Boundaries of Hong Kong

The Boundaries of Hong Kong, officially the Boundary of the Administrative Division of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China[1][2] (simplified Chinese: 中华人民共和国香港特别行政区行政区域界线; traditional Chinese: 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區行政區域界綫), is a regulated administrative border with border control in force under the One country, two systems constitutional principle, which separates the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region from mainland China, by land border fence of 30 km (19 mi) and maritime boundary of 733 km (455 mi),[1] enforcing a separate immigration and customs-controlled jurisdiction from mainland China.

Map of the boundaries of Hong Kong since 1997, dotted in grey dash lines surrounding Hong Kong.

The boundaries of Hong Kong are patrolled and controlled by the Hong Kong Police Force and its Marine Region and the Immigration Department at land and sea. The land boundary also includes a buffer zone, known as Frontier Closed Area.

Border Road is enclosed by fences

HistoryEdit

After the First Opium War and territorial establishment of Hong Kong, the Hong Kong Island was ceded by the Qing Empire to the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland through Treaty of Nanjing in 1842, not marking any official maritime boundaries.

In 1860, the Convention of Peking extended the cession to include Kowloon with the land boundary limits until "Boundary street in Kowloon".[3], and in 1898 with additional land of New Territories was leased for 99-years to the British under the Convention for the Extension of Hong Kong Territory with the Sham Chun River primarily marking the boundary between British Hong Kong and Qing dynasty.[4]

Between the years of 1941 and 1945 during the Japanese occupation of Hong Kong, boundaries of Hong Kong may or may not have been clearly distinguished as parts of Southern China alongside Hong Kong were together occupied by the Japanese Empire.[5] After the Japanese surrender in 1945, all British government institutions in Hong Kong, including the land boundary primarily running across the Sham Chun River were restored.[6]

In 1984, the governments of the United Kingdom and the People's Republic of China (PRC) concluded the Sino-British Joint Declaration on the Question of Hong Kong, under which the sovereignty of the leased territories, together with Hong Kong Island and Kowloon (south of Boundary Street) ceded under the Convention of Peking (1860), was transferred to the PRC on 1 July 1997, maintaining the current land boundary primarily running across the Sham Chun River,[7] however the Hong Kong Basic Law modified and extended the size of Hong Kong's maritime boundary with mainland China in 1997.[1]

Historical mapsEdit

Immigration control pointsEdit

As of 2021, 8 out of Hong Kong's 15 points of entry/border crossings controlled by the Immigration Department are located on or cross the land border fence.[8] Entry and exit immigration clearance into Hong Kong by sea can be cleared at 4 Ferry terminals:[8], and the other 3 out of 15 immigration clearance points in Hong Kong are located at 2 railway stations and one at the Hong Kong International Airport.[8]

No. Hong Kong
Control Point
District in Hong Kong Type of
border crossing
and coordinates
Counterpart Mainland
Chinese Port(s)
District and City
in mainland China
Opened Weblinks and Remarks Image

Land border Control Points crossing the border fence/lineEdit

1 Man Kam To Control Point
文錦渡管制站
Man Kam To, North District Land border crossing
22°32′13″N 114°07′46″E / 22.5370°N 114.1294°E / 22.5370; 114.1294
Wenjindu Port
文锦渡口岸
Luohu District, Shenzhen 1976 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
2 Lo Wu Control Point
羅湖管制站
Lo Wu, North District Land border crossing
22°31′56″N 114°06′48″E / 22.53222°N 114.11333°E / 22.53222; 114.11333
Luohu Port
罗湖口岸
Luohu District, Shenzhen 1986 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
3 Lok Ma Chau Control Point
落馬洲管制站
Lok Ma Chau, Yuen Long District Land border crossing
22°31′15″N 114°04′30″E / 22.52074°N 114.07496°E / 22.52074; 114.07496
Huanggang Port
皇岗口岸
Futian District, Shenzhen 1989 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
4 Sha Tau Kok Control Point
沙頭角管制站
Sha Tau Kok, North District Land border crossing
22°32′56.8″N 114°13′23.8″E / 22.549111°N 114.223278°E / 22.549111; 114.223278
Shatoujiao Port
沙头角口岸
Yantian District, Shenzhen 2005 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
5 Shenzhen Bay Port
深圳灣口岸
- (Juxtaposed control) Juxtaposed Land border crossing
22°30′14″N 113°56′41″E / 22.5039°N 113.9447°E / 22.5039; 113.9447
Shenzhen Bay Port
深圳湾口岸
Nanshan District, Shenzhen 2007 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
6 Lok Ma Chau Spur Line Control Point
落馬洲支線管制站
Lok Ma Chau, Yuen Long District Land border crossing
22°30′57″N 114°04′08″E / 22.51577°N 114.06877°E / 22.51577; 114.06877
Futian Port
福田口岸
Futian District, Shenzhen 2007 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 
7 Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge (HZMB) Hong Kong Port
港珠澳大橋香港口岸
Chek Lap Kok, Islands District Land/Sea border crossing the Hong Kong–Zhuhai–Macau Bridge
22°16′59″N 113°46′50″E / 22.28306°N 113.78056°E / 22.28306; 113.78056
2018 customs.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
fsm.gov.mo (Macau)
 
8 Heung Yuen Wai Control Point
香園圍管制站
Heung Yuen Wai, North District Land border crossing
22°33′15.43″N 114°9′8.72″E / 22.5542861°N 114.1524222°E / 22.5542861; 114.1524222
Liantang Port
莲塘口岸
Luohu District, Shenzhen 2020 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
 

Border Control Points with clearance in Hong Kong for crossing Hong Kong boundaries by seaEdit

9 Hong Kong–Macau Ferry Terminal
港澳客輪碼頭
Sheung Wan, Central and Western District Border crossing clearance in Hong Kong for crossing Hong Kong boundaries by sea
22°17′21.74″N 114°9′7.75″E / 22.2893722°N 114.1521528°E / 22.2893722; 114.1521528
multiple multiple 1985 mardep.gov.hk  
10 Hong Kong China Ferry Terminal
中國客運碼頭
Tsim Sha Tsui, Yau Tsim Mong District Border crossing clearance in Hong Kong for crossing Hong Kong boundaries by sea
22°17′58″N 114°10′02″E / 22.29931°N 114.16725°E / 22.29931; 114.16725
multiple multiple 1988 mardep.gov.hk  
11 Tuen Mun Ferry Pier
屯門碼頭
Tuen Mun New Town, Tuen Mun District Border crossing clearance in Hong Kong for crossing Hong Kong boundaries by sea
22°22′20″N 113°57′58″E / 22.37222°N 113.96611°E / 22.37222; 113.96611
multiple multiple 1988 mardep.gov.hk  
12 Kai Tak Cruise Terminal
啟德郵輪碼頭
Kai Tak Development, Kowloon City District Border crossing clearance in Hong Kong for crossing Hong Kong boundaries by sea
22°18′27″N 114°12′46″E / 22.3074°N 114.2128°E / 22.3074; 114.2128
multiple multiple 2013 kaitakcruiseterminal.com.hk  

Rail and Air Border Control PointsEdit

13 Hung Hom station
紅磡

(Kowloon Station 九龙站)
Hung Hom, Yau Tsim Mong District/Kowloon City District Rail border crossing
22°18′10″N 114°10′54″E / 22.3029°N 114.1816°E / 22.3029; 114.1816
1975 mtr.com.hk  
14 Hong Kong West Kowloon railway station
香港西九龍
Tsim Sha Tsui, Yau Tsim Mong District Juxtaposed rail border crossing
22°18′13″N 114°09′54″E / 22.30361°N 114.16500°E / 22.30361; 114.16500
Hong Kong West Kowloon railway station
香港西九龙站
- (Juxtaposed control) 2018 ka.sz.gov.cn (mainland China)
td.gov.hk (Hong Kong)
highspeed.mtr.com.hk
 
15 Hong Kong International Airport
香港國際機場
Chep Lap Kok, Islands District Airport border Immigration/Checkpoint
22°18′32″N 113°54′52″E / 22.30889°N 113.91444°E / 22.30889; 113.91444
- - 1998 hongkongairport.com  

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c basiclaw.gov.hk - Description of the Boundary of the Administrative Division of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China
  2. ^ elegislation.gov.hk - 中華人民共和國香港特別行政區行政區域界綫文字表述 Description of the Boundary of the Administrative Division of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People’s Republic of China
  3. ^ Endacott, G. B.; Carroll, John M. (2005) [1962]. A biographical sketch-book of early Hong Kong. Hong Kong University Press. ISBN 978-962-209-742-1.
  4. ^ "Lessons in History". National Palace Museum (Taipei). 9 August 2011. Retrieved 27 August 2018.
  5. ^ "China Offensive". Center of Military History. United states Army. 3 October 2003. Retrieved 14 November 2014.
  6. ^ Tsang 2004, p. 133.
  7. ^ Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau, The Government of the HKSAR. "The Joint Declaration" and following pages, 1 July 2007.
  8. ^ a b c Control Point Locations - Hong Kong Immigration Department