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A soil ball with indigenous worms in soil amended a few weeks previously with bokashi fermented matter.

Bokashi is a process that converts food waste and similar organic matter into a soil amendment which adds nutrients and improves soil texture. It differs from traditional composting methods in several respects. The most important are:

  • The input matter is fermented by specialist bacteria, not decomposed.
  • The fermented matter is fed directly to field or garden soil, without requiring further time to mature.
  • As a result virtually all input carbon, energy and nutrients enter the soil food web, having been neither emitted in greenhouse gases and heat nor leached out.

Other names attributed to this process include bokashi composting, bokashi fermentation and fermented composting.

Contents

NomenclatureEdit

The name bokashi is transliterated from spoken Japanese. However, Japanese-English dictionaries give the word an older artistic meaning: “shading or gradation” of images - especially applied to woodblock prints.[1][2] This later extended to mean pixellation or fogging in censored photographs. Therefore its application to fermented organic matter is of uncertain origin; if both uses are related, unifying concepts may be “alteration” or "fading away".

Bokashi as a food waste process is borrowed in many other languages. As a noun, it has various meanings depending on context, in particular the process itself, the inoculant and the fermented output. This variety can lead to confusion. As an adjective, it qualifies any related noun, such as bokashi bin (a household fermentation vessel), bokashi soil (after adding the preserve), and even bokashi composting – a contradiction in terms.

ProcessEdit

The basic stages of the process are:

  1. Organic matter is inoculated with Lactobacilli. These will convert a fraction of the carbohydrates in the input to lactic acid by homolactic fermentation.[3]
     
    A household bokashi bin with a supply of fermentation starter, namely bran inoculated with Lactobacilli.
  2. Fermented anaerobically for a few weeks at typical room temperatures in an airtight vessel, the organic matter is altered and preserved, in a process closely related to the making of some fermented foods and silage. The preserve is normally applied to soil when ready, or can be stored unopened for later use.
  3. The preserve is mixed into soil. This exposes it to air, whereupon the lactic acid oxidises to pyruvate, a fundamental energy carrier in biological processes.
  4. The oxidised preserve is soon consumed by the indigenous soil life, ‘disappearing’ within a very few weeks at normal temperatures. Earthworm action is typically prominent, such that the amended soil acquires a texture associated with vermicompost.

CharacteristicsEdit

Accepted inputsEdit

 
Inside a recently started bokashi bin. Food scraps are raised on a perforated plate (to drain runoff) and are partly covered by a layer of bran.

The process is typically applied to food waste from households, workplaces and catering establishments, because such waste normally holds a good proportion of carbohydrates. It is applied to other organic waste by supplementing carbohydrates and hence lactic acid production. Recipes for large scale bokashi in horticulture often include rice, and molasses or sugar.[4][5] Any carbohydrate-poor waste stream would benefit from this.

Homolactic fermentation can process significantly more kinds of food waste than home composting. Even items such as cooked leftovers, meat and skin, fat, cheese and citrus waste are, in effect, pre-digested to enable soil life to consume them.

Pieces of input are discarded if they are already badly rotten, or show green or black mould. These harbour putrefying organisms which may overwhelm the fermentation.

Large items, and shapes with holes or depressions, can create air pockets which degrade the anaerobic environment. However most such items can be cut, crushed or broken up, so in practice this excludes only strong bones or similar.

EmissionsEdit

Carbon, gases and energyEdit

Homolactic fermentation breaks no carbon bonds and emits no gas; its overall equation is C6H12O6 (carbohydrate) → 2 CH3CHOHCOOH (lactic acid). It is a mildly endothermic reaction, emitting no energy; the fermentation vessel remains at ambient temperature.

These are in marked contrast to decomposition, which emits the majority of its input carbon and energy within greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide and methane) and - in aerobic decomposition - as heat.[6] In addition, decomposition emits nitrogen - a key nutrient - within ammonia and the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide.[7]

RunoffEdit

When fermentation begins, physical structures start to break down and release some of the input’s water content as a liquid runoff. Over time this constitutes more than 10% of the input by weight. The quantity varies with the input: for example cucumber and melon flesh lead to a noticeable increase.

The liquid leaches out a valuable fraction of proteins, nutrients and lactic acid. To recover them, and to avoid drowning the fermentation, runoff is captured from the fermentation vessel, either through a tap, into a base of absorbent material such as biochar or waste cardboard, or into a lower chamber. The runoff is sometimes called “bokashi tea”.

The uses of bokashi tea are not the same as those of “compost tea”. It is used most effectively when diluted and aerated (thus oxidising lactic acid to pyruvate) and then immediately sprinkled over a targeted area of soil. This ensures that all input food value is retained to feed the soil ecosystem, along with the later solid output. Myths have encouraged less effective uses that are either potentially damaging (e.g. feeding plants with acidic water) or wasteful (e.g. cleaning drains with nutrients, feeding plants with proteins they cannot take up).

VolumesEdit

Household containers ("bokashi bins") typically give a batch size of 5-10 kilograms. This is accumulated over a few weeks of regular additions. Each regular addition is best accumulated in a caddy, because it is recommended that one opens the bokashi bin no more frequently than once per day to let anaerobic conditions predominate.

In horticultural settings batches can be orders of magnitude greater.[4][7] Silage technology may be usable if it is adapted to capture runoff. An industrial-scale technique mimics the windrows of large-scale composting, except that bokashi windrows are compacted, covered tightly and left undisturbed, all to promote anaerobic conditions. One study suggests that such windrows lose only minor amounts of carbon, energy and nitrogen.[7]

HygieneEdit

Bokashi is inherently hygienic in the following senses:

Lactic acid is a strong natural bactericide, with well-known antimicrobial properties.[8] It is an active ingredient of some toilet cleaners.[9] As more is produced, it eventually suppresses even its own makers, the acid-resistant lactobacilli, such that bokashi fermentation eventually slows and stops itself. There is also evidence that mesophilic (ambient temperature) fermentation kills eggs of the Ascaris worm - a parasite of humans - in 14 days.[10]

The fermentation bin does not release smells when it is closed. A household bin is only opened for a minute or so to add and inoculate input via the lid or to drain runoff via the tap. At these times the user encounters the sour odour of lacto-fermentation (often described as a “pickle”) which is much less offensive than the odour of decomposition.[11]

An airtight fermentation bin cannot attract insects. Bokashi literature claims that scavengers dislike the fermented matter and avoid it in gardens.[12]

Addition to soilEdit

Fermented bokashi is added to a suitable area of soil. The approach usually recommended by suppliers of household bokashi is along the lines of "Dig a trench in the soil in your garden, add the waste and cover over."[13]

In practice, regularly finding suitable sites for trenches that will later underlie plants is difficult in an established plot. To address this, an alternative is a 'soil factory'.[14] This is a bounded area of soil into which several loads of bokashi preserve are mixed over time. Amended soil can be taken from it for use elsewhere. It may be of any size. It may be permanently sited or in rotation. It may be enclosed, wire-netted or covered to keep out surface animals. Spent soil or compost, and organic amendments such as biochar may be added, as may non-fermented material, in which case the boundary between bokashi and composting becomes blurred

A relatively new alternative is to homogenise (and potentially dilute) the preserve into a slurry, which is spread on the soil surface and mixed in by raking. The approach requires energy for homogenisation but confers several advantages. It thoroughly oxidises the preserve. It disturbs no deeper layers, except by increased worm action. Once mixed in, the slurry is of little use to scavenging animals. A larger area can be amended, and done repeatedly to sustain a larger soil ecosystem. The approach should be scalable to professional volumes based on conventional spreading equipment.

HistoryEdit

According to a producer of bokashi supplies “the practice is believed to have its earliest roots in ancient Korea[15]. This traditional form ferments waste directly in soil, relying on native bacteria and on careful burial for an anaerobic environment. A modernised horticultural method called Korean Natural Farming includes fermentation by indigenous micro-organisms (IM or IMO) harvested locally, but has numerous other elements too.

A Japanese bokashi method was developed by Dr Teruo Higa of Ryukyus University in Okinawa, following research into why plants flourished where he discarded some of his microbial experiments. Harvested micro-organisms were tested systematically, and a range of them was commercialised in 1982 under the ‘EM’ trademark (short for Effective Microorganisms).[15]

EM has become the best known form of bokashi worldwide, mainly in household use, and is claimed to have reached over 120 countries.[15] EM inoculant is typically supplied in part-fermented dilute molasses, and for household use is dried onto a substrate such as bran for convenient application.

Some claims made for EM have been contested robustly, but none contest the fact that it starts homolactic fermentation and hence produces a soil amendment. The controversy relates to other uses such as direct inoculation of soil with EM and direct feeding of EM to animals. Arguably, this heavy focus on microorganisms has diverted scientific attention away from both the process as a whole and the particular roles in it of lactic acid, pyruvate, and soil life above the bacterial level.

Some organisms in EM (photosynthetic bacteria and yeast) appear to be logically superfluous for homolactic fermentation, as they will first be suppressed by the dark and anaerobic environment, then killed by the lactic acid. Consequently, independent bokashiers have sought to avoid EM costs and to widen the scale of operations. Success has been reported with:

  • self-harvested micro-organisms, tested for lacto-fermentation;[16][17]
  • Lactobacilli alone, i.e. without other EM micro-organisms;[18][19]
  • other substrates for inoculant, such as newsprint;[19]
  • home-made airtight fermentation vessels (search "DIY bokashi bin" - too numerous and varied to cite);
  • larger scale than a household, for example a group of small farmers.[20]

UsesEdit

The primary use of bokashi is to recover value from organic waste by converting it into a soil amendment.

In Europe, food and drink material that is sent to animal feed does not legally constitute waste because it is regarded as ‘redistribution.’[21]. This may apply to bokashi made from food, because it enters the soil food web, and furthermore is inherently pathogen-free.

A side effect of diverting organic waste to the soil food web is to divert it away from local waste management streams and their associated costs of collection and disposal. To encourage this, for example most UK local authorities subsidise household bokashi starter kits through a National Home Composting Framework.[22]

Another side effect is to increase the organic carbon content of the amended soil. Some of this is a relatively long-term carbon sink – insofar as the soil ecosystem creates humus – and some is temporary for as long as the richer ecosystem is sustained by measures such as permanent planting, no-till cultivation and organic mulch. An example of these measures is seen at the Ferme du Bec Hellouin in France.[17][23][24] Bokashi would therefore have potential uses in enabling communities to speed up the conversion of land from chemical to organic horticulture and agriculture, to regenerate degraded soil, and to develop urban and peri-urban horticulture close to the sources of input.

The anti-pathogenic nature of bokashi is applied to sanitation, in particular to the treatment of faeces. Equipment and supplies to treat pet faeces are sold commercially[25] but do not always give prominence to the hygiene risks[26].Treatment of human faeces has been extensively studied, notably with the use of biochar (a soil improver in its own right) to remove odours and retain nutrients.[27] Social acceptability is a major obstacle, but niche markets such as emergency aid sanitation, outdoor events and temporary workplaces may develop the technology into a disruptive innovation.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Tangorin Dictionary". Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  2. ^ "Meaning of bokashi in Japanese". RomajiDesu.
  3. ^ Yamada, Kengo; Xu, Hui-lian (2000). "Properties and Applications of an Organic Fertilizer Inoculated with Effective Microorganisms". Journal of Crop Production. 3: 255–268 – via ResearchGate.
  4. ^ a b "Bokashi du Costa Rica - Recette". Alterculteurs. February 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  5. ^ "Honduras – Making Bocashi Fertilizer". Paper Bokashi. January 2011. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  6. ^ Haug, Roger Tim (1993). The Practical Handbook of Compost Engineering. Lewis Publishers. ISBN 0-87371-373-7.
  7. ^ a b c Bosch, Marlou; Hitman, Anke; Hoekstra, Jan Feersma (2016). "Fermentation (Bokashi) versus Composting of Organic Waste Materials: Consequences for Nutrient Losses and CO2 footprint" (PDF). Agriton.nl. Retrieved 17 January 2019.
  8. ^ De Vuyst, L.; Vandamme, E.J. (1994). "Antimicrobial Potential of Lactic Acid Bacteria". Bacteriocins of Lactic Acid Bacteria. Boston, MA, USA: Springer. pp. 91–129.
  9. ^ "Toilet Duck® Thick Liquid Toilet Bowl Cleaner". SC Johnson. 2019. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  10. ^ Ligocka, A.; Paluszak, Z. (2009). "Effectiveness of different sanitisation technologies on the inactivation of Ascaris suum eggs in organic waste". Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Puławy. 53: 641–644.
  11. ^ Foxx, D.S. (August 2009). "Can you smell that?". Bokashislope. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  12. ^ Casley, Nikki (August 2015). "Composting without pests". Bokashi Living. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  13. ^ "Using your bokashi bucket". Bokashi Direct. June 2016. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  14. ^ Harlen, Jenny (4 March 2013). "How to make a soil factory". Bokashi World. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  15. ^ a b c "The History of Bokashi & How It Works". EM Bokashi Composting. 16 October 2012. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  16. ^ Park, Hoon; DuPonte, Michael W. (August 2008). "How to Cultivate Indigenous Microorganisms". Biotechnology. University of Hawaii. 9: 1–7 – via ScholarSpace.
  17. ^ a b Hervé-Gruyer, Perrine & Charles (2016). Miraculous Abundance. White River Junction, VT, USA: Chelsea Green Publishing. pp. 100–103. ISBN 9781603586429.
  18. ^ "How to Make and Use Your Own Lactobacillus Culture". Dude Grows. 11 January 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  19. ^ a b "Paper Bokashi". "Newspaper Bokashi" Blog. 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  20. ^ "Recipe for Regeneration in Honduras". USC Canada. 25 August 2017. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Digest of Waste and Resource Statistics, 2018 edition". GOV.UK for Department for Environment, Food & Rural Affairs. 24 May 2018. Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  22. ^ "The National Home Composting Framework". Straight Ltd (see Partners tab for local authorities). Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  23. ^ "La ferme biologique du Bec Hellouin" (in French and English). Retrieved 9 January 2019.
  24. ^ "Ferme du Bec-Hellouin". Wikipedia.fr - with useful references (in French). Retrieved 12 January 2019.
  25. ^ "Pet use". Bokashi Cycle. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  26. ^ "Dog Poo Wormeries and Composting Cat & Dog Faeces (subheading "Bokashi fermentation of dog and cat faeces")". Carry on Composting. 2014. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  27. ^ Yemaneh, Asrat; Itchon, Gina (2015). Otterpohl, Ralf; et al. (eds.). Terra Preta Sanitation 1 - Background, Principles and Innovations. Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt. pp. 127–132. ISBN 978-3-00-046586-4.