Bosnian Americans are Americans whose ancestry can be traced to Bosnia and Herzegovina. The vast majority of Bosnian Americans (especially those of Bosniak or mixed ethnic heritage) immigrated to the United States during and after the Bosnian War which lasted from 1992–95. Nevertheless, a large number of Bosnians immigrated to the United States as early as the 19th century. The largest Bosnian American population can be found in St. Louis, Missouri, which boasts the largest number of Bosnians in the world outside Europe. While official census reports from the 2001 Census indicate that there are 121,938 Bosnian-Americans in U.S., it is estimated that today there are some 300,000 Americans of full or partial Bosnian descent living in the country.
|Regions with significant populations|
|Illinois, Missouri, Michigan, New York, Georgia, Florida, Iowa, Indiana, Texas, Tennessee, California, Connecticut, Utah, Arizona, Minnesota, Kentucky, Pennsylvania|
|American English · Bosnian|
|Sunni Islam, Eastern Orthodox and Catholicism|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Serbian Americans, Croatian Americans, other South Slavic Americans|
The first Bosnians settled in Chicago in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, joining other immigrants seeking better opportunities and better lives. As the former Yugoslavia continued to find its identity as a nation over the last century, the people of Bosnia and Herzegovina sought stability and new beginnings in the city of Chicago many intending to return to their homeland. Those of these early (Bosnian) immigrants who were of Muslim faith were early leaders in the establishment of Chicago's Muslim community. In 1906, they established Dzemijetul Hajrije (The Benevolent Society) of Illinois to preserve the community's religious and national traditions as well as to provide mutual assistance for funerals and illness. The organization established chapters in Gary, Indiana, in 1913, and Butte, Montana, in 1916, and is the oldest existing Muslim organization in the United States.
Post World War IIEdit
Chicago's Bosnian community received a new influx of migrants after World War II who were displaced by the war and Communist takeover. This new wave of refugees included many well-educated professionals, some of whom were forced to take lower-skilled jobs as taxi cab drivers, factory workers, chauffeurs, and janitors. As the population increased in the early 1950s, the Muslim community invited Sheik Kamil Avdich, a prominent Muslim scholar, to become the first permanent imam (religious minister). Under Imam Kamil's leadership, the Bosnian Muslim Religious and Cultural Home was established to raise funds for a mosque, which opened on Halsted Street in 1957. In 1968, the organization's name was changed to the Bosnian American Cultural Association, and in the early 1970s it purchased land in Northbrook to build a larger mosque and cultural center. The Islamic Cultural Center of Greater Chicago has remained an important center for Bosnian Muslim religious activity, serving Bosnians and non-Bosnian Muslims in the Chicago metropolitan area.
Bosnian War (1992-1995)Edit
The war in Bosnia and Herzegovina from 1992 to 1995 brought the largest influx of Bosnians to St Louis, which became the most popular United States destination for Bosnian refugees. It is estimated that 40,000 refugees moved to the St. Louis area in the 1990s and early 2000s, bringing the total St. Louis Bosnian population to some 70,000. In Chicago, the Bosnian community has largely settled in the northern part of the city, between Lawrence and Howard, from Clark to Lake Michigan. Many refugees suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder as a result of gruesome experiences in concentration camps and the death of family and friends. The Illinois Department of Human Services founded the Bosnian Refugee Center in 1994 with the help of public and private agencies to assist the newcomers, and in 1997 it became the nonprofit Bosnian & American Community Center. Staffed by Bosnian refugees from all backgrounds, the center serves all refugees by providing community services that include educational and family programs, counseling, and cultural activities.
Other large Bosnian American communities can be found in the San Francisco Bay Area, as well as in Indianapolis, Hackettstown, New Jersey; Seattle, Grand Rapids, Michigan; Bowling Green, Kentucky; Erie, Pennsylvania; Nashville, Hartford, Salt Lake City, Portland, Oregon; Utica, New York; Waterloo, Iowa; Fort Wayne, Indiana; Boston, Louisville, KY and Syracuse, New York.
- Data Access and Dissemination Systems (DADS). "American FactFinder - Results". census.gov.[dead link]
- "Bosnian Americans of Chicagoland". google.com.au.
- "St. Louis Bosnian - Close to 130,000 Bosnians received permanent residency in USA". St. Louis Bosnian.
- Feldman, Claudia (December 2, 2007). "Bosnian café offers a taste of home in neutral territory". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- "GA: Cultural Center Follows Bosnians". cair.com. Council for American-Islamic Relations. March 11, 2015. Archived from the original on 2014-11-05. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Reid, Betty (July 6, 2011). "Islamic Center of Phoenix helps Bosnians adjust to U.S." Arizona Republic. Phoenix, Ariz. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- "To Bosnia with Love, from Hackettstown". June 17, 2014. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Schoonmaker, Daniel (May 5, 2006). "Little Bosnia booms". Grand Rapids Business Journal. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Celik, Elcin (2012). Bosnian Refugees in Bowling Green, Kentucky: Refugee Resettlement, and Community Based Research (PDF) (Master's thesis). Bowling Green, Ky.: Western Kentucky University.
- Fox, Carrington (April 13, 2009). "Café Bosna Hosts Bosnian Presentation". Nashville Scene. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- "Bosnian American Islamic Cultural Center". Bosnian American Islamic Cultural Center (in Bosnian). Retrieved 2017-11-29.
- Boal, Jed (May 21, 2014). "Utah Bosnians seek support for their flooded homeland". KSL.com. Bonneville International. Archived from the original on 2017-12-01. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Pintak, Lawrence (April 8, 2016). "Portland Is the Most Livable City in American – Except If You're Muslim". Foreign Policy. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Baber, Cassaundra (June 20, 2009). "'This is home': Bosnian refugees come of age". Observer-Dispatch. Utica, N.Y. Retrieved November 29, 2017.
- Moses, Sarah (July 2, 2010). "Bosnian community in Syracuse remembers Srebrenica massacre". Post-Standard. Syracuse, N.Y. Retrieved November 29, 2017.