Bombardier beetles are ground beetles (Carabidae) in the tribes Brachinini, Paussini, Ozaenini, or Metriini—more than 500 species altogether—which are most notable for the defense mechanism that gives them their name: when disturbed, they eject a hot noxious chemical spray from the tip of the abdomen with a popping sound.

Bombardier beetle
Brachinus species
Brachinus species
Scientific classificationEdit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Order: Coleoptera
Superfamily: Caraboidea
Family: Carabidae
Groups included

The spray is produced from a reaction between two hypergolic chemical compounds, hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide, which are stored in two reservoirs in the beetle's abdomen. When the aqueous solution of hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide reaches the "vestibule" (Eisner's word), catalysts facilitate the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of the hydroquinone.[1] Heat from the reaction brings the mixture to near the boiling point of water and produces gas that drives the ejection. The damage caused can be fatal to attacking insects. Some bombardier beetles can direct the spray in a wide range of directions.

The beetle's unusual defense mechanism is claimed by some creationists to be an example of what they call irreducible complexity,[2] though this is refuted by evolutionary biologists.[3]

Habitat edit

Australian bombardier beetle (Pheropsophus verticalis)

Bombardier beetles inhabit all the continents except Antarctica.[4] They typically live in woodlands or grasslands in the temperate zones but can be found in other environments if there are moist places to lay their eggs.

Behavior edit

Most species of bombardier beetles are carnivorous, including the larva.[5] The beetle typically hunts at night for other insects, but will often congregate with others of its species when not actively looking for food.[6]

Anatomy edit

There are two large glands that open at the tip of the abdomen. Each gland is composed of a thick walled vestibule which contains a mixture of catalases and peroxidases produced by the secretory cells that line the vestibule. Both glands are also made up of a thin-walled and compressible reservoir which contains an aqueous solution of hydroquinones and hydrogen peroxide.[1]

Mechanism of defense edit

When the beetle feels threatened it opens a valve which allows the aqueous solution from the reservoir to reach the vestibule. The catalases lining the vestibule wall facilitate the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, as in the following theoretical reaction:


The peroxidase enzymes facilitate the oxidation of the hydroquinones into quinones (benzene-1,4-diol into 1,4-benzoquinone and analogously for methyl hydroquinone), as in the following theoretical reaction:


The known net reaction, which further accounts for the theoretical reaction of the   and   products of the previous reactions, is:[1]


This reaction is very exothermic, and the released energy raises the temperature of the mixture to near 100 °C, vaporizing about a fifth of it. The resultant pressure buildup forces the entrance valves from the reactant storage chambers to close, thus protecting the beetle's internal organs. The boiling, foul-smelling liquid is expelled violently through an outlet valve, with a loud popping sound. The beetles' glands store enough hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide to allow the beetle to release its chemical spray roughly 20 times. In some cases this is enough to kill a predator.[7] The main component of the beetle spray is 1,4-benzoquinone, an irritant to the eyes and the respiratory system of vertebrates.

The flow of reactants into the reaction chamber and subsequent ejection occur in a series of about 70 pulses, at a rate of about 500 pulses per second. The whole sequence of events takes only a fraction of a second. These pulsations are caused by repeated microexplosions which are the results of the continuous pressure on the reservoir and the oscillatory opening and closing of the valve that controls access to the reaction chamber. This pulsed mechanism is beneficial for the beetles' survival because the system uses pressure instead of muscles to eject the spray at a constant velocity, saving the beetle energy. Also, the reintroduction of new reactants into the vestibule where enzymes are stored, reduces the temperature of the chamber, thereby protecting the peroxidases and catalases from thermal denaturation.[8]

Typically the beetle turns its body so as to direct the jet towards whatever triggered the response. The gland openings of some African bombardier beetles can swivel through 270° and thrust between the insect's legs, discharging the fluid in a wide range of directions with considerable accuracy.[9]

Evolution of the defense mechanism edit

The unique combination of features of the bombardier beetle's defense mechanism—strongly exothermic reactions, boiling-hot fluids, and explosive release—has been claimed by creationists and proponents of intelligent design to be an example of irreducible complexity.[2]

Biologists such as the taxonomist Mark Isaak note however that step-by-step evolution of the mechanism could readily have occurred.[3][10] The full evolutionary history of the beetle's unique defense mechanism is unknown, but biologists have shown that the system could have evolved from defenses found in other beetles in incremental steps by natural selection.[11][12] Specifically, quinone chemicals are a precursor to sclerotin, a brownish substance produced by beetles and other insects to harden their exoskeleton.[13] Some beetles additionally store excess foul-smelling quinones, including hydroquinone, in small sacs below their skin as a natural deterrent against predators—all carabid beetles have this sort of arrangement. Some beetles additionally mix hydrogen peroxide, a common by-product of the metabolism of cells, with the hydroquinone; some of the catalases that exist in most cells make the process more efficient. The chemical reaction produces heat and pressure, and some beetles exploit the latter to push out the chemicals onto the skin; this is the case in the beetle Metrius contractus, which produces a foamy discharge when attacked.[14] In the bombardier beetle, the muscles that prevent leakage from the reservoir additionally developed a valve permitting more controlled discharge of the poison and an elongated abdomen to permit better control over the direction of discharge.[11][12]

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ a b c Aneshansley, D.J.; Eisner, T.; Widon, J.M.; Widon, B. (1969). "Biochemistry at 100°C: Explosive Secretory Discharge of Bombardier Beetles (Brachinus)". Science. 165 (3888): 61–63. doi:10.1126/science.165.3888.61. PMID 17840686. S2CID 96158109.
  2. ^ a b Stanley A. Rice (2007). Encyclopedia of Evolution. Infobase Publishing. p. 214. ISBN 978-0-8160-5515-9.
  3. ^ a b Isaak, Mark (30 May 2003) [1997]. "Bombardier Beetles and the Argument of Design". TalkOrigins. Retrieved 3 August 2018.
  4. ^ "See the Amazing Way a Beetle Survives Being Eaten". National Geographic News. 2018-02-06. Archived from the original on August 8, 2020. Retrieved 2020-09-17.
  5. ^ "Bombardier Beetle". Animal Facts & Photos. Dallas Zoological Society. 2004. Archived from the original on 2011-07-08. Retrieved 2010-07-17.
  6. ^ Poetker, E. (2003). "Brachinus fumans". Animal Diversity Web.
  7. ^ Eisner & Aneshansley 1999
  8. ^ Dean, J.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Edgerton, H.E.; Eisner, T. (1990). "Defensive Spray of the Bombardier Beetle: A Biological Pulse Jet". Science. 248 (4960): 1219–21. Bibcode:1990Sci...248.1219D. doi:10.1126/science.2349480. PMID 2349480.
  9. ^ Piper, Ross (2007). Extraordinary Animals: An Encyclopedia of Curious and Unusual Animals. Greenwood Press. ISBN 978-0-313-33922-6.
  10. ^ Irreducible complexity cut down to size on YouTubeGrrlScientist (17 January 2011). "Irreducible complexity cut down to size". The Guardian. This video specifically focuses on debunking the so-called "irreducible complexity" of the favourite examples used by creationists; the eye, the bombardier beetle, the venus flytrap and bacterial flagella.
  11. ^ a b Weber CG (Winter 1981). "The Bombardier Beetle Myth Exploded". Creation/Evolution. 2 (1). National Center for Science Education: 1–5.
  12. ^ a b Isaak, Mark (May 30, 2003). "Bombardier Beetles and the Argument of Design". TalkOrigins Archive.
  13. ^ Brunet, P.C.J.; Kent, P.W. (1955). "Mechanism of sclerotin formation: The participation of a beta-glucoside". Nature. 175 (4462): 819–820. Bibcode:1955Natur.175..819B. doi:10.1038/175819a0. PMID 14370229. S2CID 4206540.
  14. ^ Eisner, T.; Aneshansley, D.J.; Eisner, M.; Attygalle, A.B.; Alsop, D.W.; Meinwald, J. (2000). "Spray mechanism of the most primitive bombardier beetle (Metrius contractus)". Journal of Experimental Biology. 203 (8): 1265–75. doi:10.1242/jeb.203.8.1265. PMID 10729276.

External links edit