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Logan International Airport

  (Redirected from Boston Logan Airport)

Logan International Airport[4] (IATA: BOS, ICAO: KBOS, FAA LID: BOS), officially known as General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport,[5][6] and also commonly known as Boston Logan Airport, Logan Airport or simply Logan, is an international airport that is located mostly in East Boston and partially in Winthrop, Massachusetts, United States. It covers 2,384 acres (965 ha), has six runways and four passenger terminals, and employs an estimated 16,000 people. It is the largest airport in both the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and the New England region in terms of passenger volume and cargo handling, as well as the 16th-busiest airport in the United States, with 38.4 million total passengers in 2017.[7] The airport saw 40,941,925 passengers in 2018, the most in its history. It is named after General Edward Lawrence Logan, a 19th-century war hero native to Boston.

General Edward Lawrence Logan International Airport
Boston Logan International Airport Logo.jpg
Logan Airport aerial view.jpg
Summary
Airport typePublic
OwnerMassachusetts Port Authority (Massport)
ServesGreater Boston and New England
LocationEast Boston and Winthrop, Massachusetts, U.S.
Hub for
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL20 ft / 6 m
Coordinates42°21′47″N 071°00′23″W / 42.36306°N 71.00639°W / 42.36306; -71.00639Coordinates: 42°21′47″N 071°00′23″W / 42.36306°N 71.00639°W / 42.36306; -71.00639
Websitewww.massport.com/logan-airport
Maps
A map with a grid overlay showing the terminals runways and other structures of the airport.
FAA airport diagram
BOS is located in Massachusetts
BOS
BOS
Location within Massachusetts / United States
BOS is located in the United States
BOS
BOS
BOS (the United States)
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
4L/22R 7,861 2,396 Asphalt
4R/22L 10,006 3,050 Asphalt
9/27 7,001 2,134 Asphalt
14/32 5,000 1,524 Asphalt
15L/33R 2,557 779 Asphalt
15R/33L 10,083 3,073 Asphalt
Statistics (2018)
Aircraft operations424,024[1]
Passengers40,941,925[1]

Logan has non-stop service to destinations throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, Latin America, the Caribbean, the North Atlantic region (including Bermuda and the Azores), Europe, Africa, and Asia.[8] The airport is a hub for Cape Air and Delta Air Lines as well as a focus city for JetBlue.[9][10] American and United also carry out significant operations from the airport, including daily transcontinental flights. All of the major U.S. air carriers offer flights from Boston to all or the majority of their primary and secondary hubs.

HistoryEdit

OriginsEdit

Logan Airport opened on September 8, 1923, and was used mainly by the Massachusetts Air Guard and the Army Air Corps. It was then called Jeffery Field. The first scheduled commercial passenger flights were on Colonial Air Transport between Boston and New York City in 1927.[11] On January 1, 1936, the airport's weather station became the official point for Boston's weather observations and records by the National Weather Service.[12]

Early domestic expansionEdit

Until around 1950 the airline terminal was at 42°22′01″N 71°01′39″W / 42.367°N 71.0275°W / 42.367; -71.0275; on the 1946 topographical map the airfield extended less than 5,000 ft east from there (the east end of the field was at 42°21′40″N 71°00′43″W / 42.361°N 71.012°W / 42.361; -71.012). During the 1940s the airport added 1,800 acres (730 ha) of landfill in Boston Harbor, taken from the former Governors, Noddle's and Apple Islands. In 1943 the state renamed the airport after Maj. Gen. Edward Lawrence Logan, a Spanish–American War officer from South Boston, a statue of whom by sculptor Joseph Coletti was unveiled and dedicated on May 20, 1956.[11][13][14] In 1952, Logan Airport became the first in the United States with an indirect rapid transit connection, with the opening of the Airport station on the Blue Line.

The March 1947 diagram shows 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4 (future 4L) in use, with runways 9 and 33 under construction; a different runway 33 ran 6,700 ft (2,000 m) northwestward from the present intersection of 4R and 9, and runway 25 ran 4,000 ft (1,200 m) southwest from the present intersection of 4L and 33. The December 1950 diagram shows a layout similar to the current one: 7,000 ft (2,100 m) runway 4L, 10,000-ft 4R, 7,000-ft 9 and 7,650-ft 33.

Boston became a transatlantic gateway after World War II. In the late 1940s, American Overseas Airlines began operating a weekly Boston-Shannon-London service,[15] and Pan American World Airways began operating nonstop service to Shannon Airport in Ireland and Santa Maria Airport in the Azores, continuing to London and Lisbon respectively.[16] By the early 1950s, BOAC also offered nonstop Stratocruiser service to Prestwick Airport in Scotland,[17] and Air France operated a multi-stop Constellation service linking Boston to Orly Airport in Paris.[18] During this time, BOAC deployed the De Havilland Comet, the first commercial jetliner in the world, on direct flights to Boston from London Heathrow airport. As of April 1957, the Official Airline Guide showed 49 weekday departures on American, 31 Eastern, 25 Northeast, 8 United, 7 TWA domestic, 6 National, 6 Mohawk, 2 TCA and one Provincetown-Boston. In addition TWA had nine departures a week to or from the Atlantic, Pan Am had 18, Air France 8, BOAC 4 and LAI 4.[19]

Introduction of the jumbo jet and early international expansionEdit

The jumbo jet era began at Logan in summer 1970 when Pan Am started daily Boeing 747s to London Heathrow Airport. Currently, the Boeing 747-400 is scheduled on flights to Boston by British Airways.[20] Lufthansa also operates B747s, including the latest-model Boeing 747-8, on its daily nonstop flights to Frankfurt.[21]

Terminal E was the second largest international arrivals facility in the United States when it opened in 1974.[22] Between 1974 and 2015, the number of international travelers at Logan has tripled.[23] International long-haul travel has been the fastest growing market sector at the airport. Massachusetts Port Authority (Massport) undertook the "Logan Modernization Project" from 1994 to 2006: a new parking garage, a new hotel, moving walkways, terminal expansions and improvements, and two-tiered roadways to separate arrival and departure traffic.[11]

Massport's relationship with nearby communities has been strained since the mid-1960s,[24] when the agency took control of a parcel of residential land and popular fishing area near the northwest side of the airfield. This project was undertaken to extend Runway 15R/33L, which later became Logan's longest runway via artificial land.[25] Residents of the neighborhood, known as Wood Island, were bought out of their homes and forced to relocate. Public opposition came to a head when residents lay down in the streets to block bulldozers and supply trucks from reaching the construction zone.[26]

Modern international expansion and runway additionsEdit

 
Cargo loading of a Lufthansa Boeing 747-400 during a temporary closure due to heavy snowfall

Runway 14/32, Logan's first major runway addition in more than forty years, opened on November 23, 2006. It was proposed in 1973 but was delayed in the courts.[27] According to Massport records, the first aircraft to use the new airstrip was a Continental Express ERJ-145 regional jet landing on Runway 32, on the morning of December 2, 2006.

In April 2007, the FAA approved construction of a center field taxiway long-sought by Massport. The 9,300-foot (2,830 m) taxiway is between, and parallel to, Runways 4R/22L and 4L/22R. News of the project angered neighboring residents.[28] In 2009 the taxiway opened ahead of schedule and under budget.[29] To ensure the taxiway is not mistaken for a runway, "TAXI" is written in large yellow letters at each end.

A scene from the 2006 film The Departed was filmed at Logan, inside the connector bridge between Terminal E and the Central Parking Garage. Terminal C and several United Airlines and Northwest Airlines aircraft can be seen in the background. Parts of the Delta Air Lines 2007 "Anthem" commercial were filmed in Terminal A as well as the connector bridge between Terminal A and Central Parking.

In October 2009 US Airways announced it would close its Boston crew base in May 2010. The airline cited an "operations realignment" as the reason.[30] Over 400 employees were transferred or terminated.[31]

After starting service to Logan in 2004, JetBlue was a major operator at Logan Airport by 2008 and its largest carrier by 2011, with flights to cities throughout North America and the Caribbean.[32]

The Airbus A380 first landed at Logan International Airport for compatibility checks on February 8, 2010. On March 26, 2017, British Airways began flying the A380 to Logan, operating the aircraft three times per week.[33] British Airways announced in October 2018 that A380 service to Boston would expand to daily frequency during the summer 2019 season, beginning on March 31, 2019.[34] Likewise, in January 2019, Emirates announced that it would be deploying the A380 on its daily flight between Logan and Dubai during the June–September 2019 summer season, as high peak seasonal services replacing the B777-300ER on that route. Emirates intends to utilise the A380 as a daily service once the market demand has been achieved.[35]

FacilitiesEdit

Logan International Airport has four lettered passenger terminals, A, B, C, and E, and 102 gate positions total.[36] With the exception of flights from destinations with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance, inbound international flights arrive at Terminal E for customs screening since the other terminals do not have customs screening facilities. All terminals are connected by pre-security shuttle buses and by the SL1 branch of the MBTA Silver Line BRT, as well as between Terminals A, B, and E via pre-security moving walkways.[37] Moving walkways also connect the terminals to a central parking garage designed for consolidated service between all four terminals and the garage itself.[38]

Terminal AEdit

 
Ticketing hall of Terminal A at night

Terminal A, which replaced a 1970s-era building once occupied by the now-defunct Eastern Air Lines (and later by its successor Continental Airlines until closed for demolition in 2002), opened to passengers on March 16, 2005.[39] The terminal is primarily used by Delta for its hub operations and is divided into a main terminal and a satellite terminal, which are connected via an underground pedestrian tunnel under the ramp.[40] The new redesigned Terminal A was developed under a special facility lease between Massachusetts Port Authority and Delta. On September 14, 2005, six months after opening, Delta filed for bankruptcy and consequently had to reduce the number of gates it leased.[41] Terminal A features two Delta Sky Clubs. One is located on the third floor of the satellite building, and a newer one opened at the site of the former Continental Presidents Club in the main terminal building.[42]

The building is the first airport terminal in the United States to be LEED certified for environmentally friendly design by the U.S. Green Building Council. Among the building's features are heat-reflecting roof and windows, low-flow faucets and waterless urinals, self-dimming lights and stormwater filtration.[43]

In December 2018, Delta announced an expansion of routes to take effect in 2019, which resulted in Southwest moving to Terminal B, and Delta regaining all of Terminal A (other than one gate subleased to WestJet, itself a codeshare airline with Delta).[44] As a result, Delta has declared Logan to be one of their hubs as of June 2019.[45]

Terminal BEdit

 
Logan Airport's Terminal B

Terminal B, designed by John Carl Warnecke & Associates and Desmond & Lord, Inc., opened in 1974.[46] Pier B was completed for US Airways in 1974 and Pier A for American in 1975.[46] The terminal remained largely unchanged until US Airways expanded its operations at Logan in 1979 and improvements designed by HNTB were constructed in 1980.[46] From 1980 until 2000, numerous small projects including passenger seating area improvements, concessions expansions and passenger lounges were completed at both piers.[46][47] American's facilities were renovated in 1995 and redesigned by Gresham, Smith & Partners,[47][48] and US Airways' facilities were renovated in 1998 and 2000, and redesigned by URS Corporation with Turner Construction serving as the construction manager.[47][49]

Until 2014, Terminal B was split into north and south buildings, with a parking garage between the two buildings. The gates of the south building are divided into three groups. The gates of the north building are divided into two groups. Air Canada, Alaska Airlines, American, Southwest, Spirit, and United operate out of Terminal B.[40] United and American both operate lounges in the terminal for their customers.[50]

Between 2012 and 2014, Terminal B underwent a $160 million renovation, which was completed in April 2014. It created a post-security walkway that connects Terminal B North to Terminal B South. The renovation also included 24 new ticket counter spots, eight new departure lounges, new concession space, and a new baggage carousel.[51] United, formerly located in Terminals A and C, began operating all flights out of Terminal B effective April 2014.[52]

Terminal CEdit

 
JetBlue Gate 34 is dedicated to David Ortiz, former designated hitter for the Boston Red Sox.[53]

Terminal C opened in 1967 and was designed by Perry, Shaw, Hepburn and Dean.[54] It underwent renovations in 1987, 2002, and 2005.[47] Continuing the renovations of Terminal C, a post-security connection between Terminal C and Terminal E opened in Summer 2016, allowing for seamless connections between the two terminals, part of Massport's plan to ultimately connect all terminals post-security.[55] The terminal serves Aer Lingus, Cape Air, JetBlue, and Sun Country, with TAP Air Portugal only having departures take place out of the terminal.

The former Terminal D gates (the three gates at the north end of Terminal C) were renumbered and labeled as part of Terminal E in February 2006. These three gates were used, as part of Terminal E, by Southwest until their move to Terminal A.[56] In 2016, following construction of an airside connector between Terminals E and C, these three gates were renumbered again.

The airport's USO Lounge is located in the baggage claim area of Terminal C, lower level. It offers most typical amenities as other markets as major as Greater Boston. Military ID is mandatory.

Terminal EEdit

 
The International Arrivals Hall in Terminal E (Volpe International Terminal)

Terminal E, also known as the John A. Volpe International Terminal named after the former Governor of Massachusetts and U.S. Secretary of Transportation,[11] serves as the international terminal for Logan and therefore houses the majority of its international arrivals (excluding flights from an origin that has U.S. border preclearance). Also, most non-U.S. carriers excluding Aer Lingus, Air Canada, TAP Air Portugal, and WestJet depart from Terminal E. The terminal was completed in 1974 and designed by Kubitz & Papi, Inc. and Desmond & Lord, Inc.[57] Massport completed the "Terminal E Modernization" project in August 1997 which improved the passenger facilities.[47] The International Gateway Project, designed by Skidmore, Owings and Merrill and DMJM Aviation, added 410,000 square feet to the terminal in 2003 and the entire project was completed in 2008.[47]

Terminal E has a total of 12 gates. All gates within the terminal are designated as common-use, meaning gates are assigned mostly based on an operational need, and no specific airline claims ownership of any of those gates.[58] All ticket counters and gates in Terminal E are shared among the international carriers. Terminal E has several airline lounges (e.g., Air France Lounge,[59] British Airways' First Lounge and Terraces Lounge,[60] Lufthansa's First Lounge and Business Lounges,[61] Virgin Atlantic's Clubhouse Lounge[62]). The third level of Terminal E is used for departures, the second for passport control via U.S. Customs and Border Protection, and the ground level for arrivals and customs, also via U.S. Customs and Border Protection.[58] The Federal Inspection Station located in Terminal E is capable of processing over 2,000 passengers per hour.[43]

Terminal E underwent a $100 million renovation which started in 2014, and includes a post-security connector between Terminals E and C (opened summer 2016), improved immigration and passport control kiosks, and gates capable of serving the Airbus A380.[63] The Terminal E expansion was completed in late January 2017.[55]

In summer 2019, Massport began another expansion project on Terminal E, due to continued growth at the airport. The project, which is slated to be completed in early 2023, will include the addition of 7 new international gates which will stretch into the current North Cargo area. Additionally, a new TSA checkpoint will be built and the current ticketing, customs, and baggage claim areas will all be expanded. In total, the project is expected to cost $680 million and incorporate roughly 400,000 square feet of new space.[64]

RunwaysEdit

 
Runways and terminals at BOS

Located partly in East Boston and partly in the Town of Winthrop, on Boston Harbor,[65] Logan International Airport covers an area of 2,384 acres (965 ha) which contains six runways:[2]

  • Runway 4L/22R: 7,861 ft × 150 ft (2,396 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 4R/22L: 10,006 ft × 150 ft (3,050 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 9/27: 7,001 ft × 150 ft (2,134 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 14/32: 5,000 ft × 100 ft (1,524 m × 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15L/33R: 2,557 ft × 100 ft (779 m × 30 m), Surface: Asphalt
  • Runway 15R/33L: 10,083 ft × 150 ft (3,073 m × 46 m), Surface: Asphalt

ILS is available for runways 4R, 15R, 22L, 27, and 33L, with runways 4R and 33L are certified for CAT III Instrument Landing operations. The other runways with ILS are certified for CAT I Instrument Landing operations.[66] EMAS pads are located at the starting thresholds of runways 22R and 33L.[67]

Depending on the prevailing winds, different runways are used for takeoffs and landings:

Logan flight patterns[a][68]
Wind from Preferred Runways Percentage of operations
Departures Arrivals
NE 4L,[b] 4R, 9 4L, 4R 18%
SW 22L, 22R 22L, 22R,[b] 27 28%
NW 33L, 27 33L, 32, 27 37%
SE 15R, 14, 9 15R, 15L 17%
Notes
  1. ^ When operating three runways, Logan can accommodate 120 operations per hour in ideal weather. This drops to 60 operations per hour in poor conditions and a single runway.
  2. ^ a b 4L/22R handles non-jet operations only when the flight path takes aircraft over the city.
 
Logan control tower (2007)

The distinctive central control tower, nearly a dozen stories high, is a local landmark with its pair of segmented elliptical pylons and a six-story platform trussed between them.

Logan Airport has two cargo facilities: North Cargo is adjacent to Terminal E and South Cargo adjacent to Terminals A and B.[67] North Cargo is also the location of several maintenance hangars, including those operated by American Airlines, Delta Air Lines, and JetBlue.

Runway 14/32, which opened to air traffic on November 23, 2006, is unidirectional. Runway 32 is used for landings and 14 is used for takeoffs. Massport is barred by a court order from using the runway for overland landings or takeoffs, except in emergencies.[69]

There was fierce opposition towards the construction of 14/32 among communities adjacent to the northwest side of the airport, such as Chelsea and East Boston, as authorities acknowledged these areas would likely see increased noise levels. Many Residents of Winthrop and Revere also joined in opposition,[70] even though Massport had predicted the new traffic patterns allowed by 14/32 would actually reduce overflights and noise in those areas.

Since the opening of the new runway, there has been disagreement about when and how often it should operate. Residents have demanded a minimum of 11.5-knot (21.3 km/h) northwest winds, slightly higher than the 10-knot (19 km/h) threshold favored by Massport.

The rationale behind constructing the new runway 14/32 was that it reduces the need for improving existing Runway 15L/33R, which, at only 2,557 feet (779 m) is among the shortest hard-surface runways at major airports in the United States. In 1988, Massport had proposed a 800-foot (240 m) extension to 15L/33R (a project which would have required additional filling-in some land along a "clam bed"), but was thwarted by a court injunction.[71]

Boston's Hyatt Harborside Hotel, which sits only a few hundred yards from the runway threshold, was built primarily to prevent Massport from ever extending the length of 14/32 or using it for takeoffs or landings over the city. Massachusetts state legislators carefully chose the location of the hotel—directly in the runway centerline—prior to its construction in 1992.[72]

Ground transportationEdit

 
A Blue Line train approaching the northbound platform (left) at Airport station; the southbound platform is on the right side of the image.

Boston Logan International Airport has the accolade of "Easiest Airport to Get To" in a 2007 article on aviation.com because of the variety of options to/from the airport.[73] These options include cars, taxis, the MBTA Blue and Silver lines, regional bus services, shared ride vans, ferries, limousines and an in-house airport operator (Massport) intercity bus common carrier service offered by few U.S. airports, Logan Express, which is essentially Massport's equivalent to services such as Greyhound Lines, and can transport people from all four terminals at Logan to Back Bay, Braintree, Framingham, Peabody, or Woburn, or vice versa. Logan is 2.5 miles (4.0 km) northeast of Back Bay, a short distance compared with airports relative to their distance to an equivalent downtown in other major U.S. cities.[74]

By public roads, the airport is accessible via Exit 26 of the Massachusetts Turnpike (Interstate 90, colloquially MassPike), near its eastern terminus, which provides easy access from the west via the Ted Williams Tunnel. East of Exit 26, I-90 transitions to Route 1A to Revere, Lynn, and points north, as well as New Hampshire. From the south, travelers on Interstate 93 can connect to the MassPike east, through the Ted Williams Tunnel and take exit 26 to reach the airport. From the north, I-93 traffic to the airport uses the Callahan Tunnel, Route 1A North. Additionally, road traffic from most of downtown Boston, Back Bay, Fenway Park and its surrounding district, or Boston University uses the Callahan Tunnel. The westbound tunnel parallel to the Callahan Tunnel is known as the Sumner Tunnel. From the North Shore, access is via Route 1A South.

Massport's Airport Shuttle provides free service between all terminals, the Airport station on the Blue Line and the Rental Car Center, as well as additional service to the water transportation dock located on Harborside Drive.[75]

Statistically the two major ride-sharing transportation network companies (TNC) serving Logan International are Lyft and Uber. These providers in agreement with MassPort use only specially catered pick-up or drop-off points at the airport.[76] Due to sheer volume of users who use the providers, both have been known to use mass-messaging of their customer base to galvanize political pressure and act on a pressure group towards Logan management at MassPort concerning various policies that can impact those providers.[77][78]

The SL1 branch of the MBTA's Silver Line bus rapid transit service connects all Logan terminals with South Station, a major transportation hub in the downtown Boston financial district that serves MBTA Commuter Rail, Amtrak, Red Line subway and intercity bus.[79] Airport station on the MBTA's Blue Line subway, despite its name, is not in the airport terminal itself; free shuttle buses carry passengers between the Airport station and the terminal buildings. The Blue Line connects with the Orange Line at State, which provides service to both North Station and Back Bay Station the two other major rail transportation hubs for Boston. A transfer to the Green Line, which also runs to North Station, is available at Government Center station. The SL3 branch of the Silver Line connects Chelsea with the Airport Station. As of 2019, Massport is considering the construction of either an automated people-mover or rapid transit line to replace the airport shuttle.[80]

A 120,000 sq ft (11,000 m2) $310 million rental car center opened on September 24, 2013 consolidating all rental car companies into one shared building. Advantage, Alamo, Avis, Budget, Dollar, Enterprise, E-Z Rent-A-Car, Hertz, National and Thrifty rental car companies operate out of the new facility which has 3,200 parking spaces across four levels. Access to the new facility is done through a new unified bus system consisting of 28 fuel efficient clean hybrid buses operated by Massport which provides service between all the terminals and the rental car center.[81] A handful of livery-plate operators also service the airport offering various chauffeured car, van, or limousine for-hire offerings.

Public safetyEdit

Police services are provided by the Massachusetts State Police Troop F. Fire protection is the responsibility of the Massport Fire Rescue.[82] Even though the airport is technically within city limits, under Massachusetts state law municipal police such as the Boston Police Department do not have jurisdiction on Massport property.[83]

A 250-foot security zone, established in 2002, surrounds the waters around the airport which are marked by 29 buoys indicating the restricted area. The area is patrolled by the Massachusetts State Police, the Boston Police Department, the Massachusetts Environmental Police, the United States Coast Guard and the Boston and Winthrop Harbormasters. Anyone who enters the zone for non-emergency purposes is subject to prosecution and is entered into a State Police database that tracks offenders.[84][85]

Other facilitiesEdit

 
Our Lady of the Airways Chapel at the airport. The chapel is the oldest airport chapel in the United States, opening originally in 1951 in another part of the airport.

Currently, major air cargo companies such as British Airways World Cargo, Lufthansa Cargo, Cathay Pacific Cargo, Martinair Cargo, China Airlines Cargo, EVA Air Cargo and many more cargo carriers have cargo offices on Airport property.[86] Also, American Airlines, Delta and JetBlue have maintenance hangars at the airport, all located adjacent to the office building near Terminal E and the North Cargo Terminal.[87] Delta TechOps is Delta Air Lines primary maintenance, repair and overhaul arm.

Also located on the property is the Amelia Earhart General Aviation Terminal which is located near Runway 14/32 and next to the Massport Fire Rescue headquarters. The terminal was built in 1980 and dedicated to former Boston resident Earhart in 1984.[88] Until 2006, American Eagle flights flew out of the terminal when all flights were consolidated in the former B22-29 gates in Pier A, the north building of Terminal B. Passengers had to take a shuttle bus from Terminal B to the Earhart Terminal.[89][90] The terminal currently sits mostly unused.

Terminal C is home to the airport's chapel, Our Lady of the Airways. Opened in 1951, it is considered the first airport chapel in the United States.[91][92] The chapel was originally Catholic, but is now non-denominational.[93][94]

Airlines and destinationsEdit

PassengerEdit

AirlinesDestinationsRefs
Aer Lingus Dublin, Shannon [95]
Air Canada Seasonal: Toronto–Pearson, Vancouver [96]
Air Canada Express Halifax, Montréal–Trudeau, Ottawa, Toronto–Pearson [96]
Air France Paris–Charles de Gaulle [97]
Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Portland (OR), San Diego, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma [98]
Alitalia Rome–Fiumicino [99]
American Airlines Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, London–Heathrow (resumes March 29, 2020),[100] Los Angeles, Miami, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Washington–National
Seasonal: Cancún, Grand Cayman (begins January 11, 2020),[101] Montego Bay, Nassau (resumes January 11, 2020),[102] Providenciales, Punta Cana
[103]
American Eagle Harrisburg, Rochester (NY), Syracuse
Seasonal: Key West (begins February 15, 2020)[104]
[103]
Austrian Airlines Seasonal: Vienna (begins March 29, 2020)[105] [106]
Azores Airlines Ponta Delgada, Terceira [107]
Boutique Air Massena [108]
British Airways London–Heathrow [109]
Cabo Verde Airlines Praia (resumes December 9, 2019),[110] Sal (begins December 9, 2019)[111] [112]
Cape Air Augusta (ME), Bar Harbor, Hyannis, Lebanon, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Portland (ME), Provincetown, Rockland, Rutland, Saranac Lake/Lake Placid [113]
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong [114]
Copa Airlines Panama City [115]
Delta Air Lines Amsterdam, Atlanta, Austin, Bermuda, Cincinnati, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, London–Gatwick (begins May 22, 2020),[116] London–Heathrow, Los Angeles, Miami (begins December 21, 2019),[117] Minneapolis/St. Paul, Nashville (begins May 1, 2020),[118] New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Orlando, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Raleigh/Durham, Salt Lake City, San Francisco, Seattle/Tacoma, Tampa, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Aruba, Cancún, Charleston (SC) (begins December 7, 2019), Dublin, Edinburgh, Lisbon, Manchester (UK) (begins May 21, 2020),[116] Montego Bay, Nassau, Providenciales, Punta Cana (resumes December 21, 2019),[119] Rome–Fiumicino (begins May 21, 2020),[120] St. Thomas
[121]
Delta Connection Buffalo, Charleston (SC), Chicago–O'Hare, Cincinnati, Cleveland, Columbus–Glenn, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Milwaukee, Nashville, Newark, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Norfolk, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Savannah, Washington–National
Seasonal: Fort Myers, Myrtle Beach, Nassau, New Orleans, Sarasota (resumes December 21, 2019),[119] West Palm Beach
[121]
El Al Tel Aviv [122]
Emirates Dubai–International [123]
Frontier Airlines Orlando, Raleigh/Durham
Seasonal: Denver, Miami [124]
[125]
Hainan Airlines Beijing–Capital, Shanghai–Pudong [126]
Hawaiian Airlines Honolulu [127]
Iberia Madrid [128]
Icelandair Reykjavík–Keflavík [129]
Japan Airlines Tokyo–Narita [130]
JetBlue Aruba, Atlanta, Austin, Baltimore, Barbados, Bermuda, Buffalo, Burbank, Cancún, Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Havana, Houston–Intercontinental, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Mexico City (ends January 9, 2020),[131] Minneapolis/St. Paul, Montego Bay, Nashville, Nassau, New Orleans, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix–Sky Harbor, Pittsburgh, Punta Cana, Raleigh/Durham, Richmond, Rochester (NY), Salt Lake City, San Diego, San Francisco, San Jose (CA), San Juan, Santiago de los Caballeros, Santo Domingo–Las Américas, Savannah, Seattle/Tacoma, Syracuse, Tampa, Washington–National, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Grand Cayman, Hayden/Steamboat Springs, Liberia (CR), Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Oakland, Palm Springs, Port-au-Prince, Portland (OR), Providenciales, Puerto Plata, Sacramento, Sarasota, St. Lucia–Hewanorra, St. Maarten, St. Thomas
[132]
KLM Amsterdam [133]
Korean Air Seoul–Incheon [134]
LATAM Brasil São Paulo–Guarulhos [135]
Level Barcelona
Seasonal: Paris–Orly (begins March 31, 2020)[136]
[137]
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich [138]
Norwegian Air Shuttle London–Gatwick
Seasonal: Madrid, Paris–Charles de Gaulle, Rome–Fiumicino
[139]
Porter Airlines Toronto–Billy Bishop [140]
Qatar Airways Doha [141]
Royal Air Maroc Casablanca [142]
Scandinavian Airlines Seasonal: Copenhagen [143]
Silver Airways Seasonal: Bar Harbor [144]
Southwest Airlines Atlanta (ends January 5, 2020),[145] Baltimore, Chicago–Midway, Columbus–Glenn, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Houston–Hobby, Kansas City (ends January 5, 2020),[145] Milwaukee (ends January 5, 2020),[145] Nashville, St. Louis
Seasonal: Austin, Dallas–Love, New Orleans, Orlando, Tampa
[146]
Spirit Airlines Atlanta, Baltimore (ends January 6, 2020), Fort Lauderdale, Las Vegas, Myrtle Beach, New Orleans, Orlando, Raleigh/Durham, San Juan (begins December 19, 2019),[147]
Seasonal: Chicago–O'Hare, Cleveland, Dallas/Fort Worth, Detroit, Fort Myers, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Tampa, West Palm Beach
[148]
Sun Country Airlines Seasonal: Madison (begins May 7, 2020),[149] Minneapolis/St. Paul [150]
Swiss International Air Lines Zurich [151]
TAP Air Portugal Lisbon, Ponta Delgada (resumes June 4, 2020)[152] [153]
Tradewind Aviation White Plains [154]
Turkish Airlines Istanbul [155]
United Airlines Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Houston–Intercontinental, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco, Washington–Dulles [156]
United Express Chicago–O'Hare, Newark, Washington–Dulles [156]
Virgin Atlantic London–Heathrow [157]
WestJet Encore Toronto–Pearson [158]

CargoEdit

Logan Airport is a medium-sized airport in terms of cargo, handling 684,875 tons of freight in 2012, making it the 10th busiest airport in the U.S. in terms of cargo. It handles many U.S.-based cargo airlines, including DHL Aviation, FedEx Express and UPS Airlines. It also has cargo offices for many international cargo carriers, including British Airways World Cargo, Cathay Pacific Cargo, China Airlines Cargo, EVA Air Cargo, LATAM Cargo Chile and Saudia Cargo.[159] It has two cargo complexes: The North Cargo Terminal, located near Terminal E, and South Cargo, located near Terminal A.[67] Given the airport is the 10th busiest cargo facility in the country, with many companies operating at the airport, it has been recognized that future expansion of cargo from Logan is limited due to constrained physical space for expansion.[160]

StatisticsEdit

Top destinationsEdit

Busiest domestic routes from BOS
(September 2018 – August 2019)
[161]
Rank Airport Passengers Airlines Served
1   Atlanta, Georgia 975,550 Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
2   Chicago–O'Hare, Illinois 932,630 American, JetBlue, Spirit, United
3   Los Angeles, California 758,980 Alaska, American, Delta, JetBlue, United
4   Washington–National, D.C. 725,630 American, Delta, JetBlue
5   San Francisco, California 702,350 Alaska, Delta, JetBlue, United
6   Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 661,500 American, Delta, JetBlue
7   New York–LaGuardia, New York 651,510 American, Delta, JetBlue
8   Orlando, Florida 620,460 Delta, JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
9   Baltimore, Maryland 573,710 JetBlue, Southwest, Spirit
10   Charlotte, North Carolina 519,240 American, JetBlue
Busiest international routes to and from BOS (2018)[162]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1   London–Heathrow, United Kingdom 849,443 British Airways, Delta, Virgin Atlantic
2   Toronto–Pearson, Canada 467,692 Air Canada, WestJet
3   Paris–Charles de Gaulle, France 405,882 Air France, Delta, Norwegian Air Shuttle
4   Dublin, Ireland 402,523 Aer Lingus, Delta
5   Reykjavík–Keflavík, Iceland 326,767 Icelandair
6   Amsterdam, Netherlands 270,930 Delta, KLM
7   Frankfurt, Germany 266,470 Lufthansa
8   Dubai–International, United Arab Emirates 225,613 Emirates
9   Toronto–Billy Bishop, Canada 208,763 Porter Airlines
10   London-Gatwick, United Kingdom 208,156 Norwegian

Airline market shareEdit

Busiest airlines serving BOS (September 2018 – August 2019)[163]
Rank Carrier Passengers Share
1 JetBlue Airways 10,714,000 32.21%
2 American Airlines 6,288,000 18.91%
3 Delta Air Lines 5,003,000 15.04%
4 United Airlines 3,819,000 11.48%
5 Southwest Airlines 2,629,000 7.91%

Annual trafficEdit

Annual traffic[3][164][165]
Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Cargo
(tonnage)
1998 26,526,708 507,449 701,921
1999 27,052,078  02.0% 494,816 712,084
2000 27,726,833  02.5% 487,996 726,174
2001 24,474,930  011.7% 463,125 672,399
2002 22,696,141  07.3% 392,079 694,805
2003 22,791,169  00.4% 373,304 672,419
2004 26,142,516  014.7% 405,258 679,637
2005 27,087,905  03.6% 409,066 670,759
2006 27,725,443  02.4% 406,119 639,534
2007 28,102,455  01.4% 399,537 652,654
2008 26,102,651  07.1% 371,604 621,567
2009 25,512,086  02.3% 345,306 666,888
2010 27,428,962  07.5% 352,643 670,190
2011 28,907,938  05.4% 368,987 684,606
2012 29,325,617  01.4% 354,869 684,875
2013 30,318,631  03.4% 361,339 691,229
2014 31,634,445  04.7% 363,797 695,123
2015 33,449,580  05.7% 372,930 684,970
2016 36,288,042  08.5% 391,222 703,786
2017 38,412,419  05.9% 401,371 679,408
2018 40,941,925  06.6% 424,024 704,201

Accidents and incidentsEdit

AccidentsEdit

  • On October 4, 1960, Eastern Air Lines Flight 375, a Lockheed L-188 Electra crashed into the sea while attempting to take off from Logan Airport. 62 people died and 10 people survived, incurring serious injuries.[166]
  • On November 15, 1961, A Vickers Viscount N6592C of Northeast Airlines was written off when it collided with a Douglas DC-6 N8228H of National Airlines after landing at Logan International Airport. The DC-6 had started to take-off without receiving clearance to do so.[167][168]
  • On March 10, 1964, a Slick Airways DC-4 crashed 2.1 km (1.3 miles) southwest of Logan whilst on final approach. All three occupants were killed. Loss of control due to accumulation of ice on the horizontal stabilizer causing the aircraft to pitch down was the probable cause.[169]
  • On July 31, 1973, Delta Air Lines Flight 723, a McDonnell Douglas DC-9, crashed into the seawall, causing the deaths of all 83 passengers and 6 crew members on board. One of the passengers initially survived the accident but later died in a hospital.[170]
  • On November 3, 1973, Pan Am Flight 160, a Boeing 707-321C cargo aircraft, crashed on approach to Boston-Logan. Smoke in the cockpit caused the pilots to lose control. Three people died in the accident.[171]
  • On December 17, 1973, Iberia Airlines Flight 933 from Madrid Barajas International Airport collided with the ALS system 500 feet short of the runway threshold, critically damaging the front landing gear and causing it to collapse. The aircraft came to a rest 300 feet short of the runway. All 168 onboard survived, however the aircraft was written off and was the first hull loss of a DC-10.
  • On January 23, 1982, World Airways Flight 30 from Newark to Boston made a non-precision instrument approach to runway 15R and touched down 2,800 feet (850 m) past the displaced threshold on an icy runway. When the crew sensed that the DC-10-30-CF couldn't be stopped on the remaining runway, they steered the DC-10 off the side of the runway to avoid the approach light pier, and slid into the shallow water of Boston Harbor. The nose section separated as the DC-10 came to rest 250 feet (76 m) past the runway end, 110 feet (34 m) left of the extended centerline. Two passengers (a father and son) were never found and are presumed to have been swept out to sea.[172]

IncidentsEdit

 
Gate C19 was the departure gate for United Airlines Flight 175 on 9/11
  • On October 2, 1954, a Massachusetts Air National Guard F94 Starfire experienced engine failure and crashed near Logan Airport. Its pilot, First Lieutenant James O. Conway sacrificed his life by veering the plane into an embankment on Bayswater Street in East Boston. A memorial was placed nearby.[173]
  • On July 2, 1976, an unoccupied Eastern Airlines L-188 Electra parked at Boston Logan Airport was destroyed by a bomb planted in the landing gear compartment. No one was injured.[174]
  • On September 11, 2001, the two aircraft hijacked in the September 11, 2001 attacks that were flown into, and ultimately destroyed the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center was located in the World Trade Center site in Financial District in Lower Manhattan in New York City, New YorkAmerican Airlines Flight 11 and United Airlines Flight 175 – both originated at and departed from Logan. American flags now fly over gates B32 and C19, the respective gates that the two planes pushed back from.
  • On June 9, 2005, US Airways Flight 1170 and Aer Lingus Flight 132 narrowly avoided collision when they were cleared for takeoff nearly simultaneously on intersecting runways by two different controllers. The crew of the US Airways flight spotted the oncoming Aer Lingus jet and avoided a collision by keeping their own aircraft on the runway past their normal rotation point, allowing the Aer Lingus flight to pass over them. Both flights lifted off safely and continued to their destinations without further incident.
  • On January 7, 2013, ground crew workers noticed smoke coming out from the battery compartment in a parked Japan Airlines Boeing 787 Dreamliner at the gate.[175] This fire was caused by overcharged lithium-ion batteries, eventually leading to the grounding of the worldwide Boeing 787 fleet[176] and subsequent redesign of the battery systems.[177]

Alternate airportsEdit

The two historically known alternative airports to Logan are both located outside the Commonwealth of Massachusetts: Manchester–Boston Regional Airport in Manchester, New Hampshire, located approximately 53 statute miles (85 km) north-northwest of Logan, which converts to an average drive time of 62 minutes via I-90 and I-93; and T. F. Green Airport in Warwick, Rhode Island, located 60 statute miles (97 km) south-southwest of Logan, averaging 76 minutes from Logan via I-90, I-93 and I-95, or a 100-minute ride via the Silver Line SL1 bus to South Station and then the Providence/Stoughton Line commuter rail to T. F. Green Airport station.[178] Massport does not operate these facilities.

Worcester Regional Airport in Worcester, which is also operated by Massport, also serves as an alternative to Logan, albeit known more recently as such. Currently, JetBlue Airways, American Airlines, and Delta Air Lines are the only commercial airlines providing service to Worcester. In late 2017, the airport finished construction on a Category IIIb Landing System that will allow for arrivals and departures in virtually all weather conditions. The increased reliability, which has been the main concern for airlines operating at the notoriously foggy airport over the years, is expected to draw additional service. The airport is located 47 statute miles (76 km) due west of Logan, primarily accessed via Interstates I-90 and I-290.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

External video
  Lt. General Edward Logan Statue Dedication at Logan Airport on May 20, 1956, an 8mm amateur film by one John L. Kelly of East Boston

  Media related to Logan International Airport at Wikimedia Commons