A bowl is a round dish or container typically used to prepare and serve food. The interior of a bowl is characteristically shaped like a spherical cap, with the edges and the bottom forming a seamless curve. This makes bowls especially suited for holding liquids and loose food, as the contents of the bowl are naturally concentrated in its center by the force of gravity. The exterior of a bowl is most often round, but can be of any shape, including rectangular.
The size of bowls varies from small bowls used to hold a single serving of food to large bowls, such as punch bowls or salad bowls, that are often used to hold or store more than one portion of food. There is some overlap between bowls, cups and plates. Very small bowls, such as the tea bowl, are often called cups, while plates with especially deep wells are often called bowls.
In South Asian cultures, the bowl is still the typical form of vessel off which food is eaten, and on which it is served. Historically small forms were also used to serving both tea and alcoholic drinks. The main rival for food is the flatter plate, which predominates in Western culture and many other cultures, as forms of cup do for drinks.
Modern bowls can be made of ceramic, metal, wood, plastic, and other materials. Bowls have been made for thousands of years. Very early bowls have been found in China, Ancient Greece, Crete and in certain Native American cultures.
In Ancient Greek pottery, small bowls, including phiales and pateras, and bowl-shaped cups called kylices were used. Phiales were used for libations and included a small dent in the center for the bowl to be held with a finger, although one source indicates that these were used to hold perfume rather than wine. Some Mediterranean examples from the Bronze Age manifest elaborate decoration and sophistication of design. For example, the bridge spouted vessel design appeared in Minoan at Phaistos. In the 4th millennium BC, evidence exists that the Uruk culture of ancient Mesopotamia mass-produced beveled rim bowls of standardized sizes. Moreover, in Chinese pottery, there are many elaborately painted bowls and other vessels dating to the Neolithic period. As of 2009[update], the oldest found is 18,000 years old.
In examining bowls found during an archaeological dig in North America, the anthropologist Vincas Steponaitis defines a bowl by its dimensions, writing that a bowl's diameter rarely falls under half its height and that historic bowls can be classified by their edge, or lip, and shape.
In many cultures, food and drink are shared in a communal bowl or cup. In Mali, the name of the town of Bandiagara (French pronunciation: [bɑ̃djaɡaʁa]) refers to the communal bowl meals are served in. The name translates roughly to "large eating bowl." In Zimbabwe, sadza is traditionally eaten from a communal bowl, a tradition that is still maintained by some families mainly in the rural areas. It is generally eaten with the right hand without the aid of cutlery; often rolled into a ball before being dipped into a variety of condiments such as sauce/gravy, sour milk, or stewed vegetables. Lakh is a popular boiled porridge made with rolled millet flour pellets (araw/arraw) typically topped at serving with sweetened fermented milk. Usually served in a communal bowl or platter in Senegal.
In China, it is considered rude and unhygienic for a diner to use his or her own chopsticks to pick up food from communal bowls and plates when such utensils are present. Other potentially rude behaviors with chopsticks include playing with them, separating them in any way (such as holding one in each hand), piercing food with them, or standing them vertically in a plate of food. (The latter is especially rude, evoking images of incense or 'joss' sticks used ceremoniously at funerals).
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- Hogan (2007)
- The World: Science Podcast. #17: U.S. "Science Envoys", Nobel winners strategize on global warming, and ten million years of laughter. Public Radio International, June 5, 2009.
- Zimmerman, Jereme. "The Communal Origins of a Festive New Year's Drinking Tradition" – via www.yesmagazine.org.
- "Sadza". worldfood.guide.
- "Chinese Chopstick Etiquette". Culture-4-Travel.com.
- Hogan, C. Michael (2007). "Phaistos fieldnotes". The Modern Antiquarian.
- Steponaitis, Vincas P. (1983). Ceramics, Chronology, and Community Patterns: An Archaeological Study at Moundville. The Modern Antiquarian. New York: Academic Press. p. 68–69. ISBN 978-0-12-666280-1.
- Walters, H. B. (1905). History of Ancient Pottery: Greek, Etruscan, and Roman. The Modern Antiquarian. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 140, 191–192.
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