Bontoc, Mountain Province

Bontoc, officially the Municipality of Bontoc (Ilocano: Ili ti Bontoc; Tagalog: Bayan ng Bontoc), is a 2nd class municipality and capital of the province of Mountain Province, Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 24,104 people. [4]

Bontoc
Municipality of Bontoc
Panoramic
Panoramic
Flag of Bontoc
Official seal of Bontoc
Map of Mountain Province with Bontoc highlighted
Map of Mountain Province with Bontoc highlighted
OpenStreetMap
Bontoc is located in Philippines
Bontoc
Bontoc
Location within the Philippines
Coordinates: 17°05′24″N 120°58′38″E / 17.09°N 120.9772°E / 17.09; 120.9772Coordinates: 17°05′24″N 120°58′38″E / 17.09°N 120.9772°E / 17.09; 120.9772
CountryPhilippines
RegionCordillera Administrative Region
ProvinceMountain Province
District Lone district
Founded1908
Barangays16 (see Barangays)
Government
[2]
 • TypeSangguniang Bayan
 • MayorFranklin C. Odsey
 • Vice MayorEusebio S. Kabluyen
 • RepresentativeMaximo Y. Dalog Jr.
 • Municipal Council
Members
 • Electorate16,040 voters (2019)
Area
 • Total396.10 km2 (152.94 sq mi)
Elevation
1,173 m (3,848 ft)
Highest elevation
1,833 m (6,014 ft)
Lowest elevation
804 m (2,638 ft)
Population
 (2020 census) [4]
 • Total24,104
 • Density61/km2 (160/sq mi)
 • Households
6,307
Economy
 • Income class2nd municipal income class
 • Poverty incidence10.01% (2018)[5]
 • Revenue₱193,695,812.90 (2020)
 • Assets₱380,337,910.27 (2020)
 • Expenditure₱147,756,487.58 (2020)
 • Liabilities₱159,836,195.88 (2020)
Service provider
 • ElectricityMountain Province Electric Cooperative (MOPRECO)
Time zoneUTC+8 (PST)
ZIP code
2616
PSGC
IDD:area code+63 (0)74
Native languagesBalangao
Bontoc
Ilocano
Tagalog
Websitelgubontoc.gov.ph

Bontoc is 392 kilometres (244 mi) from Manila.

Bontoc is the historical capital of the entire Cordillera region since the inception of governance in the Cordillera. The municipality celebrates the annual Lang-ay Festival.[6]

Bontoc is home to the Bontoc tribe, a feared war-like group of indigenous people who actively indulged in tribal wars with its neighbors until the 1930s. Every Bontoc male had to undergo a rite of passage into manhood, which may include headhunting, where the male has to journey (sometimes with companions) and hunt for a human head. The Bontoc also used the jaw of the hunted head as a handle for gongs, and as late as the early 1990s, evidence of this practice can be seen from one of the gongs in Pukisan, Bontoc. The town also hosts the UNESCO tentatively-listed Alab petroglyphs.

HistoryEdit

 
Aerial view of Bontoc, 1933

Samuel E. Kane, the American supervisor and then Governor, established the capital here after the Philippine Commission passed the Mountain Province Act in 1908,[7] building a provincial building, hospital, doctor's office, nurse's home, a school, and provincial prison.[8]: 281–284  He also built the Tagudin-Bontoc trail, which by 1926, could accommodate a small car.[8]: 329 

Bontoc was one of several municipalities in Mountain Province which would have been flooded by the Chico River Dam Project during the Marcos dictatorship, alongside Bauko, Sabangan, Sagada, Sadanga, and parts of Barlig.[9] However, the indigenous peoples of Kalinga Province and Mountain Province resisted the project and when hostilities resulted in the murder of Macli-ing Dulag, the project became unpopular and was abandoned before Marcos was ousted by the 1986 People Power Revolution.[10]

GeographyEdit

BarangaysEdit

Bontoc is politically subdivided into 16 barangays. These barangays are headed by elected officials: Barangay Captain, Barangay Council, whose members are called Barangay Councilors. All are elected every three years.

  • Alab Oriente
  • Alab Proper
  • Balili
  • Bay-yo
  • Bontoc Ili
  • Caluttit
  • Can-eo
  • Dalican
  • Gonogon
  • Guinaang
  • Mainit
  • Maligcong
  • Poblacion (Bontoc)
  • Samoki
  • Talubin
  • Tocucan

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Bontoc, Mountain Province
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 23
(73)
24
(75)
25
(77)
27
(81)
27
(81)
26
(79)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
25
(77)
24
(75)
23
(73)
25
(77)
Average low °C (°F) 16
(61)
16
(61)
17
(63)
19
(66)
20
(68)
21
(70)
21
(70)
21
(70)
20
(68)
19
(66)
18
(64)
17
(63)
19
(66)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 35
(1.4)
46
(1.8)
63
(2.5)
117
(4.6)
402
(15.8)
400
(15.7)
441
(17.4)
471
(18.5)
440
(17.3)
258
(10.2)
94
(3.7)
68
(2.7)
2,835
(111.6)
Average rainy days 9.9 9.5 13.9 18.9 26.0 27.3 28.9 28.5 26.1 19.7 14.5 12.8 236
Source: Meteoblue [11]

DemographicsEdit

Population census of Bontoc
YearPop.±% p.a.
1918 13,948—    
1939 14,284+0.11%
1948 15,005+0.55%
1960 16,301+0.69%
1970 16,901+0.36%
1975 17,476+0.67%
1980 17,091−0.44%
1990 17,716+0.36%
1995 21,192+3.41%
2000 22,308+1.11%
2007 24,798+1.47%
2010 23,980−1.21%
2015 24,643+0.52%
2020 24,104−0.43%
Source: Philippine Statistics Authority[12][13][14][15]

Most inhabitants speak the Bontoc language, with other major languages being Kankana-ey and Ilocano. Minor languages spoken include Tagalog, Pangasinan, Cuyonon and Butuanon.[16]

EconomyEdit

 
Rice terraces of Bontoc, Mountain Province
 
A group of Igorot pottery makers from Samoki, Mountain Province (c. 1910).

The local economy depends largely on small trades and agriculture. This capital town's biggest economic potential is tourism with its smaller rice terraces in Barangay Bay-yo, Maligcong and other areas.[24]

GovernmentEdit

Bontoc, belonging to the lone congressional district of the province of Mountain Province, is governed by a mayor designated as its local chief executive and by a municipal council as its legislative body in accordance with the Local Government Code. The mayor, vice mayor, and the councilors are elected directly by the people through an election which is being held every three years.

Elected officialsEdit

Members of the Municipal Council
(2019–2022)[25]
Position Name
Congressman Maximo Y. Dalog Jr.
Mayor Franklin C. Odsey
Vice-Mayor Eusebio S. Kabluyen
Councilors Alsannyster F. Patingan
Viola P. Okko
John F. Engngeg
Jerome B. Tudlong Jr.
Peter C. Kedawen
John T. Pelew
Robert B. Dacyon
Esteban O. Nguddo

CultureEdit

Bontoc woman with a snake skeleton in hair (a charm against lightning) and Bontoc man, c. 1903, (right)

The highland town of Bontoc is home to two National Cultural Treasures of the Philippines. These are the Stone Agricultural Calendar of Bontoc and Petroglyphs of Alab.[26]

The Alab petroglyphs are ancient figures carved on mountain walls by the prehistoric people of Bontoc.[27] The petroglyphs are the most important ancient rock art carvings in the Cordilleras and the second oldest in the entire country, second only to the Angono petroglyphs of Rizal. Due to its high significance, it was submitted by the National Commission for Culture and the Arts of the Philippines to the UNESCO Tentative List of Heritage Sites in 2006, pending its inclusion in the World Heritage List along with the Singanapan charcoal-drawn petrographs of southern Palawan, Angono petroglyphs of Rizal province, charcoal-drawn Peñablanca petrographs of Cagayan, and the Anda red hermatite print petrographs of Bohol.

EducationEdit

Secondary educationEdit

Institution Location
ALBAGO National High School Balili
Dalican National High School Dalican
Guina-ang National High School Guina-ang
Mountain Province General Comprehensive High School Poblacion
Saint Vincent School Poblacion
Talubin National High School Talubin
Tocucan National High School Tocucan

Tertiary educationEdit

Mountain Province State Polytechnic College is the first tertiary institution in the municipality that offers various undergraduate and graduate courses.

XiJen College of Mountain Province is the only private tertiary institution that also offers technical-vocational courses.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2019 Election Results:Bontoc, Mountain Province". GMA News. Retrieved 7 October 2021.
  2. ^ Municipality of Bontoc | (DILG)
  3. ^ "2015 Census of Population, Report No. 3 – Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August 2016. ISSN 0117-1453. Archived (PDF) from the original on May 25, 2021. Retrieved July 16, 2021.
  4. ^ a b Census of Population (2020). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 8 July 2021.
  5. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  6. ^ Malingan, Jamie Joie (12 April 2018). "Feature: Lang-Ay Festival: Celebrating a Culture of Sharing". Philippine Information Agency. Archived from the original on 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  7. ^ "Act No. 1876". PhilippineLaw.info. 18 August 1908. Archived from the original on 2014-10-15. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  8. ^ a b Kane, S.E., 1933, Thirty Years with the Philippine Head-Hunters, New York: Grosset & Dunlap
  9. ^ "Valley of Sorrow". Asiaweek. 1980-09-05.
  10. ^ Doyo, Ma. Ceres P. (2015). Macli-ing Dulag: Kalinga Chief, Defender of the Cordillera. Diliman, Quezon City: University of the Philippines Press. ISBN 978971542772-2.
  11. ^ "Bontoc: Average Temperatures and Rainfall". Meteoblue. Retrieved 8 March 2020.
  12. ^ Census of Population (2015). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. PSA. Retrieved 20 June 2016.
  13. ^ Census of Population and Housing (2010). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay. NSO. Retrieved 29 June 2016.
  14. ^ Censuses of Population (1903–2007). "Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR)". Table 1. Population Enumerated in Various Censuses by Province/Highly Urbanized City: 1903 to 2007. NSO.
  15. ^ "Province of Mountain Province". Municipality Population Data. Local Water Utilities Administration Research Division. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
  16. ^ "Annual Report; Local Government of Bontoc; CY 2011" (PDF). Local Government of Bontoc. 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  17. ^ "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved 28 December 2020.
  18. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/NSCB_LocalPovertyPhilippines_0.pdf; publication date: 29 November 2005; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  19. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2003%20SAE%20of%20poverty%20%28Full%20Report%29_1.pdf; publication date: 23 March 2009; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  20. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2006%20and%202009%20City%20and%20Municipal%20Level%20Poverty%20Estimates_0_1.pdf; publication date: 3 August 2012; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  21. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/2012%20Municipal%20and%20City%20Level%20Poverty%20Estima7tes%20Publication%20%281%29.pdf; publication date: 31 May 2016; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  22. ^ https://psa.gov.ph/sites/default/files/City%20and%20Municipal-level%20Small%20Area%20Poverty%20Estimates_%202009%2C%202012%20and%202015_0.xlsx; publication date: 10 July 2019; publisher: Philippine Statistics Authority.
  23. ^ "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved 22 January 2022.
  24. ^ "Mt. Province Travel Information". Asia Travel. Archived from the original on 7 May 2001. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  25. ^ "2019 National and Local Elections" (PDF). Commission on Elections. Retrieved March 13, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  26. ^ "Presidential Decree No. 260, s. 1973;". Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines. Archived from the original on 19 June 2018. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  27. ^ "Annual Report 2010; National Museum" (PDF). Manila, Philippines: National Museum of the Philippines. 2010. Retrieved 22 February 2019.

External linksEdit