Politics of Brazil
This article needs to be updated. In particular: Has no information on the government since 2010.May 2017)(
The politics of Brazil take place in a framework of a federal presidential representative democratic republic, whereby the President is both head of state and head of government, and of a multi-party system. The political and administrative organization of Brazil comprises the federal government, the 26 states and a federal district, and the municipalities.
The federal government exercises control over the central government and is divided into three independent branches: executive, legislative and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the President, advised by a cabinet. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the Regional Federal Courts.
The states are autonomous sub-national entities with their own governments that, together with the other federal units, form the Federative Republic of Brazil. Currently, Brazil is divided politically and administratively into 27 federal units, being 26 states and one federal district. The executive power is exercised by a governor elected to a four-year term. The judiciary is exercised by courts of first and second instance addressing the common justice. Each State has a unicameral legislature with deputies who vote on state laws. The Constitution of Brazil knows also two elements of direct democracy, stated in Article 14. The legislative assemblies supervise the activities of the Executive power of the states and municipalities.
The municipalities are minor federal units of the Federative Republic of Brazil. Each municipality has an autonomous local government, comprising a mayor, directly elected by the people to a four-year term, and a legislative body, also directly elected by the people.
Due to a mix of proportional voting (the only first-past-the-post elections are for the 1/3 of senate seats every 8 years and for mayors in small and medium-sized cities every 4 years), the lack of election threshold and the cultural aspects of Latin American caudillismo-coronelismo, party politics in Brazil tends to be highly fragmented. The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Brazil a "flawed democracy" in 2018.[needs update]
- 1 Constitution
- 2 Political parties and elections
- 3 Government
- 4 History
- 4.1 Empire
- 4.2 Old Republic (1889–1930)
- 4.3 Vargas years (1930–1945)
- 4.4 Populist years (1946–1964)
- 4.5 Military dictatorship (1964–1985)
- 4.6 New Republic (1985–1990)
- 4.7 Collor government (1990–1992)
- 4.8 Itamar government (1992–1994)
- 4.9 FHC government (1995–2003)
- 4.10 Lula government (2003–2011)
- 4.11 Dilma government (2011-2016)
- 5 Political Corruption
- 6 Political assassinations
- 7 Relevant Politicians
- 8 International organization participation
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 External links
- 12 Further reading
Brazil has had seven constitutions:
- Constitution of 1824 – the first Brazilian constitution, enacted by Emperor Pedro I. It was monarchic, hereditary, and highly centralized, permitting suffrage only to property-holders.
- Constitution of 1891 – the republic was proclaimed in 1889, but a new constitution was not promulgated until 1891. This federalist, democratic constitution was heavily influenced by the U.S. model. However, women and illiterates were not permitted to vote.
- Constitution of 1934 – when Getúlio Vargas came to power in 1930, he canceled the 1891 constitution and did not permit a new one until 1934. The Constitutionalist Revolution of 1932 forced Vargas to enact a new democratic constitution that permitted women's suffrage. Getúlio Vargas was indirectly elected president by the Constitutional Assembly to a four-year term, beginning in 1933.
- Constitution of 1937 – Getúlio Vargas suppressed a Communist uprising in 1935 and two years later (November 10, 1937) used it as a pretext to establish autocratic rule. He instituted a corporatist constitution nicknamed the Polish, (because it was said to have been inspired by a Polish constitution), written by Francisco Campos.
- Constitution of 1946 – in October, 1945, with World War II over, a civil-military coup ousted dictatorial Getúlio Vargas, an Assembly wrote a democratic constitution.
- Constitution of 1967 – after the 1964 coup d'État against João Goulart, the military dictatorship passed the Institutional Acts, a supraconstitutional law. This strongly undemocratic constitution simply incorporated these Acts.
- Constitution of 1988 – the progressive redemocratization culminated in the current constitution. Very democratic, it is more expansive than a typical constitution – many statutory acts in other countries are written into this constitution, like Social Security and taxes.
Political parties and electionsEdit
According to sociologist Marcelo Ridenti, Brazilian politics is divided between internationalist liberals and statist nationalists. The first group consists of politicians arguing that internationalization of the economy is essential for the development of the country, while the latter rely on interventionism, and protection of state enterprises. According to Ridenti, who cites the Fernando Henrique Cardoso administration as an example of the first group and the Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva administration as an example of the second, "we have it cyclically".
Lula's Workers' Party tended to the statist nationalist side, although there are privatizing forces within his party and government, while Cardoso's Social Democratic Party tended to favor the international private market side by taking neoliberal policies. Lula compares himself with Getúlio Vargas, Juscelino Kubitscheck and João Goulart, presidents seen as statist nationalists.
As of May 2017, 16,668,589 Brazilians were affiliated with a political party. The largest parties are MDB (which accounts for 14.4% of affiliated voters), the PT (9.5% of affiliated voters), and PSDB (8.7% of affiliated voters).
2018 general election resultsEdit
|Candidate||Party||Running mate||Party||First round||Second round|
|Jair Bolsonaro||PSL||Hamilton Mourão||PRTB||49,276,990||46.03||57,797,847||55.13|
|Fernando Haddad||PT||Manuela d'Ávila||PCdoB||31,342,005||29.28||47,040,906||44.87|
|Ciro Gomes||PDT||Kátia Abreu||PDT||13,344,366||12.47|
|Geraldo Alckmin||PSDB||Ana Amélia||PP||5,096,349||4.76|
|João Amoêdo||NOVO||Christian Lohbauer||NOVO||2,679,744||2.50|
|Cabo Daciolo||PATRI||Suelene Balduino||PATRI||1,348,323||1.26|
|Henrique Meirelles||MDB||Germano Rigotto||MDB||1,288,948||1.20|
|Marina Silva||REDE||Eduardo Jorge||PV||1,069,577||1.00|
|Álvaro Dias||PODE||Paulo Rabello de Castro||PSC||859,601||0.80|
|Guilherme Boulos||PSOL||Sônia Guajajara||PSOL||617,122||0.58|
|Vera Lúcia||PSTU||Hertz Dias||PSTU||55,762||0.05|
|José Maria Eymael||DC||Hélvio Costa||DC||41,710||0.04|
|João Vicente Goulart||PPL||Léo Dias||PPL||30,176||0.03|
2018 Congress election resultsEdit
|Party||Chamber of Deputies||Senate|
|Social Liberal Party (PSL)||11,457,878||11.7||52||+44||19,413,869||11.3||4||4||+4|
|Workers' Party (PT)||10,126,611||10.3||56||–13||24,785,670||14.5||4||6||–6|
|Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)||5,905,541||6.0||29||–25||20,310,558||11.9||4||8||–2|
|Social Democratic Party (PSD)||5,749,008||5.8||34||–2||8,202,342||4.8||4||7||+4|
|Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)||5,439,167||5.5||34||–32||12,800,290||7.5||7||12||–6|
|Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB)||5,386,400||5.5||32||–2||8,234,195||4.8||2||2||–5|
|Liberal Party (PL)||5,224,591||5.3||33||–1||3,130,082||1.8||1||2||–2|
|Brazilian Republican Party (PRB)||4,992,016||5.1||30||+9||1,505,607||0.9||1||1||–|
|Democratic Labour Party (PDT)||4,545,846||4.6||28||+9||7,737,982||4.5||2||5||–3|
|Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)||2,783,669||2.8||10||+5||5,273,853||3.1||0||0||–1|
|New Party (NOVO)||2,748,079||2.8||8||New||3,467,746||2.0||0||0||–|
|We Can (PODE)||2,243,320||2.3||11||+7||5,494,125||3.2||1||5||+5|
|Republican Party of the Social Order (PROS)||2,042,610||2.1||8||–3||1,370,513||0.8||1||1||–|
|Brazilian Labour Party (PTB)||2,022,719||2.1||10||–15||1,899,838||1.1||2||3||–|
|Social Christian Party (PSC)||1,765,226||1.8||8||–5||4,126,068||2.4||1||1||+1|
|Green Party (PV)||1,592,173||1.6||4||–4||1,226,392||0.7||0||0||–1|
|Humanist Party of Solidarity (PHS)||1,426,444||1.5||6||+1||4,228,973||2.5||2||2||+2|
|Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB)||1,329,575||1.4||9||–1||1,673,190||1.0||0||0||–1|
|Progressive Republican Party (PRP)||851,368||0.9||4||+1||1,974,061||1.2||1||1||+1|
|Sustainability Network (REDE)||816,784||0.8||1||New||7,166,003||4.2||5||5||New|
|Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (PRTB)||684,976||0.7||0||–1||886,267||0.5||0||0||–|
|Party of National Mobilization (PMN)||634,129||0.6||3||–||329,973||0.2||0||0||–|
|Christian Labour Party (PTC)||601,814||0.6||2||–||222,931||0.1||0||1||+1|
|Free Homeland Party (PPL)||385,197||0.4||1||+1||504,209||0.3||0||0||–|
|Christian Democracy (DC)||369,386||0.4||1||–1||154,068||0.1||0||0||–|
|Party of Brazilian Women (PMB)||228,302||0.2||0||–||51,027||0.0||0||0||–|
|Brazilian Communist Party (PCB)||61,343||0.1||0||–||256,655||0.1||0||0||–|
|United Socialist Workers Party (PSTU)||41,304||0.0||0||–||413,914||0.2||0||0||–|
|Workers Cause Party (PCO)||2,785||0.0||0||–||38,691||0.0||0||0||–|
|Source: Election Resources|
Brazil is a federal presidential constitutional republic, based on representative democracy. The federal government has three independent branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Executive power is exercised by the executive branch, headed by the President, advised by a Cabinet. The President is both the head of state and the head of government. Legislative power is vested upon the National Congress, a two-chamber legislature comprising the Federal Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. Judicial power is exercised by the judiciary, consisting of the Supreme Federal Court, the Superior Court of Justice and other Superior Courts, the National Justice Council and the Regional Federal Courts.
The 26 Brazilian states are semi-autonomous self-governing entities organized with complete administration branches, relative financial independence and their own set of symbols, similar to those owned by the country itself. Despite their relative autonomy they all have the same model of administration, as set by the Federal Constitution.
States hold elections every four years and exercise a considerable amount of power. The 1988 constitution allows states to keep their own taxes, set up State Houses, and mandates regular allocation of a share of the taxes collected locally by the federal government.
The Executive role is held by the Governador (Governor) and his appointed Secretários (Secretaries); the Legislative role is held by the Assembléia Legislativa (Legislative Assembly); and the Judiciary role, by the Tribunal de Justiça (Justice Tribunal). The governors and the members of the assemblies are elected, but the members of the Judiciary are appointed by the governor from a list provided by the current members of the State Law Court containing only judges (these are chosen by merit in exams open to anyone with a Law degree). The name chosen by the governor must be approved by the Assembly before inauguration. The 1988 Constitution has granted the states the greatest amount of autonomy since the Old Republic.
Each of the 26 state governors must achieve more than 50% of the vote, including a second round run-off between the top two candidates if necessary. In contrast to the federal level, state legislatures are unicameral, although the deputies are elected through similar means, involving an open-list system in which the state serves as one constituency. State level elections occur at the same time as those for the presidency and Congress. In 2002, candidates from eight different parties won the gubernatorial contest while 28 parties are represented in the country's state legislatures. The last set of elections took place in 2006.
Brazil has no clear distinction between towns and cities (in effect, the Portuguese word cidade means both). The only possible difference is regarding the municipalities that have a court of first instance and those that do not. The former are called Sedes de Comarca (seats of a comarca, which is the territory under the rule of that court). Other than that, only size and importance differs one from another.
The municipality (município) is a territory comprising one urban area, the sede (seat), from which it takes the name, and several other minor urban or rural areas, the distritos (districts). The seat of a municipality must be the most populous urban area within it; when another urban area grows too much it usually splits from the original municipality to form another one.
A municipality is relatively autonomous: it enacts its own "constitution", which is called organic law (Lei Orgânica), and it is allowed to collect taxes and fees, to maintain a municipal police force (albeit with very restricted powers), to pass laws on any matter that do not contradict either the state or the national constitutions, and to create symbols for itself (like a flag, an anthem and a coat-of-arms). However, not all municipalities exercise all of this autonomy. For instance, only a few municipalities keep local police forces, some of them do not collect some taxes (to attract investors or residents) and many of them do not have a flag (although they are all required to have a coat-of-arms).
Municipalities are governed by an elected prefeito (Mayor) and a unicameral Câmara de Vereadores (Councillors' Chamber). In municipalities with more than 200,000 voters, the Mayor must be elected by more than 50% of the valid vote. The executive power is called Prefeitura.
Brazilian municipalities can vary widely in area and population. The municipality of Altamira, in the State of Pará, with 161,445.9 square kilometres of area, is larger than many countries in the world. Several Brazilian municipalities have over 1,000,000 inhabitants, with São Paulo, at more than 9,000,000, being the most populous.
The Federal DistrictEdit
The Federal District is an anomalous unit of the federation, as it is not organized in the same manner as a municipality, does not possess the same autonomy as a state (though usually ranked among them), and is closely related to the central power.
It is considered a single and indivisible entity, constituted by the seat, Brasília and some of the satellite cities. Brasília and the satellite cities are governed by the Regional Administrators individually and as a whole are governed by the Governor of the Federal District.
In 1822 the Prince Pedro de Alcântara, son of King John VI of Portugal, proclaimed independence. He was the first Emperor (Pedro I) until his abdication in 1831 in favor of his elder son. Due to the son's age (five years) a regency was established and the country had its first elections, though vote was still restricted to a minority of the population.
Old Republic (1889–1930)Edit
When the republic succeeded the empire, Auguste Comte's motto "Order and Progress" appeared on the flag of the Republic and the 1891 Constitution was inspired by Auguste Comte's Course of Positive Philosophy and System of Positive Politics. The Republic's beginnings were marked by "coronelism", an equivalent of the caudillism of the Spanish-speaking countries. The "old republic" (1889-1930) is also known as the "oligarchic republic".
Until 1930, Brazilian republic was formally a democracy, although the power was concentrated in the hands of powerful land owners.
Vargas years (1930–1945)Edit
In 1930, a bloodless coup led Getúlio Vargas to power. For about 15 years, he controlled the country's politics, with a brief three-year constitutional interregnum from 1934 to 1937. A longer, heavier regime, the Estado Novo had loose ties with European fascism and spanned the years 1938 to 1945.
Populist years (1946–1964)Edit
Like most of Latin America, Brazil experienced times of political instability after the Second World War. When Vargas was ousted from the presidency in another bloodless coup d'état, in 1945, a new and modern constitution was passed and the country had its first experience with an effective and widespread democracy. But the mounting tension between populist politicians (like Vargas himself and, later, Jânio Quadros) and the right led to a crisis that ultimately brought up the military coup d'état in 1964, now known, through declassified documents, to have been supported by the American Central Intelligence Agency.
Military dictatorship (1964–1985)Edit
In 1964 a military-led coup d'état deposed the democratically elected president of Brazil, João Goulart. Between 1964 and 1985, Brazil was governed by the military, with a two-party system that comprised a pro-government National Renewal Alliance Party (ARENA) and an opposition Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB). Thousands of politicians (including former president Juscelino Kubitschek) had their political rights suspended, and military-sanctioned indirect elections were held for most elected positions until political liberalization during the government of João Figueiredo.
New Republic (1985–1990)Edit
In 1985, the military were defeated in an election according to the scheme they had set up as a consequence of the loss of political support among the elites. The opposition candidate, Tancredo Neves, was elected President, but died of natural causes before he was able to take office. Fearing a political vacuum that might stifle the democratic effort, Neves' supporters urged vice-president, José Sarney to take the oath and govern the country. Tancredo Neves had said that his election and the demise of military régime would create a "New Republic" and Sarney's term of government is often referred to by this name.
Sarney's government was disastrous in almost every field. The ongoing recession and the soaring external debt drained the country's assets while ravaging inflation (which later turned into hyperinflation) demonetized the currency and prevented any stability. In an attempt to revolutionize the economy and defeat inflation, Sarney carried on an ambitious "heterodox" economic plan (Cruzado) in 1986, which included price controls, default on the external debts and reduction of salaries. The plan seemed successful for some months, but it soon caused wholesale shortages of consumer goods (especially of easily exportable goods like meat, milk, automobiles, grains, sugar and alcohol) and the appearance of a black market in which such goods were sold for higher prices. Buoyed by the ensuing popularity from the apparent success of the plan, Sarney secured the largest electoral win in Brazilian history; the party he had just joined, Brazilian Democratic Movement Party (PMDB), won in 26 out of 27 states and in more than 3,000 municipalities. Just after the elections, Sarney's "corrections" to the economy failed to control inflation and the public perception that he had used an artificial control of inflation to win the elections proved to be his undoing. His popularity never recovered and he was plagued by vehement criticism from most sectors of society until the end of his term. Despite popular rejection, Sarney managed to extend his term from four to five years, and exerted pressure on the Constitutional Assembly that was drafting the new constitution to abort the adoption of Parliamentarism.
Collor government (1990–1992)Edit
In 1989 Fernando Collor de Mello was elected president for the term from 1990–1994. The elections were marked by unanimous condemnation of José Sarney, with all candidates trying to keep distance from him.
Collor made some very bold statements, like saying that the Brazilian industry (of which the Brazilians used to be very proud) was mostly obsolete and polluting or that defaulting the debt was equal to not paying the rent. He also took quite revolutionary measures, like reducing the number of ministries to only 12 and naming Zélia Cardoso de Mello Minister of Economy or removing existing barriers to importing of goods.
His inflation control plan was based on an attempt to control prices and a complicated currency conversion process that prevented people from cashing their bank accounts for 18 months.
All of this made him quite unpopular and denied him support in the parliament that he needed since his own party held few seats. At the beginning of his third year in office, he resigned as a result of in a huge corruption scandal. The charges against him would later be dropped, some on mere technicalities, some for actually being irrelevant or false.
Collor desperately tried to resist impeachment by rallying the support of the youth and of the lower classes, but his call for help was answered by massive popular demonstrations, led mostly by students, demanding his resignation.
Itamar government (1992–1994)Edit
In 1992, the vice-president, Itamar Franco, took office as president and managed to evade the most feared consequences of Collor's downfall. He had to face a country with hyper-inflation, high levels of misery and unemployment. Far-left organizations were trying to turn the anti-Collor campaign into a wider revolutionary fight to overthrow the regime. Itamar finally granted full powers to his Minister of Economy, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, so the minister could launch the Plano Real, a new economic plan that seemed to be just the same as the many unsuccessful plans launched by Sarney, Collor and their military predecessor. But the Real was a success because of Rubens Ricupero and essentially because of Ciro Gomes , according to Itamar Franco himself, and terminated inflation in a few months.
FHC government (1995–2003)Edit
In 1994, Cardoso with Ricupero, Ciro Gomes and others launched their Plano Real, a successful economic reform that managed to permanently rid the country of the excessive inflation that had plagued it for more than forty years. The plan consisted of replacing the discredited old currency (cruzeiro and cruzeiro real) and pegging its value temporarily to the United States dollar. Inflation – which had become a fact of Brazilian life – was cut dramatically, a change that the Brazilians took years to get used to. Because of the success of Plano Real, Cardoso was chosen by his party to run for president and, with the strong support of Franco, eventually won, beating Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who had emerged as the favorite only one year earlier.
Cardoso's term was marked by other major changes in Brazilian politics and economy. Public services and state-owned companies were privatized (some for values supposedly too cheap according to his adversaries), the strong real made it easy to import goods, forcing Brazilian industry to modernize and compete (which had the side effect of causing many of them to be bought by foreign companies). During his first term, a constitutional amendment was passed to enable a sitting Executive chief to run for re-election, after which he again beat Lula in 1998.
In two terms, Cardoso more than doubled the Brazilian public debt in comparison with all the previous Brazilian history, and his legacy has traumatized the people, who after more than years have never elected the Brazilian Social Democracy Party for national elections.
Lula government (2003–2011)Edit
In 2002, at his fourth attempt, Lula was elected president. In part his victory was derived from the considerable unpopularity of Cardoso's second term, which failed to decrease the economic inequality, and in part from a softening of his and the party's radical stance, including a vice-presidential candidate from the Liberal Party, acceptance of an International Monetary Fund (IMF) accord agreed to by the previous government and a line of discourse friendly to the financial markets.
Despite some achievements in solving part of the country's biggest problems, his term was plagued by multiple corruption scandals that rocked his cabinet, forcing some members to resign their posts.
In 2006 Lula regained part of his popularity and ran for re-election. After almost winning on the first round, he won the run-off against Geraldo Alckmin from the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB), by a margin of 20 million votes.
In 2010, Lula's handpicked successor, Dilma, was elected to the Presidency.
Dilma government (2011-2016)Edit
In 2011, Dilma became the first woman to be elected president of Brazil.
In 2015 and 2016, many demonstrations were held against Dilma demanding for her to be impeached because of corruption scandals. According to studies by the Brazilian Institute of Public Opinion and Statistics (Ibope), 70-80% of demonstrators questioned supported harsher sentences for criminal offences, and a reduction of the age of criminal responsibility to 16. Between 2010 and 2016, support for the death penalty increased from 31% to 49%, and the number of people declaring themselves conservative from 49% to 59%.
The decline in poverty and the development of the middle class during the Lula years also allowed right-wing parties to address broader segments of the electorate on economic issues. "The new lower middle class dream of being entrepreneurs and consumers" according to the Perseu Abramo Foundation. "They are very sensitive to the meritocracy rhetoric of the right and the evangelical churches, and less affected by the PT message, which is still aimed at the poor".
Operacao Lava Jato (Operation Car Wash)Edit
Brazil is one of the most dangerous countries for peasants, with sixty-five murders of peasants engaged in conflicts over the right to land in 2017 alone. Between 1985 and 2017, 1,722 activists of the Landless Movement were murdered.
In 2016, at least 49 people were murdered in Brazil defending the environment against companies or landowners.
- Jair Bolsonaro (born 1955); president of Brazil; national president of Alliance for Brazil; ex-federal deputy by Rio de Janeiro; ex-alderman of Rio de Janeiro - Alliance for Brazil (APB)
- Aécio Neves (born 1960); federal deputy by Minas Gerais; ex-president of the Federal Chamber of Deputies; ex-senator by Minas Gerais; ex-national president of Brazilian Social Democracy Party; grandson of ex-president of Brazil Tancredo Neves; controversially known because of his drug addiction - Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Alfredo Sirkis (born 1950); ex-federal deputy by Rio de Janeiro; defeated presidencial candidate - Green Party (PV)
- André Franco Montoro (1916-1999); ex-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-senator by São Paulo; ex-minister of Labour; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-state deputy of São Paulo; ex-national president of Brazilian Social Democracy Party - Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Adhemar de Barros (1901-1969); ex-governor of the state of São Paulo for two times; ex-mayor of São Paulo - Social Progressive Party (PSP)
- Artur da Costa e Silva (1899-1969) ex-president of Brazil; ex-minister of War; ex-minister of Mines and Energy - National Renewal Alliance (ARENA)
- Carlos Bolsonaro (born 1982); alderman of Rio de Janeiro; son of president of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro - Social Christian Party (PSC)
- Carlos Lacerda (1914–1977), ex-governor of the state of Guanabara; ex-federal deputy by Federal District - National Democratic Union (UDN)
- Carlos Marun (born 1960); ex-minister of Secretary of Government; ex-federal deputy by Mato Grosso do Sul; ex-state deputy of Mato Grosso do Sul; ex-alderman of Campo Grande - Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)
- Cesar Maia (born 1945); alderman of Rio de Janeiro; ex-mayor of Rio de Janeiro; ex-federal deputy by Rio de Janeiro - Democrats (DEM)
- Ciro Gomes (born 1957); national vice-president of Democratic Labour Party; ex-governor of the state of Ceará; ex-minister of Exchequer; ex-minister of National Integration; ex-mayor of Fortaleza; ex-federal deputy by Ceará; ex-state deputy of Ceará; defeated presidential candidate for three times - Democratic Labour Party (PDT)
- Davi Alcolumbre (born 1977) president of the Federal Senate; senator by Amapá; ex-federal deputy by Amapá; alderman of Macapá - Democrats (DEM)
- Dilma Rousseff (born 1947); ex-president of Brazil, impeached; ex-Chief of Staff of the Presidency; ex-minister of Mines and Energy - Workers' Party (PT)
- Eduardo Bolsonaro (born 1984); federal deputy by São Paulo; son of president of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro - Social Liberal Party (PSL)
- Eduardo Jorge Martins (born 1949); ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-state deputy of São Paulo; defeated presidencial candidate; defeated vice-presidential candidate - Green Party (PV)
- Enéas Carneiro (1938-2007); ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-national president of Party of the Reconstruction of the National Order - Liberal Party (PL)
- Ernesto Geisel (1907–1996); ex-president of Brazil; ex-office executive of the Institutional Security Office; ex-minister of the Superior Militar Court; ex-president of Petrobras - National Renewal Alliance (ARENA)
- Esperidião Amin (born 1947); senator by Santa Catarina; ex-governor of the state of Santa Catarina for two times; ex-mayor of Florianópolis; ex-federal deputy by Santa Catarina - Progressist Party (PP)
- Eurico Gaspar Dutra (1883–1974); ex-president of Brazil; ex-minister of War - Social Democratic Party (PSD)
- Fernando Collor de Mello (born 1949); senator by Alagoas; ex-president of Brazil, impeached; ex-governor of the state of Alagoas; ex-mayor of Maceió; ex-federal deputy by Alagoas - Republican Party of the Social Order (PROS)
- Fernando Henrique Cardoso (born 1931); ex-president of Brazil; ex-senator by São Paulo; ex-minister of Exchequer; ex-minister of Foreign Affairs -Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Flávio Bolsonaro (born 1981); senator by Rio de Janeiro; ex-state deputy of Rio de Janeiro; son of president of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro - Alliance for Brazil (APB)
- Geraldo Alckmin (born 1952); ex-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-vice-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-mayor of Pindamonhagaba; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-state deputy of São Paulo; ex-alderman of Pindamonhangaba; ex-national president of Brazilian Social Democracy Party; defeated presidential candidate for two times - Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Getúlio Vargas (1882–1954); ex-president of Brazil; ex-governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-senator by Rio Grande do Sul; ex-minister of Exchequer; ex-federal deputy by Rio Grande do Sul; ex-state deputy of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazilian Labour Party (PTB)
- Golbery do Couto e Silva (1911–1987); ex-Chief of Staff of the Presidency - National Renewal Alliance (ARENA)
- Hamilton Mourão (born 1953); vice-president of Brazil - Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (PRTB)
- Jânio Quadros (1917-1992); ex-president of Brazil; ex-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-mayor of São Paulo; ex-federal deputy by Paraná; ex-state deputy of São Paulo; ex-alderman of São Paulo - Christian Labour Party (PTC)
- Joice Cristina Hasselmann (born 1978); federal deputy by São Paulo - Social Liberal Party (PSL)
- João Amoêdo (born 1962); national president of New Party; defeated presidential candidate - New Party (NOVO)
- João Goulart (1919-1976); ex-president of Brazil, deposed by a coup; ex-vice-president of Brazil; ex-minister of Labour, Industry and Trade; ex-federal deputy by Rio Grande do Sul; ex-state deputy of Rio Grande do Sul - Brazilian Labour Party (PTB)
- José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva (1763-1838); ex-minister of Foregin Affairs; hero of independence
- José Maria de Almeida (born 1957); national president of Unified Workers' Socialist Party; defeated presidential candidate for two times - Unified Workers' Socialist Party (PSTU)
- José Maria Eymael (born 1939); national president of Christian Democracy; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; defeated presidential candidate for five times - Christian Democracy (DC)
- José Sarney (born 1930); ex-president of Brazil; ex-vice-president of Brazil; ex-president of the Federal Senate; ex-governor of the state of Maranhão; ex-senator by Maranhão; ex-senator by Amapá - Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)
- Júlio Prestes (1882-1946); ex-president of Brazil, did not take office; ex-governor of the state of São Paulo - National Democratic Union (UDN)
- Juscelino Kubitschek (1902–1976); ex-president of Brazil; ex-governor of the state of Minas Gerais; ex-senator by Goiás; ex-mayor of Belo Horizonte; ex-federal deputy by Minas Gerais - Social Democratic Party (PSD)
- Kim Kataguiri (born 1996); federal deputy by São Paulo; leader of Free Brazil Movement - Democrats (DEM)
- Leonel Brizola (1922-2004); ex-governor of the state of Rio de Janeiro; ex-governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-mayor of Porto Alegre; ex-federal deputy by Guanabara; ex-federal deputy by Rio Grande do Sul; ex-state deputy of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-national president of Democratic Labour Party - Democratic Labour Party (PDT)
- Luciana Genro (born 1971); state deputy of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-federal deputy by Rio Grande do Sul; defeated presidential candidate; daughter of Tarso Genro - Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)
- Luciano Bivar (born 1944), second-vice-president of the Federal Chamber of Deputies; federal deputy by Pernambuco; nacional president of Social Liberal Party - Social Liberal Party (PSL)
- Luís Carlos Prestes (1898-1990); ex-senator by Federal District; ex-general secretary of Brazilian Communist Party; ex-leader of National Libertarian Alliance - Brazilian Communist Party (PCB)
- Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (born 1945); ex-president of Brazil; ex-Chief of Staff of the Presidency; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-national president of Worker's Party - Workers' Party (PT)
- Manuela d'Ávila (born 1981); ex-federal deputy by Rio Grande do Sul; ex-state deputy of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-alderwoman of Porto Alegre; defeated vice-presidential candidate - Communist Party of Brazil (PCdoB)
- Marcelo Freixo (born 1967); federal deputy by Rio de Janeiro; ex-state deputy of Rio de Janeiro - Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)
- Marielle Franco (1979-2018); ex-alderwoman of Rio de Janeiro. She and her driver Anderson Pedro Gomes were assassinated by two militians, which have a relationship with the familiy of Jair Bolsonaro.
- Mário Covas (1930–2001); ex-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-senator by São Paulo; ex-mayor of São Paulo; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo - Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Marina Silva (born 1958); national president of Sustainability Network; ex-senator by Acre; ex-minister of the Environment; ex-state deputy of Acre; ex-alderwoman of Rio Branco; defeated presidencial candidate for three times - Sustainability Network (REDE)
- Marta Suplicy (born 1945); ex-vice-president of the Federal Senate; ex-senator by São Paulo; ex-minister of Culture; ex-minister of Turism; ex-mayor of São Paulo; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo - Independent
- Mauro Carlesse (born 1960); governor of the state of Tocantins; ex-president of the Tocantins's State Chamber of Deputies; ex-state deputy of Tocantins - Democrats (DEM)
- Michel Temer (born 1940); ex-president of Brazil; ex-vice-president of Brazil; ex-president of the Federal Chamber of Deputies; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-prosecutor general of São Paulo - Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)
- Paulo Maluf (born 1931); ex-governor of the state of São Paulo; ex-mayor of São Paulo; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo; ex-president of Caixa Econômica Federal; defeated presidential candidate - Progressist Party (PP)
- Paulo Pereira da Silva (born 1956); federal deputy by São Paulo; national president of Solidarity - Solidarity (SD)
- Paulo Renato Souza (1945-2011); ex-minister of Education; ex-federal deputy by São Paulo - Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB)
- Rodrigo Maia (born 1970); president of the Federal Chamber of Deputies; federal deputy by Rio de Janeiro; ex-national president of Democrats - Democrats (DEM)
- Romeu Zema (born 1964); governor of the state of Minas Gerais - New Party (NOVO)
- Rui Costa Pimenta (born 1957); national president of Factory Workers' Cause Party; defeated presidential candidate for four times - Factory Workers' Cause Party
- Tancredo Neves (1910–1985); ex-president of Brazil, died before took office; ex-prime minister of Brazil; ex-governor of the state of Minas Gerais; ex-senator by Minas Gerais - Brazilian Democratic Movement (MDB)
- Tarso Genro (born 1947); ex-governor of the state of Rio Grande do Sul; ex-minister of Education; ex-minister of Justice; ex-minister of institutional relations - Workers' Party (PT)
International organization participationEdit
- African Development Bank
- Customs Cooperation Council
- United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean
- Food and Agriculture Organization
- Group of 11
- Group of 15
- Group of 19
- Group of 24
- Group of 77
- Inter-American Development Bank
- International Atomic Energy Agency
- International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (World Bank)
- International Civil Aviation Organization
- International Chamber of Commerce
- International Criminal Court
- International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement
- International Development Association
- International Fund for Agricultural Development
- International Finance Corporation
- International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies
- International Hydrographic Organization
- International Labour Organization
- International Monetary Fund
- International Maritime Organization
- International Telecommunications Satellite Organization
- International Olympic Committee
- International Organization for Migration (observer)
- International Organization for Standardization
- International Telecommunication Union
- International Trade Union Confederation
- Latin American Economic System
- Asociación Latinoamericana de Integración
- Mercosur, Non-Aligned Movement (observer)
- Nuclear Suppliers Group
- Organization of American States
- Agency for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America and the Caribbean
- Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons
- Permanent Court of Arbitration
- Rio Group
- United Nations
- United Nations Conference on Trade and Development
- United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization
- Union of South American Nations
- United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
- United Nations Industrial Development Organization
- United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka
- United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor
- United Nations University
- Universal Postal Union
- World Federation of Trade Unions
- World Health Organization
- World Intellectual Property Organization
- World Meteorological Organization
- World Tourism Organization
- World Trade Organization
This section is empty. You can help by adding to it. (August 2019)
- The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2018: Me Too?". The Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- (in Portuguese) Barros, Ana Cláudia. "PT ainda pode ser chamado de esquerda, afirma sociólogo" Archived 2015-06-10 at the Wayback Machine. Terra Magazine. September 17, 2010.
- "Lula diz que o DEM precisa ser extirpado da política brasileira - Terra Brasil". Archived from the original on 2010-09-17. Retrieved 2010-09-20.
- "Estatísticas do eleitorado – Eleitores filiados". Tribunal Superior Eleitoral. Archived from the original on 9 July 2019. Retrieved 27 June 2017.
- Latin America in the 20th century: 1889-1929, 1991, p. 314-319
- "Brazil Marks 40th Anniversary of Military Coup". Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- "Big rallies against Brazil president". 2015-03-16. Archived from the original on 2017-11-16. Retrieved 2019-03-16.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-11-30. Retrieved 2019-03-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-07-30. Retrieved 2019-03-15.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Global Integrity Report: Brazil Reports on anti-corruption efforts.
-  Reports on political culture and political news, with a focus on transparency and good government.
-  Essays on Brazilian politics and policies by leading intellectuals and public figures.
-  Reports on the politics and issues surrounding Brazilian soccer and the 2014 World Cup in Brazil.
- Goertzel, Ted and Paulo Roberto Almeida, The Drama of Brazilian Politics from Dom João to Marina Silva Amazon Digital Services. ISBN 978-1-4951-2981-0.