The Bornean languages are a geographic group of Austronesian language families indigenous to the islands of Borneo and Madagascar, with the exclusion of Ibanic (Malayic Dayak) and other Malayic languages. There is little reason to think they form a genealogical clade.
nort3253 (North Bornean)
land1261 (Land Dayak)
The Bornean language families
The Bornean languages form a number of distinct branches of the Austronesian family.
North Bornean is a 1991/2010 proposal by Robert Blust that the Northeast Sabahan, Southwest Sabahan, North Sarawakan, and Melanau–Kajang families form an exclusive unit.
- Northeast Sabahan (Banggi, Ida’an)
- North Sarawakan (Apo Duat languages)
- Melanau–Kajang (incl. Rejang–Sajau)
- Southwest Sabahan
The Kayan languages were specifically excluded from the North Borneo family by Robert Blust (1991).
The Barito languages have common features due to extended contact. They fall into four families:
Greater North BorneoEdit
Smith (2017) proposes a Greater North Borneo group consisting of five branches, namely North Borneo, Central Sarawak, Kayanic, Land Dayak, and Malayic. Smith considers the Greater Barito linkage as a sister to, but not part of, the Greater North Borneo group.
- Greater North Borneo
- North Borneo
- Central Sarawak
- Land Dayak
Proto-Kayanic, Proto-Punan, Proto-Müller-Schwaner, Proto-Land Dayak, and Proto-Kenyah have also been reconstructed in Smith (2017).
According to Roger Blench (2010), Austroasiatic languages were once spoken in Borneo. Blench cites Austroasiatic-origin vocabulary words in modern-day Bornean branches such as Land Dayak (Bidayuh, Dayak Bakatiq, etc.), Dusunic (Central Dusun, Bisaya, etc.), Kayan, and Kenyah, noting especially resemblances with the Aslian languages of peninsular Malaysia. As further evidence for his proposal, Blench also cites ethnographic evidence such as musical instruments in Borneo shared in common with Austroasiatic-speaking groups in mainland Southeast Asia.
Blench (2010) claims that lexical forms shared among Bornean and Austroasiatic languages include 'rain', 'to die', 'back (of body)', 'flying lemur', 'monkey', 'barking deer', 'lizard', and 'taro'.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "North Borneo Malayo-Polynesian". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Greater Barito linkage". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Kayanic". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Land Dayak". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
- Smith, Alexander. 2017. The Languages of Borneo: A Comprehensive Classification. PhD Dissertation: University of Hawai‘i at Mānoa.
- Blench, Roger. 2010. "Was there an Austroasiatic Presence in Island Southeast Asia prior to the Austronesian Expansion?" In Bulletin of the Indo-Pacific Prehistory Association , Vol. 30.
- Blust, Robert. "The Greater North Borneo Hypothesis." Oceanic Linguistics 49.1 (2010): 44-118.
- Fay Wouk and Malcolm Ross (ed.), The history and typology of western Austronesian voice systems. Australian National University, 2002.
- K. Alexander Adelaar and Nikolaus Himmelmann, The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar. Routledge, 2005.
- Lobel, Jason William. 2016. North Borneo Sourcebook: Vocabularies and Functors. University of Hawaii Press. ISBN 9780824857790
- Blust, Robert A & Alexander D Smith. 2014. A bibliography of the languages of Borneo (and Madagascar): Borneo Research Council, Incorporated.
- Smith, Alexander D. 2017. The languages of Borneo: A comprehensive classification. PhD Dissertation, University of Hawai'i at Manoa.