Bombardier Zefiro

Bombardier Zefiro is a family of high-speed passenger trains designed by Bombardier Transportation whose variants have top operating speeds of between 250 km/h (155 mph) and 380 km/h (236 mph).

Zefiro 380 1.jpg
Bombardier Zefiro 380
ManufacturerBombardier , AnsaldoBreda
DesignerBombardier Transportation
Car length26.390 m (86.58 ft)
(driving car)[1]
24.775 m (81.28 ft) (intermediate cars)[1]
Height3.890 m (12 ft 9.1 in)[2]
Wheel diameter915 mm (36.0 in)/835 mm (32.9 in) (new/worn)[2]
Wheelbase17.375 m (57.00 ft)
(between bogie centres)[2]
Maximum speed250 to 400 km/h (155 to 249 mph)[3]
Weight2.9 or 3.4 m (9 ft 6 in or 11 ft 2 in) [2][1]
Axle load16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons)
Electric system(s)Overhead catenary
1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 kV AC & 25 kV 50 Hz AC (any of)[2][3]
Current collection methodPantograph
UIC classificationBo'Bo'-2'2'-2'2'-Bo'Bo'-Bo'Bo'-2'2'-2'2'-Bo'Bo'
(300 km/h or 186 mph 8-car version)[2]
Braking system(s)Electro-dynamic (regenerative) and electro-pneumatic disc[2]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The family consists of: the Zefiro 250, which has a top operating speed of 250 km/h (155 mph) and which is for the moment wholly manufactured in China; the Zefiro 300, which has a top operating speed of 300 km/h (186 mph) but design Up to 400 km/h (249 mph) ; and the Zefiro 380, which has a top operating speed of 380 km/h (236 mph).


Bombardier transportation and its predecessor companies produced a variety of high-speed trainsets,[4] as part collaborations with other conglomerates, such as the Intercity-Express family of locomotives[5] (Germany), AVE Class 102,[5] RENFE class 130 (Spain), ICN (Switzerland), the Acela express[5] (USA), and parts of the TGV Duplex, Eurostar, Thalys, and ETR 500[5] trainsets (Europe various).

Additionally the company has independently produced high-speed trainsets for specific markets, such as CRH1, "Xinshisu" (China), X 2000,[5] Regina (Sweden) and Class 71 (Norway).[6]

In November 2005 Bombardier launched its general solution, the Zefiro single-deck train for high-speed rail lines, available in 4-, 8-,12- or 16-car sets,[4] capable of being configured for a variety of supply voltages,[3] and produced in either standard (2.9 m or 9 ft 6 in) or a wide (3.4 m or 11 ft 2 in) widths.[1]


The Zefiro trainset is a conventional (non-inter-coach articulated) single-deck electrical-multiple-unit high-speed train. It consists of powered and unpowered cars, with motorized power cars at either end.[4] Car bodies are constructed of aluminium, with the exception of the wide-bodied Zefiro 250 trains, which have stainless steel bodies. They have customisable open-plan layouts.[7]

Trains are made up of 4-car units, each of which contains a transformer and its own power supply. Typically, the end cars of each 4-car unit have powered bogies, with the two middle cars being unpowered. The pantograph is located on one of the unpowered cars.[2]

The specifications for all current designs (2009) describe asynchronous three-phase motors, with forced air cooling.[2] However, Bombardier also offers the option of permanent-magnet synchronous motors[8] (which it groups in its "ECO4" energy-saving technologies),[9] which were tested on modified Regina trains in 2008 on the "Green Train" (Swedish: Gröna Tåget).[10]


Zefiro 250Edit

Zefiro 250
Formation8 or 16 cars (sleeper or seated)[11]
Capacity480 beds, 16 luxury beds, 122 seats (16-car sleeper version)[11]
Operator(s)Chinese Ministry of Railways
Car body constructionStainless steel carbody in wide profile[11]
Train length216 m (709 ft) (8 cars),
428.9 m (1,407 ft)(16 cars)[11]
Car length28.25 m (92.7 ft) (Cab cars), 26.6 m (87 ft 3 in)
(Intermediate cars)[11]
Width3.328 m (10 ft 11.0 in)[11]
Height4.04 m (13 ft 3 in)[11]
Maximum speed250 km/h (155 mph)[11]
Weight890 t (880 long tons; 980 short tons)
(16-car trainset)[11]
Axle load16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons)
Power output13.5 MW (18,100 hp)
(for propulsion),
11 MW (15,000 hp) (CRH1E)[11]
TransmissionAC - AC
Acceleration0.6 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2)[11]
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC[11]
Current collection methodPantograph
BogiesRegina type ("FLEXX link") with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase[11]
Braking system(s)Electro-pneumatic, Regenerative
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets, not possible for 16-car trainset[11]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

The first variant of the Zefiro concept to be produced was a series of twenty 16-car EMU sleeper trains produced by Bombardier's joint venture Sifang Power (Qingdao) Transportation (BSP), which were delivered from 2009.[12] These trains were the first high-speed train licensed to be manufactured in China as well as the fastest sleeper trains in the world.[13] China Railways designated them as CRH1E.[14]

Starting acceleration is greater than 0.6 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2), with a 16-car train weight of 859 t (845 long tons; 947 short tons) and an axle load of 16.5 t (16.2 long tons; 18.2 short tons), bogie type is that found on the Regina (train) with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase with 63% of axles motorized.[15]

In July 2010 The Ministry of Railways ordered 40 more 8-car 250 km/h (155 mph) CRH1E Zefiro high-speed trains from the Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd joint venture.[16]

In September 2012, based on a modified contract with Bombardier, The MOR ordered an additional 106 8-car trains, 60 of which are to be a new variant, designated the Zefiro 250NG. This variant is an evolution of the original, and will utilize different materials in order to provide weight savings and more efficient operation.[17]

Zefiro 300Edit

Zefiro 300
Formationup to 16 cars[15]
Capacity600 seats (8 cars)[15]
1,200 seats (16 car)[15]
Car body constructionAluminium carbody, UIC profile[15]
Train length202 m (663 ft) (8-car train),
402 m (1,319 ft) (16-car train)[15]
Width2.924 m (9 ft 7.1 in)[18]
Height4.08 m (13 ft 5 in)
Floor height1.24 m (4 ft 1 in)
Doors28 total
Maximum speed400 km/h (250 mph)[15]
Weight(empty) 454 t (446.8 long tons; 500.4 short tons)
Axle load~17 t (16.7 long tons; 18.7 short tons).[15]
Traction systemIGBT Inverters and AC Asynchronous Motors
Power output9.8 MW (13,100 hp) (8-car train @300 km/h or 186 mph)[15]
Acceleration0.7 m/s2 (1.6 mph/s)[15]
Deceleration1.2 m/s2 (2.7 mph/s)
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 kV 16.7 Hz & 25 kV 50 Hz AC
Current collection methodPantograph
Bogies"FLEXX speed", 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) wheelbase[15]
Braking system(s)Regenerative, Friction
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets,
not possible for 16-car trainset[15]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in)

The Zefiro 300 is intended for European operations, with a UIC profile, and capable of being fitted for use on all four European electrification schemes (1.5 & 3 kV DC, 15 & 25 kV AC). Bogies are FLEXX type with a 2.85 m (9 ft 4 in) wheelbase,[15] 50% of which are motorized. Starting acceleration is greater than 0.60 m/s2 (2.0 ft/s2). It has an axle load of approximately 17 t (16.7 long tons; 18.7 short tons).[15] Two 8-car sets can be joined together to form one longer train.[15]

A variant of the Zefiro 300 was offered by Bombardier in association with AnsaldoBreda to Trenitalia, the Italian national railway service, as part of a bid for 50 new high-speed trainsets in 2010.[19] Trenitalia selected this bid as the winner on 5 August 2010.[20] These entered service in 2015 and are designated ETR400 - Frecciarossa 1000.[21]

An evolution of the Italian version of the Zefiro 300 was also offered by Bombardier (joined with Hitachi Rail) for High Speed 2 commercial tender.

Zefiro 380Edit

Zefiro 380
Entered service2012[3]
Formation8 or 16 cars[22]
Capacity664 seats (max) 8 car
1,336 seats (max) 16 car[22]
Operator(s)China Railway Corporation
Car body constructionAluminium carbody, wide profile[22]
Train length215.3 m (706 ft) (8 car)
428.1 m (1,405 ft) (16 car)[22]
Car length27.85 m (91 ft 4 in) (Cab car)
26.6 m (87 ft 3 in) (Intermediate car)[22]
Width3.4 m (11 ft 2 in)[22]
Height4.16 m (13 ft 8 in)[22]
Maximum speed380 km/h (236 mph)
Weight462 t (455 long tons; 509 short tons) (Empty)
1,088 t (1,071 long tons; 1,199 short tons) (Full axle load)[22]
Power output20 MW (26,800 hp) (16-car @380 km/h or 236 mph)
10 MW (13,400 hp) (8-car @380 km/h or 236 mph)[22]
TransmissionAC - AC
Acceleration0.48 m/s2 (1.6 ft/s2)[22]
Power supplyOverhead catenary
Electric system(s)25 kV 50 Hz AC
Current collection methodPantograph
UIC classificationBo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′ (8 car set)
Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′+2′2′+Bo′Bo′ (16 car set)
Bogies"FLEXX speed" with 2.7 m (8 ft 10 in) wheelbase[22]
Braking system(s)Regenerative and pneumatic
Multiple workingPossible for two 8-car trainsets, not possible for 16-car trainset[22]
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8 12 in) standard gauge

In September 2009, Bombardier announced an order for eighty Zefiro 380 high-speed trains by the Chinese Ministry of Railways (MOR) to be produced at Bombardier's joint venture Sifang (Qingdao) Transportation Ltd. The order of twenty 8-car sets and sixty 16-car sets was estimated to be worth 27.4 billion RMB (approx €2.7 billion or $4 billion). The value of Bombardier's share is estimated at €1.3 billion. [23][24]

Under China railways use these trains have been designated CRH1C (8-car set) and CRH1D (16-car set).[14] which was in December 2010 revised to CRH380C and CRH380CL and once again to CRH380D (8-car set) & CRH380DL (16-car set) according to the new numbering system.[25]

As of the most recent news, the order has been amended to include only seventy 8-car sets, designated as the CRH380D. Orders for the 16-car DL sets were converted to D sets in late 2011.[17]

All the 85 trainsets have been delivered and are currently operated by Shanghai Railway Bureau & Chengdu Railway Bureau.

Zefiro ExpressEdit

Swedish regional transport authority Västtrafik ordered 40 new trains in 2018, later increased to 45 trains, of a new model capable of 200 km/h. They will have three cars and be around 80 meters long. First delivery is planned to end of 2021.[26][27]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c d Bombardier launches high-speed train International Railway Journal, December 2005, via
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i BOMBARDIER ZEFIRO High-speed Trains for 200 to 350 km/h Archived 2011-07-16 at the Wayback Machine Bombardier zefiro technical description. via
  3. ^ a b c d ZEFIRO high speed trains Project Overview Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  4. ^ a b c High speed from Bombardier – ZEFIRO (presentation) Flavio Canetti, Bombardier Transportation via
  5. ^ a b c d e Will Zefiro take high-speed forward? After years of collaboration in high-speed trains, Bombardier will soon launch its own dedicated train called Zefiro, and the company has high expectations of this exciting new design International Railway Journal, March 2008, via
  6. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-28. Retrieved 2009-10-27.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  7. ^ Backgrounder: Bombardier Zefiro: The next step in very high-speed rail technology
  8. ^ MITRAC Permanent Magnet Motor Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ ECO4: Revolutionary Energy-Saving Technologies
  10. ^ ECO4 – Now, More than Ever, the Climate is Right for Trains Archived October 15, 2009, at the Wayback Machine page 5
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "ZEFIRO - High Speed Trains - Bombardier Transportation" (PDF).
  12. ^ Orellano, Alexander (2014-09-08). "The ZEFIRO family – a new dimension of high-speed" (PDF).
  13. ^ "Bombardier ZEFIRO Very High Speed Trains". Railway Technology. Retrieved 2020-06-07.
  14. ^ a b The New High Speed Superpower
  15. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o "ZEFIRO - High Speed Trains - Bombardier Transportation" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Fourth order for CRH1 high speed trains". Railway Gazette International. 16 July 2010. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011.
  17. ^ a b Ltd, DVV Media International. "Zefiro 250NG included in revised high speed train contract".
  18. ^ "V300 Zefiro: A New Sense of Speed" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-06-16. Retrieved 2012-07-08.
  19. ^ "AnsaldoBreda and Bombardier combine to offer V300 Zefiro". Railway Gazette International. 9 June 2010.
  20. ^ "Trenitalia awards contract for 50 high speed trains". Railway Gazette International. 5 August 2010.
  21. ^ "Railway Gazette: Trenitalia signs V300ZEFIRO high speed train contract". Retrieved 2010-10-01.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Zefiro 380 Datasheet - Bombardier
  23. ^ Bombardier Sifang Wins Contract to Build 80 Very High Speed Trains for China Market Wire, September 2009 via
  24. ^ Bombardier Sifang Wins Contract to Build 80 Very High Speed Trains for China September 28, 2009 , press release
  25. ^ Ministry of Railway, Passenger Division, Bulletin Nr. 807, 2010
  26. ^ Västtrafik selects Bombardier to supply EMUs
  27. ^ Bombardier's EMU for Västtrafik now has a name: Zefiro Express – 5 more ordered

External linksEdit