnancy size and reduces post-partum bleeding, as well as assisting the mother in returning to her pre-pregnancy weight. Breastfeeding also reduces the risk of breast cancer later in life. Lactation protects both mother and infant from both types of diabetes.
Though it now is almost universally prescribed, in some countries in the 1950s the practice of breastfeeding went through a period where it was out of vogue and the use of infant formula was considered superior to breast milk. However, it is now universally recognized that there is no commercial formula that can equal breast milk. In addition to the appropriate amounts of carbohydrate, protein, and fat, breast milk provides vitamins, minerals, digestive enzymes, and hormones. Breast milk also contains antibodies and lymphocytes from the mother that help the baby resist infections. The immune function of breast milk is individualized, as the mother, through her touching and taking care of the baby, comes into contact with pathogens that colonize the baby, and, as a consequence, her body makes the appropriate antibodies and immune cells.
At around four to six months of age, the internal iron supplies of the infant, held in the hepatic cells of the liver, are exhausted, hence this is the time that complementary feeding is introduced. Breast milk contains less iron than formula, because it is more bioavailable as lactoferrin, which carries more safety for mothers and children than ferrous sulphate.
Under the influence of the hormones prolactin and oxytocin, women produce milk after childbirth to feed the baby. The initial milk produced is referred to as colostrum, which is high in the immunoglobulin IgA, which coats the gastrointestinal tract. This helps to protect the newborn until its own immune system is functioning properly. It also creates a mild laxative effect, expelling meconium and helping to prevent the build-up of bilirubin (a contributory factor in jaundice).
Actual inability to produce enough milk is rare, with studies showing that mothers from developing countries experiencing nutritional hardship still produce amounts of milk of similar quality to that of mothers in developed countries. There are many reasons a mother may not produce enough breast milk. Some of the most common reasons are an improper latch (i.e., the baby does not connect efficiently with the nipple), not nursing or pumping enough to meet supply, certain medications (including estrogen-containing hormonal contraceptives), illness, and dehydration. A rarer reason is Sheehan's syndrome, also known as postpartum hypopituitarism, which is associated with prolactin deficiency and may require hormone replacement.
The amount of milk produced depends on how often the mother is nursing and/or pumping: the more the mother nurses her baby or pumps, the more milk is produced. It is beneficial to nurse when the baby wants to nurse rather than on a schedule. A Cochrane review came to the conclusion that a greater volume of milk is expressed whilst listening to relaxing audio during breastfeeding, along with warming and massaging of the breast prior to and during feeding. A greater volume of milk expressed can also be attributed to instances where the mother starts pumping milk sooner, even if the infant is unable to breastfeed.
Sodium concentration is higher in hand-expressed milk, when compared with the use of manual and electric pumps, and fat content is higher when the breast has been massaged, in conjunction with listening to relaxing audio. This may be important for low birthweight infants. If pumping, it is helpful to have an electric, high-grade pump so that all of the milk ducts are stimulated. Galactagogues increase milk supply, although even herbal variants carry risks; therefore non-pharmaceutical methods should be tried first.
|Fat (g/100 ml)|
|fatty acids - length 8C||trace|
|polyunsaturated fatty acids||0,6|
|Protein (g/100 ml)|
|Carbohydrate (g/100 ml)|
|Minerals (g/100 ml)|
Breast milk contains complex proteins, lipids, carbohydrates and other biologically active components. The composition changes over a single feed as well as over the period of lactation.
During the first few days after delivery, the mother produces colostrum. This is a thin yellowish fluid that is the same fluid that sometimes leaks from the breasts during pregnancy. It is rich in protein and antibodies that provide passive immunity to the baby (the baby's immune system is not fully developed at birth). Colostrum also helps the newborn's digestive system to grow and function properly.
Colostrum will gradually change to become mature milk. In the first 3–4 days it will appear thin and watery and will taste very sweet; later, the milk will be thicker and creamier. Human milk quenches the baby's thirst and hunger and provides the proteins, sugar, minerals, and antibodies that the baby needs.
In the 1980s and 1990s, lactation professionals (De Cleats) used to make a differentiation between foremilk and hindmilk. But this differentiation causes confusion as there are not two types of milk. Instead, as a baby breastfeeds, the fat content very gradually increases, with the milk becoming fattier and fattier over time.
Human milk contains 0.8% to 0.9% protein, 4.5% fat, 7.1% carbohydrates, and 0.2% ash (minerals). Carbohydrates are mainly lactose; several lactose-based oligosaccharides have been identified as minor components. The fat fraction contains specific triglycerides of palmitic and oleic acid (O-P-O triglycerides), and also lipids with trans bonds (see: trans fat). The lipids are vaccenic acid, and Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) accounting for up to 6% of the human milk fat.
The principal proteins are alpha-lactalbumin, lactoferrin (apo-lactoferrin), IgA, lysozyme, and serum albumin. In an acidic environment such as the stomach, alpha-lactalbumin unfolds into a different form and binds oleic acid to form a complex called HAMLET that kills tumor cells. This is thought to contribute to the protection of breastfed babies against cancer.
Non-protein nitrogen-containing compounds, making up 25% of the milk's nitrogen, include urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, amino acids, and nucleotides. Breast milk has circadian variations; some of the nucleotides are more commonly produced during the night, others during the day.
Mother's milk has been shown to supply endocannabinoids (the natural neurotransmitters that cannabis simulates) 2-Arachidonoyl glycerol, anandamide, oleoylethanolamide, palmitoylethanolamide, N-arachidonoyl glycine, eicosapentaenoyl ethanolamide, docosahexaenoyl ethanolamide, N-palmitoleoyl-ethanolamine, dihomo-γ-linolenoylethanolamine, N-stearoylethanolamine, prostaglandin F2alpha ethanolamides and prostaglandin F2 ethanolamides. They may act as an appetite stimulant, but they also regulate appetite so infants don't eat too much. That may be why formula-fed babies have a higher caloric intake than breastfed babies.
Breast milk contains a unique type of sugars, human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), which are not present in infant formula. HMOs are not digested by the infant but help to make up the intestinal flora. They act as decoy receptors that block the attachment of disease causing pathogens, which may help to prevent infectious diseases. They also alter immune cell responses, which may benefit the infant. To date (2015) more than a hundred different HMOs have been identified; both the number and composition vary between women and each HMO may have a distinct functionality.
The breast milk of diabetic mothers has been shown to have a different composition from that of non-diabetic mothers. It may contain elevated levels of glucose and insulin and decreased polyunsaturated fatty acids. A dose-dependent effect of diabetic breast milk on increasing language delays in infants has also been noted, although doctors recommend that diabetic mothers breastfeed despite this potential risk.
Storage of expressed breast milkEdit
Expressed breast milk can be stored. Lipase may cause thawed milk to taste soapy or rancid due to milk fat breakdown. It is still safe to use, and most babies will drink it. Scalding it will prevent rancid taste at the expense of antibodies. It should be stored with airtight seals. Some plastic bags are designed for storage periods of less than 72 hours. Others can be used for up to 12 months if frozen. This table describes safe storage time limits.
|Place of storage||Temperature||Maximum storage time|
|In a room||25 °C||77 °F||Six to eight hours|
|Insulated thermal bag with ice packs||Up to 24 hours|
|In a refrigerator||4 °C||39 °F||Up to five days|
|Freezer compartment inside a refrigerator||-15 °C||5 °F||Two weeks|
|A combined refrigerator and freezer with separate doors||-18 °C||0 °F||Three to six months|
|Chest or upright manual defrost deep freezer||-20 °C||-4 °F||Six to twelve months|
Comparison to other milksEdit
All mammalian species produce milk, but the composition of milk for each species varies widely and other kinds of milk are often very different from human breast milk. As a rule, the milk of mammals that nurse frequently (including human babies) is less rich, or more watery, than the milk of mammals whose young nurse less often. Human milk is noticeably thinner and sweeter than cow's milk.
Whole cow's milk contains too little iron, retinol, vitamin E, vitamin C, vitamin D, unsaturated fats or essential fatty acids for human babies. Whole cow's milk also contains too much protein, sodium, potassium, phosphorus and chloride which may put a strain on an infant's immature kidneys. In addition, the proteins, fats and calcium in whole cow's milk are more difficult for an infant to digest and absorb than the ones in breast milk. Evaporated milk may be easier to digest due to the processing of the protein but is still nutritionally inadequate. Some infants are allergic to cow's milk protein, this problem may be associated with infant formulas derived from cow's milk.
|Nutrient||Human Milk||Cow's Milk||Goat's Milk|
|Saturated fat (g)||4.9||4.6||6.5|
|Monounsaturated fat (g)||4.1||2.0||2.7|
|Polyunsaturated fat (g)||1.2||0.5||0.4|
|Vitamin C (mg)||12.3||0||3.2|
In addition to providing essential nourishment to infants, human milk; i.e., breast milk, has a number of valuable uses, especially medicinal uses, for both children and adults. It has been used medicinally for thousands of years. Breast milk contains strong antibodies and antitoxins that many people believe promote healing and better overall health. However, breast milk lacks sterile and antiseptic properties if a nursing mother is infected with certain communicable diseases, such as HIV and CMV, as breast milk can transmit such diseases to infants and other people.
Breast milk has been used as a home remedy for minor ailments, such as conjunctivitis, insect bites and stings, contact dermatitis, and infected wounds, burns, and abrasions. Breast milk has also been used alternatively to boost the immune system of ill persons having viral gastroenteritis, influenza, the common cold, pneumonia, etc., because of its immunologic properties. However, breast milk should never be seen or construed as a "cure-all". Some medical experts are convinced that breast milk can induce apoptosis in some types of cancer cells. However, more research and evidence are needed in this area of cancer treatment.
A minority of people, including restaurateurs Hans Lochen of Switzerland and Daniel Angerer of Austria, who operates a restaurant in New York City, have used human breast milk, or at least advocated its use, as a substitute for cow's milk in dairy products and food recipes. Tammy Frissell-Deppe, a family counsellor specialized in attachment parenting, published a book, titled A Breastfeeding Mother's Secret Recipes, providing a lengthy compilation of detailed food and beverage recipes containing human breast milk. The animal rights organization known as PETA ignited a firestorm of criticism when it urged a dairy company to replace the cow's milk they use in their ice cream products with human breast milk as a way to stop cattle abuse. Human breast milk is not produced or distributed industrially or commercially, because the use of human breast milk as an adult food is considered unusual to the majority of cultures around the world, and most disapprove of such a practice.
Almost all medicines pass into breastmilk in small amounts. Some have no effect on the baby and can be used while breastfeeding. Women with hypothyroidism may be unable to produce milk. Alcohol use during pregnancy carries a significant risk of serious birth defects, but consuming alcohol after the birth of the infant is considered safe.
Pesticides and other toxic substances bioaccumulate; i.e., creatures higher up the food chain will store more of them in their body fat. This is an issue in particular for the Inuit, whose traditional diet is predominantly meat. Studies are looking at the effects of polychlorinated biphenyls and persistent organic pollutants in the body; the breast milk of Inuit mothers is extraordinarily high in toxic compounds.
A controversial Swiss restaurateur has created a menu based around foods cooked in human breast milk.
An Icecreamist in London's Covent Garden started selling an ice cream named Baby Gaga in February 2011. Each serving costs £14. All the milk was donated by a Mrs Hiley who earns £15 for every 10 ounces and calls it a "great recession beater". The ice cream sold out on its first day. Despite the success of the new flavour, the Westminster Council officers removed the product from the menu to make sure that it was, as they said, "fit for human consumption."
While there is no scientific evidence that shows that breast milk is more advantageous for adults than cow's milk, according to several 2015 news sources breast milk is being used by bodybuilders for its nutritional value. In a February 2015 ABC News article one former competitive body builder said, "It isn’t common, but I’ve known people who have done this. It’s certainly talked about quite a bit on the bodybuilding forums on the Internet." Calling bodybuilders "a strange breed of individuals,” he said, “Even if this type of thing is completely unsupported by research, they’re prone to gym lore and willing to give it a shot if there is any potential effect.” At the time the article was written, in the U.S. the price of breast milk procured from milk banks that pasteurize the milk, and have expensive quality and safety controls, was about $10 an ounce, and the price in the alternative market online, bought directly from mothers, ranges from $1 to $4 per US fluid ounce, compared to cow's milk at about $3.44 a gallon.
There is a market for human breast milk, both in the form of wet nurse service and milk product. As a product, breast milk is exchanged by human milk banks as well as directly between milk donors and customers mediated by websites on the Internet. Human milk banks generally have standardized measures for screening donors and storing the milk, while donors on websites vary in regard to these measures. A study in 2013 came to the conclusion that 74% of breast milk samples from providers found from websites were colonized with Gram-negative bacteria or had more than 10,000 colony-forming units/mL of aerobic bacteria. Growth happens during transit.
According to the FDA, the bacteria in fresh milk doubles every 20 minutes.
- Collins, CT; Gillis, J; McPhee, AJ; Suganuma, H; Makrides, M (19 October 2016). "Avoidance of bottles during the establishment of breast feeds in preterm infants.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 10: CD005252. PMID 27756113. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005252.pub4.
- "WHO | Exclusive breastfeeding". Who.int. 2011-01-15. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "The World Health Organization's infant feeding recommendation".
- Hauck FR, Thompson JM, Tanabe KO, Moon RY, Vennemann MM (2011). "Breastfeeding and reduced risk of sudden infant death syndrome: A meta-analysis". Pediatrics. 128 (1): 103–10. PMID 21669892. doi:10.1542/peds.2010-3000.
- Breastfeeding Associated With Increased Intelligence, Study Suggests
- Persico M, Podoshin L, Fradis M, Golan D, Wellisch G (1983). "Recurrent middle-ear infections in infants: The protective role of maternal breast feeding". Ear, nose, & throat journal. 62 (6): 297–304. PMID 6409579.
- Cantey JB, Bascik SL, Heyne NG, Gonzalez JR, Jackson GL, Rogers VL, Sheffield JS, Treviño S, Sendelbach D, Wendel GD, Sánchez PJ (2012). "Prevention of Mother-to-Infant Transmission of Influenza during the Postpartum Period". American Journal of Perinatology. 30 (3): 233–240. PMID 22926635. doi:10.1055/s-0032-1323585.
- Aguiar H, Silva AI (2011). "Breastfeeding: The importance of intervening". Acta Médica Portuguesa. 24 Suppl 4: 889–896. PMID 22863497.
- Finigan V (2012). "Breastfeeding and diabetes: Part 2". The practising midwife. 15 (11): 33–34, 36. PMID 23304866.
- Salone LR, Vann WF, Dee DL (2013). "Breastfeeding: An overview of oral and general health benefits". Journal of the American Dental Association (1939). 144 (2): 143–151. PMID 23372130. doi:10.14219/jada.archive.2013.0093.
- Lausten-Thomsen U, Bille DS, Nässlund I, Folskov L, Larsen T, Holm JC (2013). "Neonatal anthropometrics and correlation to childhood obesity—data from the Danish Children's Obesity Clinic". European Journal of Pediatrics. 172 (6): 747–751. PMID 23371390. doi:10.1007/s00431-013-1949-z.
- "Mental health, attachment and breastfeeding: implications for adopted children and their mothers", International Breastfeeding Journal, 2006
- Sabuncuoglu O (2013). "Understanding the relationships between breastfeeding, malocclusion, ADHD, sleep-disordered breathing and traumatic dental injuries". Medical Hypotheses. 80 (3): 315–320. PMID 23306004. doi:10.1016/j.mehy.2012.12.017.
- Alyssa Gillego, M.D; Stephanie Bernik, M.D. "Breast-Feeding Might Cut Risk for Tough-to-Treat Breast Cancer: Study". Retrieved 18 October 2012.
- Levin, Roy J. (May 2006). "The breast/nipple/areola complex and human sexuality". Sexual & Relationship Therapy. 21 (2): 237–249. doi:10.1080/14681990600674674.
- Gouveri E, Papanas N, Hatzitolios AI, Maltezos E (2011). "Breastfeeding and diabetes". Current diabetes reviews. 7 (2): 135–42. PMID 21348815. doi:10.2174/157339911794940684.
- Chantry CJ, Wiedeman J, Buehring G, Peerson JM, Hayfron K, K'Aluoch O, Lonnerdal B, Israel-Ballard K, Coutsoudis A, Abrams B (2011). "Effect of Flash-Heat Treatment on Antimicrobial Activity of Breastmilk". Breastfeeding Medicine. 6 (3): 111–116. PMC . PMID 21091243. doi:10.1089/bfm.2010.0078.
- Bertotto A, Castellucci G, Fabietti G, Scalise F, Vaccaro R (1990-11-01). "Lymphocytes bearing the T cell receptor gamma delta in human breast milk". Arch. Dis. Child. 65: 1274–5. PMC . PMID 2147370. doi:10.1136/adc.65.11.1274-a.
- The Newborn Immune System and Immunological Benefits of Breastmilk
- Breastfeeding Answers Made Simple - Breastfeeding Reporter - Do Breastfeeding Babies Need Extra Iron at 4 Months? Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- First AAP recommendations on iron supplementation include directive on universal screening
- Paesano R, Pacifici E, Benedetti S, Berlutti F, Frioni A, Polimeni A, Valenti P (2014). "Safety and efficacy of lactoferrin versus ferrous sulphate in curing iron deficiency and iron deficiency anaemia in hereditary thrombophilia pregnant women: An interventional study". BioMetals. 27: 999–1006. PMID 24590680. doi:10.1007/s10534-014-9723-x.
- Prentice, A.M., Paul, A., Prentice, A., Black, A., Cole, T., & Whitehead, R. (1986). Cross - cultural differences in lactational performance. In Maternal Environmental Factors in Human Lactation. Human Lactation 2, pp. 13 = 44 [Hamosh, M., & Goldman, A.S. (eds). New York: Plenum Press.
- "Breast-feeding: Pumping and maintaining your milk supply". MayoClinic.com. 2010-03-13. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "How Can I Increase My Milk Supply?". LLLI. 2011-06-21. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "Breast milk: Increasing supply - iVillage". Parenting.ivillage.com. 2010-01-01. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "How Breast Milk is Produced". Babies.sutterhealth.org. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- Becker, Genevieve E; Smith, Hazel A; Cooney, Fionnuala; Becker, Genevieve E (2015). "Methods of milk expression for lactating women". Reviews. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006170.pub4.
- "Fenugreek Seed for Increasing Supply".
- "Increasing Low Milk Supply".
- Constituents of human milk United Nations University Centre
- Andreas N.J.; Kampmann B.; Mehring Le-Doare K. (November 2015). "Human breast milk: A review on its composition and bioactivity". Early Hum. Dev. 91: 629–35. PMID 26375355. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.08.013.
- Mohrbacher, Nancy. "Worries About Foremilk and Hindmilk". Breastfeeding USA. Retrieved 1 March 2015.
- Rechtman, D. J.; Ferry, B.; Lee, M. L.; Chapel, H. (2002). "Immunoglobulin A (IgA) content of human breast milk over time". International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 6 (S3): S58. doi:10.1016/s1201-9712(02)90302-4.
- Belitz, H. (2009). Food Chemistry (4th ed.). Berlin: Springer. p. 501 [table 10.5]. ISBN 978-3-540-69935-4.
- Precht, D.; Molkentin, J. (1999). "C18:1, C18:2, and C8:3 trans and cis fatty acid isomers including conjugated cis delta 9, trans delta 11 linoleic acid (CLA) as well as total fat composition of German human milk lipids". Nahrung. 43 (4): 233–244. doi:10.1002/(sici)1521-3803(19990801)43:4<233::aid-food233>3.3.co;2-2.
- Friesen, R.; Innis, S. M. (2006). "Trans Fatty acids in Human milk in Canada declined with the introduction of trans fat food labeling". J. Nut. 136: 2558–2561.
- Svanborg C, Agerstam H, Aronson A, Bjerkvig R, Düringer C, Fischer W, Gustafsson L, Hallgren O, Leijonhuvud I, Linse S, Mossberg AK, Nilsson H, Pettersson J, Svensson M (2003). "HAMLET kills tumor cells by an apoptosis-like mechanism--cellular, molecular, and therapeutic aspects.". Advances in Cancer Research. 88: 1–29. PMID 12665051. doi:10.1016/S0065-230X(03)88302-1.
- Jenness R (July 1979). "The composition of human milk". Seminars in Perinatology. 3 (3): 225–239. PMID 392766.
- Thorell L, Sjöberg LB, Hernell O (December 1996). "Nucleotides in human milk: sources and metabolism by the newborn infant". Pediatric Research. 40 (6): 845–852. PMID 8947961. doi:10.1203/00006450-199612000-00012.
- Sánchez CL, Cubero J, Sánchez J, Chanclón B, Rivero M, Rodríguez AB, Barriga C (2009). "The possible role of human milk nucleotides as sleep inducers.". Nutr Neurosci. 12 (1): 2–8. PMID 19178785. doi:10.1179/147683009X388922. Archived from the original on 2009-08-12.
- Fride E, Bregman T, Kirkham TC (April 2005). "Endocannabinoids and food intake: newborn suckling and appetite regulation in adulthood" (PDF). Experimental Biology and Medicine. 230 (4): 225–234. PMID 15792943.
- The Endocannabinoid-CB Receptor System: Importance for development and in pediatric disease Neuroendocrinology Letters Nos.1/2, Feb-Apr Vol.25, 2004.
- Cannabinoids and Feeding: The Role of the Endogenous Cannabinoid System as a Trigger for Newborn Suckling Women and Cannabis: Medicine, Science, and Sociology, 2002 The Haworth Press, Inc.
- Wu J, Gouveia-Figueria S, Domellöf M, Zivkovic AM, Nording ML (2016). "Oxylipins, endocannabinoids, and related compounds in human milk: Levels and effects of storage conditions". Prostaglandins and Other Lipid Mediators. 122: 28–36. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2015.11.002.
- Williams, Florence (2012-06-16). "The wonder of breasts". The Guardian. London.
- Martín R, Jiménez E, Heilig H, Fernández L, Marín ML, Zoetendal EG, Rodríguez JM (2009). "Isolation of Bifidobacteria from Breast Milk and Assessment of the Bifidobacterial Population by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis and Quantitative Real-Time PCR.". Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 75 (4): 965–969. PMC . PMID 19088308. doi:10.1128/AEM.02063-08.
- Bode, L. (12 September 2015). "The functional biology of human milk oligosaccharides". Early Hum. Dev. 91: 619–22. PMID 26375354. doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2015.09.001.
- Rodekamp E, Harder T, Kohlhoff R, Dudenhausen JW, Plagemann A (2006). "Impact of breast-feeding on psychomotor and neuropsychological development in children of diabetic mothers: role of the late neonatal period". Journal of Perinatal Medicine. 34 (6): 490–6. PMID 17140300. doi:10.1515/JPM.2006.095.
- "Breastfeeding | Health benefits for mother and baby". womenshealth.gov. 2010-08-01. Retrieved 2011-10-26.
- "What are the LLLI guidelines for storing my pumped milk?".
- Protocol #8: Human milk storage information for home use for healthy full-term infants. Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine Protocol.
- Department of Health, 1994. Weaning and the weaning diet. Report of the Working Group on the Weaning Diet of the Committee on Medical Aspects of Food Policy. London: HMSO. Report on Health and Social Subjects No 45.
- Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation
- Vegetarian & Vegan Foundation
- FSA, 2002. McCance and Widdowson’s The Composition of Foods, 6th summary edition. Cambridge, England, Royal Society of Chemistry.
- MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia: Cow's milk for infants and children
- Martinez GA, Ryan AS, Malec DJ (1985). "Nutrient intakes of American infants and children fed cow's milk or infant formula". American Journal of Diseases in Children. 139 (10): 1010–8. doi:10.1001/archpedi.1985.02140120056027.
- Osborn, David A.; Sinn, John Kh; Jones, Lisa J. (15 March 2017). "Infant formulas containing hydrolysed protein for prevention of allergic disease and food allergy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 3: CD003664. ISSN 1469-493X. PMID 28293923. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003664.pub4.
- "Breastfeeding: Human Milk Versus Animal Milk".
- Newsvine.com. The Milk Of Human Kindness: Uses For Human Breast Milk http://daniel-slack.newsvine.com/_news/2009/04/26/2733785-the-milk-of-human-kindness-uses-for-human-breast-milk
- Bella Online: Medicinal Uses of Breast milk http://www.bellaonline.com/articles/art41924.asp
- New England Journal of Medicine Breast Milk & Risk of CMV 1980 http://content.nejm.org/cgi/content/citation/302/19/1073
- Mabuka J, Nduati R, Odem-Davis K, Peterson D, Overbaugh J (2012). Desrosiers RC, ed. "HIV-Specific Antibodies Capable of ADCC Are Common in Breastmilk and Are Associated with Reduced Risk of Transmission in Women with High Viral Loads". PLoS Pathogens. 8 (6): e1002739. PMC . PMID 22719248. doi:10.1371/journal.ppat.1002739.
- Hallgren O, Aits S, Brest P, Gustafsson L, Mossberg AK, Wullt B, Svanborg C (2008). "Apoptosis and tumor cell death in response to HAMLET (human alpha-lactalbumin made lethal to tumor cells". Adv Exp Med Biol. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. 606: 217–40. ISBN 978-0-387-74086-7. PMID 18183931. doi:10.1007/978-0-387-74087-4_8.
- New York Daily News: Restaurant Drops Plan to Cook with Breast Milk http://www.nydailynews.com/money/2008/09/18/2008-09-18_restaurant_drops_plan_to_cook_with_breas.html
- Tammy Frissell-Deppe. A Breastfeeding Mother's Secret Recipes: Breast milk Recipes, Fun Food for Kids and Quick Dishes!. Dracut, MA: JED Publishing, 2002
- PETA.org: The Breast Is Best! PETA Asks Ben & Jerry's to Dump Dairy and Go With Human Milk Instead http://www.peta.org/mc/NewsItem.asp?id=11993
- WPTZ.com: PETA Urges Ben & Jerry's To Use Human Milk
- Jelliffe, Derrick B., and E. F. Patrice Jelliffe. Human Milk in the Modern World. Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press, 1978.
- The Traditional Midwife: Mother's Milk Soap http://traditionalmidwife.com/mothersmilksoap.html
- "Breastfeeding" (PDF). Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Tyroid disease in Women". Office on Women’s Health, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 1 February 2017. Retrieved 20 July 2017. This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- "Postpartum Thyroiditis" (PDF). American Thyroid Association. 2014. Retrieved 20 July 2017.
- "Guidelines for the identification and management of substance use and substance use disorders in pregnancy" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2014. Retrieved 11 August 2017.
- Silent Snow: The Slow Poisoning of the Arctic by Marla Cone, Grove Press.
- Clínica busca cómo hacer queso de leche materna, Nación, 17 June 2007
- "Swiss restaurant to serve meals cooked with human breast milk A Swiss gastronomist has stirred a controversy in the tranquil Alpine republic after announcing that he will serve meals cooked with human breast milk.". The Daily Telegraph. London. 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2010-04-26.
- "Breast milk ice cream goes on sale in Covent Garden.". BBC News. London. 2011-02-24. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- "Baby Gaga breast milk ice cream seized for safety tests.". BBC News. London. 2011-03-01. Retrieved 2011-03-07.
- Neporent, Liz (17 February 2015). "Why Bodybuilders Are Pounding Down Breast Milk". ABC News. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Michael Easter. "Bodybuilders Are Drinking Human Breast Milk. Are They Insane, or Super Insane?". Men's Health. Retrieved 4 December 2015.
- Keim SA, Hogan JS, McNamara KA, Gudimetla V, Dillon CE, Kwiek JJ, Geraghty SR (2013). "Microbial Contamination of Human Milk Purchased Via the Internet". Pediatrics. 132 (5): e1227–e1235. PMC . PMID 24144714. doi:10.1542/peds.2013-1687.
- Drug Interactions with Human Milk
- Human milk and lactation by Carol L. Wagner (Overview article, eMedicine, December 14, 2010)
- United Nations University Centre - Constituents of human milk - including comparison of human and cow's milk ones
- Children's Health Topics: Breastfeeding
- A comparison between human milk and cow’s milk and The composition of cow’s milk
- Meigs, EB (August 30, 1913) The comparative composition of human milk and of cow's milk, J.Biol.Chem 147-168