The Book of Sirach (/ˈsræk/, Hebrew: ספר בן-סירא, romanizedSēper ben-Sîrāʾ), also known as The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach[1] or Ecclesiasticus (/ɪˌklziˈæstɪkəs/, and abbreviated Ecclus.)[2] is a Jewish work, originally written in Biblical Hebrew. The longest extant wisdom book from antiquity,[1][3] it consists of ethical teachings, written approximately between 196 and 175 BCE by Yeshua ben Eleazar ben Sira (Ben Sira), a Hellenistic Jewish scribe of the Second Temple period.[1][4]

Ben Sira's grandson translated the text into Koine Greek and added a prologue sometime around 117 BCE.[3] Although the Book of Sirach is not included in the Hebrew Bible, this prologue is generally considered to be the earliest witness to a tripartite canon of the books of the Old Testament,[5] and thus the date of the text is the subject of intense scrutiny by biblical scholars. The ability to precisely date the composition of Sirach within a few years provides great insight into the historical development and evolution of the Jewish canon.

Authorship edit

 
Illustration of Joshua Sirach in Das Geheime Ehrenbuch der Fugger by Jörg Breu the Younger, 1545–1549

Yeshua ben Eleazar ben Sira (Ben Sira, or — according to the Greek text — "Jesus the son of Sirach of Jerusalem") was a Hellenistic Jewish scribe of the Second Temple period. He wrote the Book of Sirach in Biblical Hebrew around 180 BCE.[3] Among all Old Testament and apocryphal writers, Ben Sira is unique in that he is the only one to have claimed authorship of his work.[1]

Date and historical setting edit

The Book of Sirach is generally dated to the first quarter of the 2nd century BCE. The text refers in the past tense to "the high priest, Simon son of Onias" (chapter 50:1). This passage almost certainly refers to Simon the High Priest, the son of Onias II, who died in 196 BCE. Because the struggles between Simon's successors (Onias III, Jason, and Menelaus) are not alluded to in the book, nor is Seleucid king Antiochus IV Epiphanes, the book must therefore have been written between 196 and 175 BCE.[4]

Translation into Koine Greek edit

The person who translated the Book of Sirach into Koine Greek states in his prologue that he was the grandson of the author, and that he came to Egypt (most likely Alexandria) in the thirty-eighth year of the reign of "Euergetes".[3] This epithet was borne by only two of the Ptolemaic kings. Of these, Ptolemy III Euergetes reigned only twenty-five years (247–222 BCE), and thus Ptolemy VIII Euergetes II must be intended. Since this king dated his reign from the date of his first ascension to the throne in the year 170 BCE, the translator must therefore have gone to Egypt in 132 BCE. Ben Sira's grandson completed his translation and added the prologue circa 117 BCE, around the time of the death of Ptolemy VIII.[3] At that time, the usurping Hasmonean dynasty had ousted the heirs of Simon II after long struggles and was finally in control of the High Priesthood. A comparison of the Hebrew and Greek versions shows that he altered the prayer for Simon and broadened its application ("may He entrust to us his mercy") to avoid closing a work praising God's covenanted faithfulness on an unanswered prayer.[6]

The Greek version of the Book of Sirach is found in many codices of the Septuagint.[7]

Alternative titles edit

The Koine Greek translation was accepted in the Septuagint under the (abbreviated) name of the author: Sirakh (Σιραχ). Some Greek manuscripts give as the title the "Wisdom of Iēsous Son of Sirakh" or in short the "Wisdom of Sirakh". The Old Latin Bible was based on the Septuagint, and simply transliterated the Greek title into Latin letters: Sirach. In the Latin Vulgate, the book is called Sapientia Jesu Filii Sirach ("The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of Sirach").

The Greek Church Fathers also called it the "All-Virtuous Wisdom", while the Latin Church Fathers, beginning with Cyprian,[8] termed it Ecclesiasticus because it was frequently read in churches, leading the Latin Church Fathers to call it Liber Ecclesiasticus ("Church Book"). Similarly, the New Latin Vulgate and many modern English translations of the Apocrypha use the title Ecclesiasticus, literally "of the Church" because of its frequent use in Christian teaching and worship.

Structure edit

As with other wisdom books, there is no easily recognizable structure in Sirach; in many parts it is difficult to discover a logical progression of thought or to discern the principles of arrangement.[3] However, a series of six poems about the search for and attainment of wisdom (1:1–10, 4:11–19; 6:18–37; 14:20–15:10; 24:1–33; and 38:24–39:11) divide the book into something resembling chapters, although the divisions are not thematically based.[3] The exceptions are the first two chapters, whose reflections on wisdom and fear of God provide the theological framework for what follows, and the last nine chapters, which function as a sort of climax, first in an extended praise of God's glory as manifested through creation (42:15–43:33) and second in the celebration of the heroes of ancient Israel's history dating back to before the Great Flood through contemporary times (see previous section).[3]

Despite the lack of structure, there are certain themes running through the book which reappear at various points. The New Oxford Annotated Apocrypha identifies ten major recurring topics:

  1. The Creation: 16:24–17:24; 18:1–14; 33:7–15; 39:12–35; and 42:15–43:33
  2. Death: 11:26–28; 22:11–12; 38:16–23; and 41:1–13
  3. Friendship: 6:5–17; 9:10–16; 19:13–17; 22:19–26; 27:16–21; and 36:23–37:15
  4. Happiness: 25:1–11; 30:14–25; and 40:1–30
  5. Honor and shame: 4:20–6:4; 10:19–11:6; and 41:14–42:8
  6. Money matters: 3:30–4:10; 11:7–28; 13:1–14:19; 29:1–28; and 31:1–11
  7. Sin: 7:1–17; 15:11–20; 16:1–17:32; 18:30–19:3; 21:1–10; 22:27–23:27; and 26:28–28:7
  8. Social justice: 4:1–10; 34:21–27; and 35:14–26
  9. Speech: 5:6, 9–15; 18:15–29; 19:4–17; 20:1–31; 23:7–15; 27:4–7, 11–15; and 28:8–26
  10. Women: (9:1–9; 23:22–27; 25:13–26:27; 36:26–31; and 42:9–14.[3][9]

Some scholars contend that verse 50:1 seems to have formed the original ending of the text, and that Chapters 50 (from verse 2) and 51 are later interpolations.[10]

Content edit

 
Illustration for the Book of Sirach, circa 1751

The Book of Sirach is a collection of ethical teachings that closely resembles Proverbs, except that — unlike the latter — it is presented as the work of a single author and not as an anthology of maxims or aphorisms drawn from various sources. The teachings of the Book of Sirach apply to all people regardless of circumstances. Many of them are rules of courtesy and politeness, and they contain advice and instruction as to the duties of man toward himself and others, especially the poor and the oppressed, as well as toward society and the state, and most of all toward God. Wisdom, in Ben Sira's view, is synonymous with submission to the will of God, and sometimes is identified in the text with adherence to the Mosaic law. The question of which sayings originated with the Book of Sirach is open to debate, although scholars tend to regard him as a compiler or anthologist.[3]

By contrast, the author exhibits little compassion for women and slaves. He advocates distrust of and possessiveness over women,[11] and the harsh treatment of slaves (which presupposes the validity of slavery as an institution),[12] positions which are not only difficult for modern readers, but cannot be completely reconciled with the social milieu at the time of its composition.

The Book of Sirach contains the only instance in a biblical text of explicit praise for physicians (chapter 38), though other biblical passages take for granted that medical treatment should be used when necessary.[13][14] This is a direct challenge against the idea that illness and disease were seen as penalties for sin, to be cured only by repentance.[15]

As in Ecclesiastes, the author exhibits two opposing tendencies: the faith and the morality of earlier times, and an Epicureanism of modern date. Occasionally Sirach digresses to attack theories that he considers dangerous; for example, that man has no freedom of will, and that God is indifferent to the actions of mankind and does not reward virtue. Some of the refutations of these views are developed at considerable length.

Throughout the text runs the prayer of Israel imploring God to gather together his scattered children, to bring to fulfillment the predictions of the Prophets, and to have mercy upon his Temple and his people. The book concludes with a justification of God, whose wisdom and greatness are said to be revealed in all God's works as well as in the history of Israel. The book ends with the author's attestation, followed by two hymns (chapter 51), the latter a sort of alphabetical acrostic.

Of particular interest to biblical scholars are Chapters 44–50, in which Ben Sira praises "famous men, our ancestors in their generations", starting from the antediluvian Enoch and continuing through to Simon, son of Onias (300–270 BCE). Within the text of these chapters, Ben Sira identifies, either directly or indirectly, each of the books of the Hebrew Bible that would eventually become canonical (all of the five books of the Torah, the eight books of the Nevi'im, and six of the eleven books of the Ketuvim). The only books that are not referenced are Ezra, Daniel, Ruth, Esther, and perhaps Chronicles.[16] The ability to date the composition of Sirach within a few years given the autobiographical hints of Ben Sira and his grandson (author of the introduction to the work) provides great insight regarding the historical development and evolution of the Jewish canon.[17]

Canonical status edit

 
"Alle Weiſsheit ist bey Gott dem Herren..." (modern spelling: Alle Weisheit ist bei Gott dem Herrn) (Book of Sirach, first chapter, German translation), anonymous artist 1654

Judaism edit

Despite containing the oldest known list of Jewish canonical texts, the Book of Sirach itself is not part of the Jewish canon. Some authors suggest this is due to its late authorship,[3][18] although the canon was not yet closed at the time of Ben Sira.[19] For example, the Book of Daniel was included in the canon, despite the fact that its date of composition (between 168 and 164 BCE)[20][21][22] was later than that of the Book of Sirach. Others have suggested that Ben Sira's self-identification as the author precluded it from attaining canonical status, which was reserved for works that were attributed (or could be attributed) to the prophets,[23] or that it was denied entry to the canon as a rabbinical counter-reaction to its embrace by the nascent Christian community.[24]

Christianity edit

The Book of Sirach is accepted as part of the canon by Catholics, Eastern Orthodox, and most Oriental Orthodox Christians. Pope Innocent I officially confirmed the canon of the Bible shortly after the Third Council of Carthage.[25] The Catholic Church then reaffirmed The Book of Sirach and the other deuterocanonical books in 1546 during the fourth session of the Council of Trent, and attached an excommunication to the denial of their scriptural status.[1][26] Catholic canonical recognition only extends to the Greek text.[27]

Because it was excluded from the Jewish canon, The Book of Sirach was not counted as being canonical in Christian denominations originating from the Protestant Reformation, although some retained the book in an appendix to the Bible called "Apocrypha". The Anglican tradition considers the book (which was published with other Greek Jewish books in a separate section of the King James Bible) among the biblical apocrypha as deuterocanonical books, and reads them "for example of life and instruction of manners; but yet [does] not apply them to establish any doctrine".[28] The Lutheran Churches take a similar position.

Manuscripts edit

 
Masada casemate room 1109: Discovery site of Ben Sira scroll (MasSir)

The Book of Sirach was originally written in Biblical Hebrew and was also known as the "Proverbs of ben Sira" (משלי בן סירא, Mišlē ben Sirā) or the "Wisdom of ben Sira" (חכמת בן סירא, Ḥokhmat ben Sirā). The book was not accepted into the Hebrew Bible and the original Hebrew text was not preserved by the Masoretes. However, in 1896, several scroll fragments of the original Hebrew texts of the Book of Sirach, copied in the 11th and 12th centuries, were found in the Cairo Geniza (a synagogue storage room for damaged manuscripts).[29][30][31] Although none of these manuscripts is complete, together they provide the text for about two-thirds of the Book of Sirach.[32] According to scholars including Solomon Schechter and Frederic G. Kenyon, these findings support the assertion that the book was originally written in Hebrew.[33]

In the 1950s and 1960s, three fragments of parchment scrolls of the Book of Sirach written in Hebrew were discovered near the Dead Sea. The largest scroll, Mas1H (MasSir), was discovered in casemate room 1109 at Masada, the Jewish fortress destroyed by the Romans in 73 CE.[34][35] This scroll contains Sirach 39:27–44:17.[36] The other two scroll fragments were found at Qumran. One of these, the Great Psalms Scroll (11Q5 or 11QPsa), contains Sirach chapter 51 (verses 13-20, and 30).[37] The other fragment, 2Q18 (2QSir), contains Sirach 6:14–15, 20–31. These early Hebrew texts are in substantial agreement with the Hebrew texts discovered in Cairo, although there are numerous minor textual variants. With these findings, scholars are now more confident that the Cairo texts are reliable witnesses to the Hebrew original.[38][39]

Theological significance edit

Influence in Jewish doctrine and liturgy edit

 
Hebrew translation of the Book of Sirach, 1814

Although excluded from the Jewish canon, the Book of Sirach was well-known among Jews during the late Second Temple period. The Greek translation made by Ben Sira's grandson was included in the Septuagint (the 2nd-century BCE Greek version of the Hebrew Bible), which became the foundation of the early Christian canon.[34] Furthermore, the many manuscript fragments discovered in the Cairo Genizah evince its authoritative status among Egyptian Jewry until well into the Middle Ages.[18]

The Book of Sirach was read and quoted as authoritative from the beginning of the rabbinic period. The Babylonian Talmud and other works of rabbinic literature occasionally paraphrase Ben Sira (e.g., Sanhedrin 100b, Hagigah 13a, Bava Batra 98b, Niddah 16b, etc.), but it does not mention his name. These quotes found in the Talmud correspond very closely to those found in the three scroll fragments of the Hebrew version of the Book of Sirach found at Qumran. Tractate Sanhedrin 100b records an unresolved debate between R'Joseph and Abaye as to whether it is forbidden to read the Book of Sirach, wherein Abaye repeatedly draws parallels between statements in Sirach cited by R'Joseph as objectionable and similar statements appearing in canonical books.[40]

The Book of Sirach may have been used as a basis for two important parts of the Jewish liturgy. In the Mahzor (High Holiday prayer book), a medieval Jewish poet may have used the Book of Sirach as the basis for a poem, Mar'e Kohen, in the Yom Kippur musaf ("additional") service for the High Holidays.[41] Yosef Tabori questioned whether this passage in the Book of Sirach is referring at all to Yom Kippur, and thus argued it cannot form the basis of this poem.[42] Some early 20th-century scholars also argued that the vocabulary and framework used by the Book of Sirach formed the basis of the most important of all Jewish prayers, the Amidah, but that conclusion is disputed as well.[43]

Current scholarship takes a more conservative approach. On one hand, scholars find that "Ben Sira links Torah and wisdom with prayer in a manner that calls to mind the later views of the Rabbis", and that the Jewish liturgy echoes the Book of Sirach in the "use of hymns of praise, supplicatory prayers and benedictions, as well as the occurrence of [Biblical] words and phrases [that] take on special forms and meanings."[44] However, they stop short of concluding a direct relationship existed; rather, what "seems likely is that the Rabbis ultimately borrowed extensively from the kinds of circles which produced Ben Sira and the Dead Sea Scrolls ....".[44]

Influence in Christian doctrine edit

Some of the earliest Christian writings, including those of the Apostolic Fathers, reference the Book of Sirach. For example, Didache 4:7[45] and Barnabas 19:9[46] both appear to reference Sirach 4:31.[18] Although the Book of Sirach is not quoted directly, there are many apparent references to it in the New Testament.[34][47] For example:

  • in Matthew 6:7, Jesus said "But when ye pray, use not vain repetitions", where Sirach has "Do not babble in the assembly of the elders, and do not repeat yourself when you pray".(Sirach 7:14)
  • Matthew 6:12 has "And forgive us our debts, as we forgive our debtors", where Sirach has "Forgive your neighbor a wrong, and then, when you petition, your sins will be pardoned" (Sirach 28:2)
  • in Matthew 7:16, Jesus said "Ye shall know them by their fruits. Do men gather grapes of thorns, or figs of thistles?", where Sirach has "Its fruit discloses the cultivation of a tree" (Sirach 27:6)
  • in Matthew 11:28, Jesus said "Come to me, all you who are weary and burdened, and I will give you rest.", where Sirach has "See with your own eyes that I have laboured but little and found for myself much serenity." (Sirach 51:27)
  • Mark 4:5 has "Other seed fell on shallow soil with underlying rock. The seed sprouted quickly because the soil was shallow.",[48] where Sirach has "The children of the ungodly won’t grow many branches, and are as unhealthy roots on a sheer rock." (Sirach 40:15)
  • Luke 1:52 has "He has put down the mighty from their thrones, and exalted the lowly",[49] where Sirach has "The Lord overthrows the thrones of rulers, and enthrones the lowly in their place." (Sirach 10:14)
  • in Acts 20:35, Jesus said "It is more blessed to give than to receive", where Sirach has "Do not let your hand be stretched out to receive and closed when it is time to give" (Sirach 4:31)
  • James 1:19 has "Wherefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath", [50] where Sirach has "Be quick to hear, but deliberate in answering." (Sirach 5:11)

The Book of Sirach was cited in some writings in early Christianity. Clement of Alexandria and Origen quote from it repeatedly, as from a γραφή (Scripture).[1] Pope Damasus I (mid 4th century),[25] Synod of Hippo (393), Synod of Carthage (397), Augustine (late 4th century), Pope Innocent I (401-417), the second Council of Carthage (419), Quinisext Council (692), Council of Florence (1431-1449)[51] all regarded it as canonical, although Jerome, Rufinus of Aquileia and the Council of Laodicea ranked it instead as an ecclesiastical book.[1] In the 4th and 5th centuries, the Church Fathers recommended the Book of Sirach among other deuterocanonical books for edification and instruction.[52] The Apostolic Canons (recognized by the Eastern Orthodox Church during the 5th and 6th centuries) also described "the Wisdom of the very learned Sirach" as a recommended text for teaching young people.[53]

Messianic interpretation by Christians edit

 
Jesus Ben Sirach, 1860 woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, a Lutheran

Some Christians[who?] regard the catalogue of famous men in the Book of Sirach as containing several messianic references. The first occurs during the verses on David. Sirach 47:11 reads "The Lord took away his sins, and exalted his power for ever; he gave him the covenant of kings and a throne of glory in Israel." This references the covenant of 2 Samuel 7, which pointed toward the Messiah. "Power" (Hebrew qeren) is literally translated as 'horn'. This word is often used in a messianic and Davidic sense (e.g. Ezekiel 29:21, Psalms 132:17, Zechariah 6:12, Jeremiah 33:15). It is also used in the Benedictus to refer to Jesus ("and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house of his servant David").[54]

Another verse (47:22) that Christians interpret messianically begins by again referencing 2 Samuel 7. This verse speaks of Solomon and goes on to say that David's line will continue forever. The verse ends stating that "he gave a remnant to Jacob, and to David a root of his stock". This references Isaiah's prophecy of the Messiah: "There shall come forth a shoot from the stump of Jesse, and a branch shall grow out of his roots"; and "In that day the root of Jesse shall stand as an ensign to the peoples; him shall the nations seek…" (Isaiah 11:1, 10).[55]

References in the Book of Sirach and pre-modern texts edit

Note: verse numbers may vary slightly between versions.

References in culture edit

 
Quotation from Sirach (Ecclesiasticus) on Old St. Mary's Cathedral, San Francisco

See also edit

Notes edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Singer, Isidore, ed. (1905). "Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of". The Jewish Encyclopedia. Vol. 11. New York: Funk & Wagnalls. pp. 388–397.
  2. ^ Gigot, Francis Ernest Charles (1913). "Ecclesiasticus". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. V (2 ed.). New York: The Encyclopedia Press, Inc. pp. 263–269.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Coogan, Michael D., ed. (2010). "Ecclesiasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus, Son of Sirach". The New Oxford Annotated Bible: New Revised Standard Version (4 ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 1457–1528. ISBN 978-0195289602.
  4. ^ a b Williams, David Salter (1994). "The Date of Ecclesiasticus". Vetus Testamentum. 44 (4): 563–566. doi:10.1163/156853394X00565. JSTOR 1535116.
  5. ^ Gallagher, Edmon L.; Meade, John D. (2017). The Biblical Canon Lists from Early Christianity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 9–17. ISBN 978-0198792499.
  6. ^ Guillaume, Philippe (2004). "New Light on the Nebiim from Alexandria: A Chronography to Replace the Deuteronomistic History" (PDF). Journal of Hebrew Scriptures (5: Section: 3. The Date of Ben Sira). Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 February 2021. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  7. ^ Stone, Michael E., ed. (1984). Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period: Apocrypha, Pseudepigrapha, Qumran, sectarian writings, Philo, Josephus. Van Gorcum, Assen, Netherlands, p. 290, ISBN 0800606035
  8. ^ Testimonia, ii. 1; iii. 1, 35, 51, 95, et passim
  9. ^ Trenchard, Warren C. (1982). Ben Sira's View of Woman: A Literary Analysis. Chico, CA: Scholars Press.
  10. ^ Mulder, p. 11. However, other scholars take the position that the Book of Sirach started with chapters 1–23 and 51, with the intermediate sections being inserted thereafter. Mulder, pp. 30–31.
  11. ^ See, e.g, Sirach 42:12–14, especially v. 14a ("Better the wickedness of a man than the goodness of a woman."); Sirach 22:3 ("A father is disgraced by producing an ignorant son, But a daughter is born to his loss."). For these translations, see Trenchard, Ben Sira's View of Women, pp. 147, 135 respectively. The Book of Sirach also has some neutral and positive remarks about women, e.g., 7:27; 36:24–25.
  12. ^ See: Sirach 33:24–28 ("Fodder and a stick and burdens for an ass; bread and discipline and work for a servant. Set your slave to work, and you will find rest; leave his hands idle, and he will seek liberty. Yoke and thong will bow the neck, and for a wicked servant there are racks and tortures ... Set him to work, as is fitting for him, and if he does not obey, make his fetters heavy."). But see: Sir. 33:30–31 ("If you have a servant, let him be as yourself, because you have bought him with blood. If you have a servant, treat him as a brother, for as your own soul you will need him.")
  13. ^ Exodus 21:19
  14. ^ Ezekiel 34:4
  15. ^ Snaith, John G. (1974), Eccleciasticus, or the Wisdom of Jesus Son of Sirach, The Cambridge Bible Commentary on the New English Bible, Cambridge University Press[page needed]
  16. ^ Marttila, Marko. Foreign Nations in the Wisdom of Ben Sira: A Jewish Sage between Opposition and Assimilation, pp. 196–199 (Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2012), ISBN 978-3110270105.
  17. ^ Perspectives on Hebrew Scriptures II, Volume 5, Ehud Ben Zvi ed., pp. 179–190 (Gorgias Press LLC 2007), ISBN 978-1593336127.
  18. ^ a b c Harrington, Daniel J. (1999). "Ecclesiaticus/Sirach: Fear of the Lord". Invitation to the Apocrypha. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. pp. 78–91. ISBN 0802846335.
  19. ^ Ska, Jean Louis (2009). "The Praise of the Fathers in Sirach (Sir 44-50) and the Canon of the Old Testament". The Exegesis of the Pentateuch: Exegetical Studies and Basic Questions. Tübingen, Germany: Mohr Siebeck. pp. 184–195. ISBN 978-3161499050.
  20. ^ Collins, John J. (1984). Daniel: With an Introduction to Apocalyptic Literature. The Forms of the Old Testament Literature. Vol. XX. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company. p. 36. ISBN 978-0802800206.
  21. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (2001). "A Dan(iel) For All Seasons: For Whom Was Daniel Important?". In Collins, John J.; Flint, Peter W. (eds.). The Book of Daniel: Composition and Reception. Supplements to Vetus Testamentum. Vol. 1. Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill. p. 229. ISBN 90-04-11675-3.
  22. ^ Grabbe, Lester L. (1991). "Maccabean Chronology: 167-164 or 168-165 BCE?". Journal of Biblical Literature. 110 (1): 59–74. doi:10.2307/3267150. JSTOR 3267150.
  23. ^ Mulder, Otto, Simon the High Priest in Sirach 50, p. 3 fn. 8 (Koninkliijke Brill nv 2003), ISBN 978-9004123168 ("The highly esteemed book of Ben Sira is not sacred Scripture [because] 'the author was known to have lived in comparatively recent times, in an age when, with the death of the last prophets, the holy spirit had departed from Israel.").
  24. ^ Sulmasy, Daniel P. The Rebirth of the Clinic: An Introduction to Spirituality in Health Care, p. 45 (Georgetown Univ. Press 2006), ISBN 978-1589010956.
  25. ^ a b Westcott, Brooke Foss (2005). A general survey of the history of the canon of the New Testament Page 570 (6th ed.). Eugene, OR: Wipf & Stock. ISBN 1597522392.
  26. ^ Council of Trent, Session IV, 1546
  27. ^ Jerusalem Bible (1966), Introduction to Ecclesiasticus, p. 1034
  28. ^ "Canon VI. Of the Sufficiency of the Holy Scriptures for salvation. The Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion". Church Society. Archived from the original on 15 May 2014. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  29. ^ Hoffman, Adina; Cole, Peter (2011). Sacred Trash: The Lost and Found World of the Cairo Geniza. New York: Schocken Books. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-8052-1223-5.
  30. ^ Soskice, Janet (2010). TheSisters of Sinai: How Two Lady Adventurers Discovered the Hidden Gospels. London: Vintage Books. pp. 122–133. ISBN 978-1400034741.
  31. ^ Hurvitz, Avi (1997). Muraoka, T; Elwolde, F (eds.). The Linguistic Status of Ben Sira As a Link Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew: Lexicographical Aspects. The Hebrew of the Dead Sea Scrolls and Ben Sira: Proceedings of a Symposium Held at Leiden University. Vol. 26. Leiden, Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill. pp. 72–86. ISBN 90-04-10820-3.
  32. ^ Kenyon, Frederic George (1958). "The Hebrew Old Testament". In Adams, Arthur White (ed.). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. p. 83.
  33. ^ Kenyon, Frederic George (1958). "The Ancient Versions of the Old Testament". In Adams, Arthur White (ed.). Our Bible and the Ancient Manuscripts. New York: Harper & Row Publishers. pp. 150–152.
  34. ^ a b c Seely, David Rolph (2022). "The Masada Fragments, the Qumran Scrolls, and the New Testament". BYU Studies. Provo, Utah: Brigham Young University. Retrieved 28 January 2024.
  35. ^ Crawford, Sidnie White (2000). "Review of Masada VI: Yigael Yadin Excavations 1963–1965. Final Reports". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. 319: 81. doi:10.2307/1357566. JSTOR 1357566.
  36. ^ "Full Masada Scroll". The Book of Ben Sira.
  37. ^ Wilson, Gerald (1997). "The Qumran Psalms Scroll (11QPsa) and the Canonical Psalter: Comparison of Editorial Shaping" (PDF). The Catholic Biblical Quarterly. JSTOR 43723012.
  38. ^ Elizur, Shulamit, "A New Fragment from the Hebrew Text of the Book of Ben Sira", Tarbiẕ 76 (2008) 17–28 (in Hebrew)
  39. ^ Egger-Wenzel, Renate "Ein neues Sira – Fragment des MS C", Biblische Notizen 138 (2008) 107–114.
  40. ^ "Sanhedrin 100b Shas Soncino dTorah.com". dtorah.com.
  41. ^ Lehmann, M.R. (2000), "The Writings of Ben Sira, the Dead Sea Scrolls and Temple Worship in the Liturgy of Yom Kippur", in Piyyut in Tradition, vol. 2 (eds. B. Bar-Tikva and E. Hazan [Hebrew]; Ramat Gan: Bar-Ilan University), pp. 13–18.
  42. ^ Tabori, Yosef (1996). Mo'ade Yiśra'el bi-teḳufat ha-Mishnah ṿeha-Talmud (in Hebrew) (Mahad. 2. metuḳenet u-murḥevet. ed.). Hebrew University, Jerusalem: Hotsa'at sefarim 'a. sh. Y.L. Magnes. p. 260 n. 4. ISBN 9652238880.
  43. ^ Reif, Stefan C. Prayer in Ben Sira, Qumran and Second Temple Judaism: A Comparative Overview, in Ben Sira's God: Proceedings of the International Ben Sira Conference, Durham, Renate Egger-Wenzel ed., p. 322 (Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. 2002), ISBN 3110175592.
  44. ^ a b Reif, p. 338.
  45. ^ "The Didache or Teaching of the Apostles". Early Christian Writings: New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Church Fathers. Translated by Lightfoot, Joseph Barber. Peter Kirby. 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  46. ^ "Epistle of Barnabas". Early Christian Writings: New Testament, Apocrypha, Gnostics, Church Fathers. Translated by Lightfoot, Joseph Barber. Peter Kirby. 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  47. ^ "Deuterocanonical Books in the New Testament". Scripture Catholic. 2024. Retrieved 27 January 2024.
  48. ^ "Mark 4:5 - Bible Gateway".
  49. ^ "Luke 1:52 - Bible Gateway".
  50. ^ "James 1:19 - Bible Gateway".
  51. ^ "Session 11–4 February 1442".
  52. ^ Reid, George J. (1913). "Canon of the Holy Scriptures". The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. III (2 ed.). New York: The Encyclopedia Press, Inc. p. 272.
  53. ^ Schaff, Philip; Wace, Henry, eds. (1905). "The Apostolical Canons: Canon LXXXV". A Select Library of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers. Second. Vol. XIV. Translated by Percival, Henry. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. pp. 599–600.
  54. ^ Skehan, Patrick (1987). The Wisdom of Ben Sira: a new translation with notes. Series: The Anchor Bible. Vol. 39. New York: Doubleday. p. 524. ISBN 0385135173.
  55. ^ Skehan, p. 528
  56. ^ Sirach 13:2–3
  57. ^ See footnote a at Ecclesiasticus 13:2-3 in The Jerusalem Bible, Garden City, New York: Doubleday & Company, 1966
  58. ^ Rollston, Chris A. (2001). "Ben Sira 38:24–39:11 and The Egyptian Satire of the Trades". Journal of Biblical Literature. 120 (Spring): 131–139. doi:10.2307/3268597. JSTOR 3268597.
  59. ^ Sirach 38:24–39:11
  60. ^ Zärˀa Yaˁəqob. 1992. "Revelation of the Miracle of Mary according to John Son of Thunder (Raˀəyä Täˀammər)", in The Mariology of Emperor Zära Yaˁqob of Ethiopia: Texts and Translations, edited by Getatchew Haile, 70–145. Rome, Italy: Pontificium Institutum Studiorum Orientalium.
  61. ^ Welland, Colin (17 July 2015). "Chariots of Fire Script" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 18 July 2015.

Sources edit

  • Askin, Lindsey A. (2018) Scribal Culture in Ben Sira E.J. Brill, Leiden ISBN 978-9004372863
  • Beentjes, Pancratius C. (1997) The Book of Ben Sira in Hebrew: A Text Edition of All Extant Hebrew Manuscripts and a Synopsis of All Parallel Hebrew Ben Sira Texts E.J. Brill, Leiden, ISBN 9004107673
  • Toy, Crawford Howell and Lévi, Israel (1906) "Sirach, The Wisdom of Jesus the Son of" entry in the Jewish Encyclopedia
  • Amidah, entry in (1972) Encyclopedia Judaica Jerusalem, Keter Publishing, Jerusalem, OCLC 10955972

External links edit

Preceded by Roman Catholic Old Testament Succeeded by
Eastern Orthodox Old Testament
see Deuterocanon