The Braj language, Braj Bhasha, also known as Vraj Bhasha or Brij Bhasha or Braj Boli, is a Western Hindi language. Along with Awadhi (a variety of Eastern Hindi), it was one of the two predominant literary languages of North-Central India before the switch to Hindustani in the 19th century.
|ब्रजभाषा بْرج بھاشا Braj Bhāshā|
|1,600,000 (2011 census)|
Census results conflate some speakers with Hindi.
Braj bhasa speaking region
Braj is spoken by people in the vaguely defined region of Braj (Braj Bhoomi) in northern India, which was a political state in the era of the Mahabharata wars. According to ancient Hindu texts such as the Bhagavata Purana, the Kingdom of Surasena is described as spreading through Braj (also known as Brij, Vrija or Vraja), where the incarnation of Vishnu, Krishna was born and spent his childhood days, according to tradition. This region lies in the Agra-Mathura-Hathras-Firozabad-Aligarh area & Etawah-Mainpuri-Auraiya area, and stretches as far as the environs of Delhi. In modern India, this area lies mostly in central western Uttar Pradesh, the eastern extremities of Rajasthan i.e. Bharatpur, Karauli & Dholpur and the southern extremities of Haryana. Northern regions of Madhya Pradesh like Morena are also included. Today Braj Bhoomi can be seen as a cultural-geographical entity rather than a proper state. Braj Bhasha is the vernacular of the region, and is very close to Awadhi, spoken in the neighbouring Awadh region.
Much of the Hindi literature was developed in Braj in the medieval period, and a substantial amount of Bhakti or devotional poetry is in this language. Some devotional poems for Krishna are also composed in Braj. Braj is also the main language of Hindustani classical music compositions.
The Hindavi poet Amir Khusrau (1253 – 1325) wrote some of his poetry in Braj Bhasha, as did the Sikh scribe Bhai Gurdas (1551-1636). Braj folk songs and poems include Chhaap Tilak Sab Chheeni by Amir Khusrau, and the devotional song Main Naahin Maakhan Khaayo by Surdas.
Geographical distribution edit
Braj Bhasha is spoken in the nebulous Braj region centred on Mathura & Agra in Uttar Pradesh and Bharatpur, Karauli & Dholpur in Rajasthan. It is the predominant language in the central stretch of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab in the following districts:
In Madhya Pradesh it is spoken in the districts of :
Most Braj literature is of a mystical nature, related to the spiritual union of people with God, because almost all of the Braj Bhasha poets were considered God-realised saints and their words are thus considered as directly emanating from a divine source. Much of the traditional Northern Indian literature shares this trait. All traditional Punjabi literature is similarly written by saints and is of a metaphysical and philosophical nature.
Another peculiar feature of Northern Indian literature is that the literature is mostly written from a female point of view, even by male poets. This is because the saints were in a state of transcendental, spiritual love, where they were metaphorically women reuniting with their beloved. (In its inversion of the conventional genders of worshipper and worshippee, Maulana Da’ud's Chandayan departs from this tradition.)
Important works in Braj Bhasha are:
- “ pushtimargiya kiratan of ashtachhap.
- Yugala Shataka by Swami Sri Sribhatta Devacarya; known as the first 'Vani' book in Vraja Bhasha composed in the 14th Century AD as a part of Nimbarka Sampradaya tradition of Radha Krishna worship.
- Vinaya Patrika by Tulsidas
- Sur Sagar by Surdas
- Buddha Charit by Acharya Ram Chandra Shukla
- Sufi poetry by Amir Khusro
- Eulogies by Kavi Bhushan
- Nayikabhed, Nakhshikh and satasattak by Chhatrapati Sambhaji Maharaj.
- Vrind Satsai by Vrind (1643 - 1723), court poet of ruler of Kishangarh
Basic Phrases of the Brij Bhasha (Sample sentences) edit
|कहां जाए रयो है रे? or कहाँ जाए रै?||Where are you going?|
|का कर रओ है?or का कर रै? (to male), का कर रई है (to female).||What are you doing?|
|'तेरो नाम का है?'.or तेओ नाम का है?||What is your name?|
|तेनें का खायो?or तेनें का खाओ है?||What did you eat?|
|का है रयो है?||What's going on?|
|मोए ना पतो.||I don't know.|
|तोए का दिक्कत है?||What is your problem?|
|कहां कौ है रे तू?||Where are you from?|
|घर कौन-कौन है रे? or घर पे को को है रे?||Who's at home?|
|तेरो घर कहां है? or तेरो घर किते है?||Where is your home?|
|रोटी खाए लई का ?||Had your meal?|
|का हाल-चाल है ? or तू कैसो है ?||How are you?|
|तोए बताई हती. or तोते कही हती.||I told you.|
|जे लाली मेई है। or जे मेई मोड़ी है।||She's my daughter.|
|जे हमाओ लल्ला/मोडा है||He's my son.|
|तु कब आवैगो/ आगौ?||When you will be coming?|
|तेरी ही बाट जोहि रहो हैं||I was waiting for you.|
|तेरो ब्याह है गयो का?||Are you married?|
|कहाँ कूं जाइ रयो है?||Which place you are going to?|
|न्याह आ / इते आ/ झें अइयो||Come here.|
|हम्बे हाँजी||Yes/no both with expression|
|चुप्प है जा||silent|
|नोन दियो नेक सो||Give me some salt|
|मेरे जोरे ना हत / मोपे ना हत||I don't have|
|जि बस कितकूं जाइ रई है?||Where will this bus go?|
|जादा मति बोले||don't speak too much|
|इतकूं अइयो||come here|
|पल्ल्न्कुं है जा / बगल कों है जा||go that side|
|रोटी खाइ लै||have food|
|नेक मोए दियो||give me a little bit|
|जामें नोन लाघु है/ जामे नोन भोतु है||there is too much salt in this|
See also edit
- "Statement 1: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues - 2011". www.censusindia.gov.in. Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
- "Census of India: Abstract of speakers' strength of languages and mother tongues –2001". censusindia.gov.in. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Frawley, William (May 2003). International Encyclopedia of Linguistics. ISBN 9780195139778. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- "Google Notebook". google.com. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
- Atre, Shubhangana (2019). History. Maharashtra: Maharashtra state textbook bureau.
- Sujit Mukherjee (1998). A Dictionary of Indian Literature: Beginnings-1850. Orient Blackswan. pp. 425–. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9.
Further reading edit
- Snell, Rupert. 1991. The Hindi Classical Tradition: A Braj Bhāṣā Reader ISBN 0728601753
- Snell, Rupert. 2016. Braj in Brief: An introduction to literary Braj Bhāṣā