Black holes in fiction
This article has multiple issues. Please help improve it or discuss these issues on the talk page. (Learn how and when to remove these template messages)(Learn how and when to remove this template message)
The study of black holes, gravitational sources so massive that even light cannot escape from them, goes back to the late 18th century. Major advances in understanding were made throughout the first half of the 20th century, with contributions from many prominent mathematical physicists, though the term black hole was only coined in 1967. With the development of general relativity other properties related to these entities came to be understood, and their features have been included in many notable works of fiction.
Many works of fiction use ideas or concepts with features similar to the idea of a black hole, predating the coinage of the term "Black Hole" by Wheeler in 1967. Science fiction stories written before this date often portray one or two features of black holes accurately, but display a naive view of them overall.
- The Sword of Rhiannon (1950): a novel written by Leigh Brackett, originally published as "The Sea-Kings of Mars" in Thrilling Wonder Stories (June 1949). In a forgotten tomb of the old Martian god Rhiannon, a strange singularity plunges the hero into the Red Planet's fantastic past. The tomb encloses a bubble of darkness ... [like] those lank black spots far out in the galaxy which some scientists have dreamed are holes in the continuum itself, windows into the infinite outside our universe!  Rhiannon is regarded as the best of Brackett's sword and planet works set in the neo-Burroughsian Martian past on the other side of the black hole.
- Stowaway to the Mushroom Planet (1956): a juvenile science fiction novel written by Eleanor Cameron. Two boys experience adventures and strange encounters on and around the Mushroom Planet, a tiny moon in an invisible orbit around the Earth. One of the hazards of the journey there is a "hole in space," rendered visible by a swarm of meteors that orbits it in a funnel-shaped circle and falls into it to completely vanish from sight. In the hole, ...there's no time—that is, for [the infalling space traveler] Horatio there's no time. It's all just one big long NOW. As he fell into the hole, Horatio felt as though I were being wrenched bone from bone ... That must be when he went through the hole in space.
- The City and the Stars (1956): the debut novel (originally published as Against the Fall of Night) of Arthur C. Clarke, with the reworked (City) version being widely considered one of the strongest tales of conceptual breakthrough in genre science fiction. A once glorious galactic Empire was nearly destroyed by a pure disembodied intelligence called the Mad Mind. The Mad Mind could not be destroyed, for it was immortal. It was driven to the edge of the Galaxy and there imprisoned in a way we do not understand. Its prison was a strange artificial star known as the Black Sun, and there it remains to this day. The Black Sun is often interpreted as a black hole—an identification made explicit in Gregory Benford's sequel Beyond the Fall of Night (1990, see below).[note 1]
- "Kyrie" (1968): a short story written by Poul Anderson. An expedition exploring a fresh supernova remnant emerges from jump to face an electromagnetic nebular storm as it draws close to the cataclysm's residual black hole (Anderson mentions its Schwartzschild radius, but uses the terms "supernova core" and "star's exposed heart" to refer to the hole itself); their ship faces imminent destruction. Rescue is effected by Lucifer, a plasma-based being allied to the ship, who can communicate instantaneously over unlimited distances with the ship's onboard telepath. Exhausted by the effort of fending off the deadly hazard, Lucifer finally tumbles into the black hole, his death agonies stretched to forever in her mind as his fall in the hole's gravitational field slows his clock asymptotically to zero at the event horizon. She will never stop hearing his screams, and there is no place in the universe where she will find peace.
- Creatures of Light and Darkness (1969): a novel written by Roger Zelazny. In this novel of science fiction and ancient Egyptian folklore, recognized for its complex plot, mythic resonance, and fluent verbal intensity, the god Thoth has ruled the Universe, but now must dedicate all his remaining powers toward containing his archenemy, the Thing That Cries In The Night. Thoth's brother Typhon contains within himself the black hole-like "Skagganauk Abyss", described as: sometimes called the chasm in the sky, the place where it is said that all things stop and nothing exits … empty of space, also. It is a bottomless hole that is not a hole, it is a gap in the fabric of space itself … It is the big exit leading nowhere, under, over, beyond, out of it all.
In 1958, David Finkelstein identified the Schwarzschild surface of a black hole as an event horizon, extending the commonplace notion that objects beyond a horizon cannot be seen, calling it "a perfect unidirectional membrane: causal influences can cross it in only one direction." This result helped usher in the golden age of general relativity, which was marked by general relativity and black holes becoming mainstream subjects of research. Later tales (below) tend to portray black holes in a fashion more thoroughly in accord with modern understanding. An early term for the black hole produced by stellar collapse was "collapsar" (short for collapsed star) with the term black hole itself being introduced by John Wheeler in 1967 and adopted enthusiastically by science fiction writers. In science fiction stories written up to this date (Early works), black holes are called by a variety of more or less suggestive names, including "black" and "hole" used in isolation; after 1969, almost all works use Wheeler's combined term "black hole."
Stellar and astrophysical black holesEdit
- "He Fell into a Dark Hole" (1973): a short story by Jerry Pournelle originally published in Analog science fiction magazine. Ships are mysteriously disappearing on the direct "Alderson" (hyperspace) path from the planet Meiji in the 82 Eridani system to the Earth. In Pournelle's future history, the CoDominium authority discourages scientific research; only renegade physicist Marie Ward remembers the old idea of black holes, and she theorizes that a stellar black hole is causing passing vessels to drop out of hyperspace and trapping them in its gravity well (for an instance of a quantum black hole precipitating ships out of hyperspace, see "The Borderland of Sol" by Larry Niven, below). Captain Bartholomew Ramsey commands a likely-to-be suicidal mission along the fateful trajectory to test the theory, and finds it all too true and himself with his own craft trapped right alongside the damaged missing ships. Following a hunch of Ward, a heroic officer (and Ramsey's romantic rival) volunteers to pilot the most spaceworthy of the hulks straight into the hole, to unleash a torrent of powerful gravitational waves (see graphic). By turning on its short-lived Alderson drive at the precisely calculated moment of impact, Ramsey's ship is able to surf out of the well and return to 82 Eridani.
- "A World Out of Time" (1976): a Larry Niven novel set in the State universe. Jerome Corbell uses a spacecraft travelling at nearly lightspeed to perform a slingshot around the supermassive black hole at the galactic center; relativistic time dilation due to the pass close to the event horizon causes him to emerge from the maneuver over three million years later.
- Gateway (1977): the multiple award-winning first novel in the Heechee Saga by Frederik Pohl. Protagonist Robinette Stetley Broadhead signs on to a ten-person crew that is flying in a pair of ill-understood starships (two of a fleet abandoned to the Solar System by a vanished alien race), and voyaging to an unknown destination. Upon arriving there, they all fall into the clutches of a stellar-mass black hole; through a series of mishaps Broadhead escapes and returns home to fame and fortune while the other nine plunge, over the span of an objective time-dilated eternity, into the hole. The novel explores both the incident itself and Broadhead's resulting feelings of guilt. In later installments of the saga, the Heechee emerge from their retreat in the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy, having—again because of time dilation—spent only a few subjective centuries there; they and the humans resolve to confront The Foe together.
- "Singularity" (1978): a short story by Mildred Downey Broxon. A scientific team monitors the last days of the intelligent but radically alien tribes of Epsilon Eridani's second planet, Mancken's World, as a wandering stellar black hole finds its way through the star's planetary system. The hole makes a feast of the gas giant fifth planet but passes nowhere near Mancken's; however on its close encounter with ε Eridani itself, it will raise a storm of huge planet-scouring flares. The autochthones, whose prescient mythology has left them not unprepared for the event, calmly await the apocalypse along with a lone abandoned—and fearful—human observer.
- "Schwarzschild Radius" (1987) short story by Connie Willis features Karl Schwarzschild's life, using imagery from black hole physics.
- Beyond the Fall of Night (1990): the sequel by Gregory Benford to Arthur C. Clarke's earlier work Against the Fall of Night. The sequel is very different in tone and theme from its inspiration, and ignores Clarke's own revision The City and the Stars (see above). In it Benford explicitly renames the Singularity that imprisons the Mad Mind, from Clarke's Black Sun (at the edge of the galaxy) to the Black Hole (a supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy). Benford reworked the same theme yet a third time in an expansion of the novel as Beyond Infinity (2004, ISBN 0-446-53059-X) wherein the protagonist Alvin of Loronei, a "Unique," is replaced by the young woman Cley, an "Original"; the Black Hole becomes the black hole; and the Mad Mind becomes the Malign. In the 2004 novel, the cover art of the hardcover edition features a SMBH with a prominent polar jet, at the hub of a spiral galaxy.
- Flies from the Amber (1995) by Wil McCarthy features colonists in a stellar system that incorporates a black hole discovering aliens that have been trapped near the event horizon due to gravitational time dilation.
- "Approaching Perimelasma" (1998), short story by Geoffrey A. Landis, originally in Asimov's Science Fiction, features an ultra-miniature spaceship making a voyage to drop through the event horizon of a black hole.
- "The Planck Dive" (1998), short story by Greg Egan , coincidentally published just a month after the Landis story with a similar theme, also features a drop through the event horizon of a black hole.
Miniature black holesEdit
In 1971, Hawking introduced the idea that black holes may exist that are smaller than stellar mass, "micro black holes", possibly formed as primordial black holes during the high-density phase of the big bang. Some stories refer to these as "quantum black holes," distinguishing them from astrophysical black holes. In 1975, Hawking pointed out that such small holes would evaporate due to the emission of Hawking radiation.
In the stories that follow, a common plot device is that of the escaped black hole that oscillates back and forth through the core of an astronomical body and, most often, eventually consumes it: Mars in "The Hole Man" by Larry Niven (1973), an asteroid in "The Borderland of Sol" by Niven (1975), the Earth in Hyperion by Dan Simmons (1989), Earth by David Brin (1990) and The Krone Experiment by J. Craig Wheeler (1986), the Moon in "How We Lost the Moon, a True Story by Frank W. Allen" by Paul J. McAuley (1999), and the Earth once more in Olympos by Simmons (2005). Surprisingly, given the widely publicized 1975 publication by Stephen Hawking of the theory of quantum evaporation, few of the works incorporate this idea (notably Earth by David Brin (1990) and Olympos by Dan Simmons (2005)).
- "The Hole Man" (1973): a short story written by Larry Niven and published in Analog science fiction magazine. "One day Mars will be gone." Thus begins the Hugo Award winning (1975) tale of an electromagnetically confined quantum black hole, the resonator of an ancient gravity-wave communicator discovered on a voyage of exploration to Mars.[note 2] A disgruntled and possibly psychotic mission scientist (the eponymous hole man) "accidentally" turns off the containment field at the perfect moment to murder the expedition's martinet captain, with the unconstrained singularity dropping through his body on its way to the planetary center of mass. Massing 100 billion kg, with a diameter of 0.1 fm (about a sixteenth the size of a proton) the object encounters no resistance as it plunges through flesh and stone alike, too small to encounter and consume many subatomic particles, but leaving behind a channel of millimeter-scale havoc arising from the enormous tidal forces in its nanoscale neighborhood. Still, the hole will grow. The astrophysicist explains: Remember that it absorbs everything it comes near, a nucleus here, an electron there ... and it's not just waiting for atoms to fall into it. Its gravity is ferocious, and it's falling back and forth, through the center of the planet, sweeping up mass. The more it eats, the bigger it gets ... sooner or later [in 40 years], it'll absorb Mars.
- "The Borderland of Sol" (1975): a Known Space novelette by Larry Niven published in Analog science fiction magazine. Lovesick Jinxian physicist Dr. Julian Forward has turned space pirate, using a charged quantum black hole, electrostatically steered by a trio of space tugs, to winkle interstellar transports out of hyperspace in the desolate trans-Neptunian reaches of the Solar System. When Beowulf Schaeffer's ship is attacked, its hyperdrive motor suddenly disappearing, he and genius Carlos Wu find themselves prisoners in Forward's secret asteroid base even as the mad scientist plots yet another assault. Using ingenuity and dexterity, with covert logistical backup from Earth agent Sigmund Ausfaller, the two foil the ambush; the ravenous vortex of the hole escapes confinement and settles slowly—a deadly, lazily drifting actinic pinpoint—through Forward's control room. Forward loses his frantic resisting grip on a control panel, falls into the tiny maelstrom, and is consumed in a flash of light; within minutes the entire asteroid crumples in on itself and is as spectacularly annihilated. Meanwhile, the protagonists escape in the nick of time on Ausfaller's ship.
- The Ophiuchi Hotline (1977) by John Varley: micro black holes are harvested in the Oort cloud and used to produce energy.
- "The Black Hole Passes" (1980), short story by John Varley (in The Persistence of Vision, 1978), in the same setting as The Ophiuchi Hotline. A space station outpost in the Oort cloud attempts to capture a passing black hole, which turns out to be intelligent.
- "Killing Vector" (1978): a short story by Charles Sheffield; the first of his "McAndrew Chronicles" series of stories. The title refers to the Killing vector, named after German mathematician Wilhelm Killing, a vector field employed in the relativistic theory of black holes.[note 3] In a tale in which black holes are used as a power source, the mass murderer Yifter is being conveyed from Earth orbit to the Titan penal colony on a modular ship consisting of multiple independent spherical Sections, each drawing power from the ergosphere (see graphic) of its own rapidly rotating quantum hole, or "kernel" (a neologism for "Kerr-Newmann black hole"), the whole assembly being electromagnetically bound together. Yifter is freed in a deep-space raid by his henchmen, but is tricked into making his getaway in Section Seven, whose kernel has been experimentally stripped of its Killing vector field and thereby exposed as a naked singularity; as soon as he taps the ergosphere he is flung into another dimension.
- "The Nothing Spot" (1978): a short story by Dan Girard. Future housewife Cheryl Harbottle is dismayed to discover that, in her new decorator lamp ("Capture the Sun in Your Living Room"), the microscopic solar lighting element has collapsed into a microscopic black hole, which consumes just about anything she experimentally feeds into it. After losing her Komfy Kushion chair she begins to get really scared until, ever resourceful, she conceives the idea of cordoning off the nothing spot's corner with some tasteful drapes and discontinues her rubbish disposal service.
- Star Bright (1980): a novel by Martin Caidin. A nuclear fusion experiment gone awry leads to the creation of an object that has all the properties of a quantum black hole, although it is not called that in the novel. There is a large explosion, consistent with the energy released by the total evaporation of a singularity via Hawking radiation, and a wide area is devastated.
- The Doomsday Effect (1986): a novel by Thomas Thurston Thomas, a.k.a. Thomas Wren. A tiny black hole falls into the Earth, and begins an elliptical orbit through it, consuming it as it goes. Scientists labor to figure out how to stop it. But how do you stop something that is smaller than an atom, heavier than a mountain, and swallows everything that touches it? Winner of the Compton Crook Award in 1987.
- Hyperion (1989): a novel by Dan Simmons. In the far future, Earth is only a memory. In "The Poet's Tale" Martin Selenius, author of the fictional epic poem The Hyperion Cantos, reminisces about his land-poor aristocratic upbringing on Earth in the time of the Big Mistake, enjoying "periods of remission"—stretches of ten to eighteen quiet months between planet-wide spasms as the Kiev Team's goddamn little black hole digested bits of the Earth's center and waited for its next feast ... The devastation was great during the Bad Times—and these came more often in precisely plotted spasms ... (for a similar catastrophe on the planet Mars, see The Hole Man by Larry Niven, above).
- Earth (1990): a novel written by David Brin. The plot of the book involves an artificial quantum black hole which has been lost in the Earth's interior and the attempts to recover it before it destroys the planet (for a similar catastrophe on the planet Mars, see The Hole Man by Larry Niven, above). In the novel, the characters ask where the hole came from: How could anybody build and conceal a black hole, for heaven’s sake—even a micro black hole—in space without word getting out? The smallest hole with a Hawking radiation temperature low enough to be contained would need the mass of a midget mountain. You don’t go hauling that kind of material into low earth orbit without someone noticing.
- "How We Lost the Moon, a True Story by Frank W. Allen" (1999), short story by Paul J. McAuley, published in the collection Little Machines. A quantum black hole is accidentally created on the moon and gradually consumes it (see graphic; for a similar catastrophe on the planet Mars, see The Hole Man by Larry Niven, above).
- Ilium (2003) and Olympos (2005), linked pair of novels by Dan Simmons. In this duology, one of the story's multiple threads is played out in Paris Crater—a future metropolis rebuilt on the ruins of the former French capital … Paris Crater was said to have gained its crater more than two millennia ago when post-humans lost control of a tiny black hole they’d created during a demonstration at a place called the Institut de France. The hole had bored its way through the center of the earth several times but the only crater it had left in the planet’s surface was right here between the Invalids Hotel faxnode and the Guarded Lion node. The hole evaporated with an enormous release of energy.[note 4]
- Chaos and Order (1994), fourth book of The Gap Cycle by Stephen R. Donaldson. Sometime pirate captain Angus Thermopyle heads his vessel, the Trumpet, for an illegal lab hidden deep in a chaotic asteroid belt. ... she carried singularity grenades; devices at once so dangerous and so difficult to use that Morn’s instructors in the Academy had dismissed their value in actual combat … Without external energies to feed it, the singularity was so tiny that it consumed itself and winked away before it could do any damage. Here Donaldson recognizes the brief lifetime of sufficiently small quantum singularities, but he greatly understates the energy they produce when they "wink away"[note 4]—a release of energy that would actually serve as a far more effective weapon than the highly localized "appetite" of a tiny black hole.
Black holes as wormhole bridgesEdit
Many early stories about black holes incorporate the concept that a black hole may contain a wormhole (known earlier as an "Einstein-Rosen bridge") that could be used for transportation; a concept that was at one time considered plausible, but is not currently accepted. More on wormholes can be found in the wormholes in fiction article.
- The Forever War (1974), novel by Joe Haldeman. In this novel, humanity has discovered collapsars throughout the galaxy, and used them to colonise it. Spaceships and troops are also transported via the collapsars to wage war against an alien species. Due to time dilation, these trips are subjectively very brief, but decades or centuries pass elsewhere. The difficulties the troops face in reintegrating to a vastly changed society after returning from a campaign is a key theme.
- "Singularities Make Me Nervous," (1974), a short story by Larry Niven. A rotating black hole as a time machine. "A hole into another universe, maybe, or into another part of this one, maybe. That's in the equations too. And there's a path around a rotating black hole that brings you back to your starting point without even going through the singularity. Which sounds harmless enough until you realize you're talking about event-points—points in space time."
- "Fountain of Force" (1978): a short story written by Grant Carrington and George Zebrowski. Black holes, linked via wormholes to distant corresponding white holes, form the foundation of an instantaneous travel network that spans the galaxy. The story concerns the inadvertent discovery of an especially large black hole that provides a link to the Andromeda galaxy.
- The Gates of Heaven (1980): a novel by Paul Preuss. In the near future, an expedition attempts to rescue the survivors of the first accidental interstellar journey. Passage through the null-tide region between a pair of black holes is actually a gateway to another star system. A sequel, Re-entry, is set centuries in the future. A government agent tracks down a fugitive who has discovered how to use the black hole gateways to travel back in time and possibly undo history. (In the end, the gateways don't merely link different points light-years apart in the universe, but they actually connect different indistinguishable universes in a multiverse.)
- Better Than Life (1990), novel written by Grant Naylor, features the crew of Red Dwarf encountering a black hole, nearly sucking them in to their demise, which they manage to escape from utilizing black hole physics devised by the freshly genius Holly and retained by a talking toaster (but still have to briefly go through "spaghettification" - merging them into strands of shared consciousness). The resultant time dilation separates them from the marooned Dave Lister for 37 years, making him too weak to survive a Polymoprh attack. The crew are able to resurrect him by traveling back through the black hole to a region called the omni-zone, which allows for travel into six parallel universes, including one where time runs backwards. This serves as the background for both alternative sequels, written by Doug Naylor and Rob Grant respectively, called Last Human (1995) and Backwards (1996). The omni-zone plays a more vital role in the former, as it features numerous effects of interchange through the black hole between universes.
- Eater (2000), novel by Gregory Benford. In the early 21st century, astronomers detect what appears to be a distant gamma-ray burster, a black hole engulfing a star light years away. It soon becomes apparent that the hole is smaller and closer than that, and rapidly approaching the Earth, swallowing asteroids and interplanetary debris on the way, and finally that it hosts an intelligent being, one created by "a very early, intelligent civilization whose planet was being chewed up by the black hole," and who had uploaded their consciousnesses to it. The "Eater" would like to similarly absorb the best and brightest minds of Earth, and the destruction of humanity looms unless three astronomer protagonists, collectively playing Theseus to the black hole's Minotaur, can interfere with the increasingly malevolent entity's plans.
- Exultant (2004), novel in the Xeelee Sequence written by Stephen Baxter. In this and other novels of the sequence, humanity is (again) expanding into the galaxy, and waging a fierce war of aggression on the enormously advanced but far less numerous Xeelee. Life is everywhere in the universe, and everywhere intimately bound up with black holes. The first life forms developed within Planck time of the Big Bang; the first Xeelee inhabited primordial black holes; when those began to evaporate, they moved to the supermassive black holes at the centers of galaxies—including the one named Chandra in our own—and became an integral part of the holes' complex ecologies of living species. Humanity finally drives the Xeelee from the periphery of the galaxy and confines them to Chandra, which it attacks with singularity cannons, projecting pairs of black holes whose trajectories converge to disrupt the central black hole's event horizon with eruptions of gravity waves, threatening all the species within. Hoping to save their cohabitants, the Xeelee flee the Milky Way and effectively end the war.
- Dark Peril by James C. Glass (published in Analog March 2005), is a story about space travelers on an exploratory mission. While they investigate a strange cosmological phenomenon, their two small spacecraft begin to shake, and they are unable to leave the area. One crew member realizes that they are trapped in the Ergosphere of a black hole or naked singularity. The story describes a cluster of multiple black holes or singularities, and what the crew does to try to survive this seemingly inescapable situation.
- The novel The Black Hole Project by G. David Nordley (with C. Sanford Lowe), based on five novellas originally published in Analog in 2006 and 2007 ("Kremer's Limit", "Imperfect Gods", "The Small Pond", "Loki's Realm", and "Vertex"), concerns an interstellar project to create an artificial Black Hole, and the political, militaristic, and terroristic activities undertaken fore and against the project.
- Jeffrey A. Carver's 2008 novel Sunborn, includes an ancient race of artificial intelligences known as "Survivors", which live "within compact dimensions revealed only in "extreme space"—most likely in close proximity to, or inside, super-massive black holes." It is a hostile race, intent on the destruction of all organic life; and to that end they intend, among other things, to create more black holes by causing Supernovas and hypernovas. The book has a subplot involving a weapon deployed against Earth, which has a Quantum singularity as one of its components. The book also includes space-dwelling creatures called Deeaab and Daarooaack (Deep and Dark, respectively, for short), which are, in part, described with the following statement by another character: "whatever they were in their own universe, here they took the form of singularities distributed over measurable space. That's why they can affect spacetime in ways that might otherwise seem unlikely."
- Brian Greene's 2008 novella Icarus at the Edge of Time is a science fiction retelling of Icarus' tale. It is the story of a young man who runs away from his traveling, deep-space home to explore a black hole.
- The Black Hole (1979), a major science fiction film featuring a derelict ship at the edge of a black hole.
- Event Horizon (1997), a spaceship is created to travel faster than light to Alpha Centauri through the use of a machine that creates an artificial black hole. The ship accidentally passes into another dimension and mysteriously returns seven years later, found derelict in orbit around Neptune with the entire crew missing. A salvage crew discovers that the black hole passed the ship through a Hell-like dimension that drove the original crew insane, causing them to massacre each other, and return the ship with a malevolent intelligence of its own.
- Treasure Planet (2002), in Disney's animated sci-fi version of Treasure Island, the RLS Legacy encounters a black hole, where a ruthless crew member named Scroop (Michael Wincott) cuts the lifeline of the overboard First Mate, Mr. Arrow (Roscoe Lee Browne), who is then pulled to his death in the black hole.
- Zathura (2005) It is revealed that Zathura is a giant black hole.
- The Black Hole (2006), a science fiction film unrelated to the 1979 film.
- Wristcutters: A Love Story (2006), a fantasy romantic comedy which features a black hole under a car's front passenger seat where things dropped into it vanish, and who the lead character escapes the afterlife from.
- Star Trek (2009), "red matter" is used by Spock to create an artificial black hole to absorb a supernova, and later by Nero to destroy Vulcan. Traversing through the black hole created caused the characters to travel through time and ultimately change the past.
- Maximum Shame (2010), a black hole is coming to swallow Earth and a couple escapes into a parallel universe.
- In Barna Hedenhös uppfinner julen (2013), a stellar black hole in outer space opens a time portal between the Stone Age and 2013 causing the Hedenhös family to end up in contemporary Stockholm using their Stone Age-rocket spacecraft.
- In Interstellar (2014), a wormhole leads to a supermassive black hole called Gargantua, located 10 billion light-years from Earth and orbited by several planets. Its mass is 100 million times that of Earth's sun, and it is spinning with 99.8 percent of the speed of light. For one of the planets, named Miller's planet, one hour equals seven years on Earth due to dramatic time dilation induced by the close proximity to Gargantua.
- In the 2015 French science-fiction film The Big Everything, black holes of the Microquasar type are used as a central plot device, creating a path through the Universe.
- Black Holes: How Embarrassing To Be Human (2017), a science fiction comedy short film in 3D animation, presented at Sundance Film Festival 2017.
- In the Sailor Moon Super S movie, the film's main villain, Queen Badiane, seeks to create what is referred to as a "Black Dream Hole", intending on using the energies of children's dreams to enlarge the black hole and rule everything swallowed up in it. Sailor Moon chases her into it when she absconds with Sailor Chibi-Moon and is ultimately destroyed once the two defeat the villain.
- The 1981 Filmation cartoon Blackstar depicts Earth astronaut John Blackstar who inadvertently travels in his spacecraft through a black hole and ends up crashing onto planet Sagar.
- During early-season 8 (1994) of the 1987–1996 Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles cartoon, the Technodrome ends up trapped inside a black hole.
- Space Battleship Yamato: Resurrection (2009), A wandering cascade black hole is on a trajectory toward Earth. While escorting evacuation ships to a far away solar system, the Yamato and her crew have to find a way to stop it before Earth is destroyed.
- In the Star Trek universe, the Romulans are known to utilize artificial black holes (generally referred to as "artificial quantum singularities") as a power source. In at least two episodes, malfunctions cause "temporal anomalies" (abnormal time flow).
- In the television sci-fi adventure series Andromeda (2000), a black hole named Marida slows time for the human half of the lead character, Captain Dylan Hunt, and his sentient space warship, the Andromeda Ascendant (Glorious Heritage class) allowing him to survive into a new era by spending 303 years in a moment.
- Several adventures in the British television series Doctor Who feature black holes or situations relating to them, notably "The Three Doctors", "The Horns of Nimon", "The Impossible Planet", "The Satan Pit", "World Enough and Time" and "The Doctor Falls". Furthermore, the Eye of Harmony is a black hole used by the Time Lords as a power source for their "TARDIS" time machines. As established in "The Deadly Assassin" it is kept beneath the Panopticon, the hall of government in their Citadel, and in the original series links the TARDISes together. In the new series episode "Journey to the Centre of the TARDIS" there is a power room where the collapsing star that created the black hole is shown.
- In the Blake's 7 story "Breakdown" the Liberator travels through a black hole.
- In the Stargate SG-1 episode A Matter of Time, a wormhole is opened to a planet near the event horizon of a black hole, causing the gravitational and time dilation effects of the black hole to threaten Earth. Black holes play a major role in Stargate SG-1, and appear in many episodes. Multiple episodes utilize black holes as power sources for intergalactic-range wormholes. In another episode, the same black hole that threatened Earth was used to make a star explode, destroying an entire fleet of Goa'uld ships.
- In the Battlestar Galactica episode "Daybreak Part 2", the Cylon Colony orbits a black hole.
- In the Superman: The Animated Series episode Absolute Power, a black hole acts as a major plot device.
- In the Transformers episode called "the Killing Jar", Ultra Magnus, Cyclonus, Wreck-Gar and several other characters are transported through a black hole, only to find themselves trapped in a universe composed entirely of anti-matter.
- The main villain in the anime Transformers Cybertron is a sentient one called the Grand Black Hole (the Unicron Singularity in the dubbed version) created by the destruction of Unicron in the previous series.
- In the "Homer Cubed" segment of Treehouse of Horror VI, Homer Simpson finds himself trapped in a strange computer-generated dimension just outside his own animated reality. After accidentally destabilizing this dimension, it collapses into a black hole, which draws Homer through a wormhole into our own reality.
- In the 2015 French Science-Fiction film The Big Everything, black holes of the Microquasar type are used as a central plot device, creating a path through the Universe.
- The Space: 1999 episode "Black Sun" focuses on a time-manipulating intelligent female black hole, here called "a black sun" (at the time the episode was produced, black holes were almost unknown).
- As of Dragon Ball Super Episode 118, Goku is not only capable of surviving in black holes, but capable of outspeeding one with his Kamehameha alone while in Super Saiyan Blue, and even without his transformations, the black hole was not seen to be bothering him much.
- In the Tenchi Muyo episode "Zero Ryoko", Dr. Clay attempts to kill Tenchi, Ayeka and Mihoshi by destroying most of his ship with a black hole. However, Tenchi's mysterious power awakens again, allowing him to easily overpower and escape with both girls alive and well.
- In the anime/manga series Inuyasha, the monk Miroku is cursed with a black hole in his right hand that is capable of drawing anything into the void, dubbed the Wind Tunnel. The hereditary curse was placed on his grandfather by the demon Naraku, and grows each year in size, threatening to draw Miroku himself into the hole when it reaches its limit, thus killing him.
- In the anime/manga/webcomic series One-Punch Man, the alien Geryuganshoop induces a black hole on Saitama, but fails to harm the latter in any way, and ultimately gets split in half with a rock thrown by Saitama himself.
- The X-Men comic series featured a storyline in which a mad Shi'ar emperor, D'Ken, attempted to shatter a lattice called the M'Krann Crystal, which was said to contain an entire galaxy of black holes all occupying the same space, and which would have destroyed the entire Marvel Universe had the crystal's matrix been breached; his efforts were ultimately thwarted by the efforts of the Phoenix, who used her vast powers to repair it.
- Superman of DC Comics has been regularly grabbing black holes, hurling them away  and even escaping from their event horizon. He can even withstand being in a localized gravity field that simulated the pull of a large black hole, most likely the most massive ones today. He has even escaped from a double black hole's event horizon, effectively violating several laws of physics in the process.
- The "Cygnus X-1" song series by Rush tells the story of an interstellar traveler who becomes trapped in the event horizon of Cygnus X-1. The traveler appears at first to be destroyed, but eventually re-emerges in a world resembling the Olympus of Greek mythology. The song cyle begins at the end of the album A Farewell to Kings and concludes at the beginning of the band's following studio album Hemispheres.
- Supermassive Black Hole was the lead single by Muse on their 2006 album Black Holes and Revelations.
- In the video games Super Mario Galaxy and Super Mario Galaxy 2, black holes are the equivalent of bottomless pits in which if Mario (or Luigi) falls or slips off an edge with a black hole under the level, he will be sent spiraling into it, losing a life on purpose. In the end of the first game, when Mario defeats Bowser, his galaxy collapses into a supermassive black hole and starts consuming the universe. Only the Lumas were able to neutralize the super massive black hole. Interestingly, the black holes in both games share similarities with the Event Horizon Telescope’s image of supermassive black hole M87. Both have an orange outline and a black center. Although, this is most likely a coincidence.
- In the video game Mega Man 9, there is a weapon called the Black Hole Bomb. When Galaxy Man uses it, it pulls Mega Man toward its horizontal position while Galaxy Man stands under it to cause damage. Mega Man can use the weapon after defeating Galaxy Man to suck enemies and bullets into a black hole, and it is effective against Jewel Man in the same game. The Black Hole Bomb is used in Mega Man's appearances in the Super Smash Bros. franchise since Super Smash Bros. for Wii U/3DS as the catalyst for his Final Smash.
- In StarCraft II, a Protoss unit, called The Mothership, can summon a black hole, which sucks up all nearby units friendly or foe and disables them for a short time by making them disappear.
- In Diablo 3, the wizard character class gains access to an ability named Black Hole. This ability creates a small black hole for a couple of seconds, which draws enemies in while damaging them.
- In Heroes of the Storm, one of the two heroic abilities for hero called Gazlowe has an upgrade called Miniature Black Hole that pulls enemies toward the center of an area and deals damage. A hero called Zarya has access to the heroic ability Graviton Surge, which draws enemy heroes toward the center and holds them inside area of effect for a few seconds, leaving them open to other attacks. A Protoss hero called Tassadar can create a Black Hole that travels in a long line, pulling enemy heroes towards its center, damaging and stunning them in the process.
- In Defense of the Ancients and its sequel, Dota 2, there is a hero called Enigma who can generate a micro black hole that pulls in enemies and damages them. There is speculation on Enigma's lore that he is a sentient black hole himself, or the personification of the force of gravity.
- In Star Ocean: The Last Hope, the SPSS-6002B-003 Calnus travels through a black hole which somehow leads to a parallel universe.
- In a videogame called The Darkness, you end up going to a turkish bath and eventually kill a crazy man, for which in return, you gain the ability to summon a mini black hole and to collapse it at will.
- In the fourth installment of Destroy All Humans! Path of the Furon, you acquire a new upgrade for Crypto's gun later in the game called the Black Hole Gun, in which it creates one after charging the weapon and firing.
- In Mass Effect 2 the main base of the Collectors exists on the border of the accretion disk of the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. The biotic ability Singularity used in the game also creates a miniature black hole which pulls enemies off their feet and deals damage to them. Mass Effect Andromeda takes place in the fictional Heleus Cluster in the Andromeda Galaxy; at the gravitational center of the cluster is an intermediate-mass black hole christened "Ketos" (at least by human settlers; other native & colonist races have their own names for it) which proves beneficial to the Andromeda Initiative by disrupting and consuming portions of the interstellar minefield known as the Scourge, while its gravitational lensing hides the native angara's capital world of Aya from the kett who are invading the cluster.
- In Call of Duty: Black Ops Zombies mode, a tactical grenade called the Gersch Device, appears in the maps Ascension and Moon. Gersch Devices were miniature "black hole" creators that pulls zombies toward it, giving players a break or a chance to revive a downed teammate.
- In Bungie's award-winning Halo series, the method of faster-than-light travel for spacecraft is through a nondimensional domain known as 'Slipspace', and is made possible by ripping the space-time continuum by having slipspace drives artificially generating thousands of micro black holes that quickly evaporate via Hawking radiation.
- In the MMO/FPS game Destiny the backstory refers to an ancient race, The Harmony, who inhabited an artificial system of plants orbiting a supermassive black whole. Using a megastructure called the Gift-Mast, they were able to both maneuver this artificial solar system (apparently at faster-than-light speeds) but also use the ejection jet as a weapon ("The Harmony's Sting") which could destroy entire worlds.
- In the computer game Master of Orion II one of the weapons a player can use is a micro black hole generator, which is used to immobilize and destroy enemy ships.
- In a promotional video for the video game Portal 2, the Aperture Science Handheld Dual Portal Device is shown to have a miniature black hole and event horizon approximation ring.
- In Super Robot Taisen: Original Generation, a video game by Banpresto, the original Huckebein is using black hole engine as power source which eventually exploded during test run. Its sister unit is sealed away and can be unlocked as a hidden unit. Another machine, the Granzon, also uses the Black Hole Engine as its power source. However, it's revealed that its pilot, Shu Shirakawa, sabotaged the Huckebein's engine as he correctly deduced that the engine was a test from aliens.
- In Solar 2 if you get enough mass you will become a black hole. There is also a mission were you must push a "Black hole Asteroid" into a solar system.
- In Spore (2008 video game), the player can travel through Black Holes with the usage of a tool named the Wormhole Key.
- In Saints Row IV, the player can weaponize temporary black holes using a gun named the "Black Hole Launcher" or "Singularity Gun".
- In Sonic Colors, the overloading of Dr. Eggman's Mind Control Cannon causes the built up Wisp Energy to create a black hole that engulfs Eggman's amusement park trap. Sonic is unable to outrace it and is only saved by the Wisps, who also disperse the black hole.
- In Sonic Riders: Zero Gravity, a floating island known as Babylon Garden comes to possess so much gravitational force, it collapses in on itself and becomes a black hole.
- In Metroid Prime 2: Echoes, Samus can combine her dark beam with the missile launcher to create a black hole that pulls in all enemies in a short range known as the "Darkburst"
- In Metroid: Samus Returns, a supermassive black hole can be seen in the background of space with Astrophysical jets emitted from its poles as Samus' gunship descends to Planet SR388 indicating that the home world of the Metroids and X Parasites is near enough from the center of its or another galaxy for the black hole to be visible from space. However the exact distance from it is unclear given its supermassive size may make it appear closer than it actually is.
- In Death:The Partaking,It is shown that Death itself will be swallowed by A God Black Hole.
- In Heart of Darkness, the center of the Darkland and final stage of the game is a black hole that is crucial to the plot.
- In No Man's Sky, some galaxies contain black holes through which players can pilot their ships to warp-travel vast distances.
- In Elite: Dangerous some star systems have black holes
- In Quantum Break, the core of a time machine replicates the effects of a black hole.
- In Star Trek Online, Romulan ships use Artificial Singularity Cores to power their ships, granting them abilities that Federation, KDF, and Dominion ships do not have access to. When a ship is destroyed, they end up being imploded by the black hole and explode afterwards, enemy and allied ships are also affected if they are caught in this trap.
- In Fortnite: Battle Royale, the Visitor and "The Seven" made a last ditch effort to save the island by taking the meteor from Season 4 and crushing the Zero Point with it. This caused the black hole to appear, and for the game to end. When the game was booted afterwards, the black hole could be seen, spewing out numbers for a hidden code.
Black holes may be referred to as locations in space, in fiction. For a list containing many stars and their planetary systems that appear in fiction, see Stars and planetary systems in fiction.
Notes and referencesEdit
This section contains information of unclear or questionable importance or relevance to the article's subject matter. (January 2018) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
- The idea of a Black Sun has been variously exploited in the science fiction literature. In "To B or Not to C or to D" (1950), Jack Vance describes Noir, the dark companion star, as consisting of "dovetailed protons," a fair description of the outer core, or neutron-proton fermi liquid layer of a neutron star. In "Legends of Smith's Burst" (1959), Brian Aldiss' black sun is an antimatter star that radiates an all-enveloping darkness rather than simply enclosing it. In the present instance, Gregory Benford and possibly Arthur C. Clarke use the term to refer to a black hole. Finally, in Black Sun Rising (1991), C. S. Friedman uses her eponymous star as a parapsychic nexus that ensnares men's souls.
- For another quantum black hole discovered in an ancient precinct on the Red Planet, with quite a different outcome, see The Sword of Rhiannon by Leigh Brackett, above.
- Sheffield make pivotal use in the story of the pun on the word "killing" with regard to Section Seven. Another possible pun on the title is the killing vector represented by Yifter's genocidal global dispersal of persistent hallucinogens into Earth's water supplies.
- For comparison, according to the Hawking radiation theory, a 1-second-lived black hole has a mass of 2.28×105 kg, equivalent to an energy of 2.05×1022 J that could be released by 5×106 megatons of TNT, and all its mass is converted to energy.
- Chown, M. (2008) "Professor John Wheeler: Titan of 20th-century physics who coined the term 'black hole'", Independent, 16 April (accessed 7 April 2017)
- Mann, George (2001). "Black Hole". The Mammoth Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. London: Robinson Publishing. p. 468. ISBN 1-84119-177-9.
In science fiction, black holes have become a standard method of portraying faster-than-light space travel.
- Brackett, Leigh (2009). The Sword of Rhiannon. Redmond, WA: Paizo Publishing. ISBN 1-601-25152-1.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Brackett, Leigh (Douglass)". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. p. 150. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Cameron, Eleanor (Butler)". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. p. 185. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Cameron, Eleanor (2003). Stowaway to the Mushroom Planet. Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith Publisher Inc. pp. 159, 198, 205. ISBN 0-844-67237-8.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Clarke, Arthur C". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. p. 230. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Clarke, Arthur C (2001). The City and the Stars. New York: Aspect. p. 264. ISBN 0-446-67796-5.
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "Kyrie". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. pp. 105, 107. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Zelazny, Roger (Joseph)". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. p. 1367. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Zelazny, Roger (1969). Creatures of Light and Darkness. New York: Harper Voyager. p. 160. ISBN 0-061-93645-6.
- Finkelstein, D (1958). "Past-Future Asymmetry of the Gravitational Field of a Point Particle". Physical Review. 110 (4): 965–967. Bibcode:1958PhRv..110..965F. doi:10.1103/PhysRev.110.965.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Black Holes". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. pp. 129–131. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "He Fell into a Dark Hole". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. p. 42. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- "1977 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- "1978 Award Winners & Nominees". Worlds Without End. Retrieved 15 January 2012.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Pohl, Frederik". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. p. 943. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "Singularity". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. p. 242. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- Willis, Connie, "Schwarzschild Radius" in Preiss, Byron & Fraknoi, Andrew, eds. The Universe, Bantam 1987.
- Benford, Gregory (1991). Beyond the Fall of Night. New York: Berkley Books. pp. 271, 305. ISBN 0-441-05612-1.
- Review: Beyond Infinity, Publisher's Weekly. Retrieved 24 April 2017.
- McCarthy, Wil, Flies from the Amber, Roc / New American Library 1995, ISBN 0-451-45406-5
- Hawking, S. (1971) "Gravitationally collapsed objects of very low mass," Mon.Not.Roy.Astron.Soc. 152, 75
- Hawking, S.W. (1975) "Particle Creation by Black Holes," Commun.Math.Phys. 43 (August) pp. 199-220, Erratum-ibid. 46 (1976) 206-206, DOI: 10.1007/BF02345020
- Cottingham, W N; Greenwood, D A (2001). An Introduction to Nuclear Physics (2 ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 19. ISBN 0-521-65733-4. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- Niven, Larry (1974). "The Hole Man". A Hole in Space. New York: Ballantine Books. pp. 142–145. ISBN 0-345-24011-1.
- Niven, Larry (1975). Tales of Known Space. New York: Ballantine Books. p. 197. ISBN 0-345-24563-6.
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "Killing Vector". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. pp. 119, 128. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "The Nothing Spot". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. p. 294. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- Caidin, Martin (1980). Star Bright. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-12621-0.
- Thomas, Thomas (1986). The Doomsday Effect. New York: Baen Books. ISBN 0-671-65579-5.
- Simmons, Dan (1990). Hyperion. New York: Spectra. pp. 182–183. ISBN 0-553-28368-5.
- Brin, David (1991). Earth. New York: Bantam Spectra. p. 173. ISBN 0-553-29024-X.
- "How We Lost the Moon, a True Story by Frank W. Allen". Internet Speculative Fiction Database. Retrieved 10 January 2013.
- Simmons, Dan (2006). Olympos. New York: Harper Voyager. p. 271. ISBN 0-380-81793-4.
- Clute, John; Nicholls, Peter (1993). "Donaldson, Stephen R.". The Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. New York: St Martin’s Griffin. pp. 347–348. ISBN 0-312-13486-X.
- Donaldson, Stephen R (1995). Chaos and Order: The Gap Into Madness. New York: Spectra. p. 556. ISBN 0-553-57253-9.
- A. Einstein and N. Rosen, “The particle problem in the general theory of relativity”, Phys. Rev. 48, pp. 73-77 (1935).
- Niven, Larry, "Singularities Make Me Nervous," Stellar 1, edited by Judy-Lynn del Rey, September 1974, ISBN 978-0-345-24183-2, Ballantine Books
- Pournelle, Jerry (1978). "Fountain of Force". Black Holes. Brooklyn NY: Fawcett Books Group. p. 199. ISBN 0-449-23962-4.
- Preuss, Paul (1980). The Gates of Heaven. New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-13409-4.
- Benford, Gregory (2001). Eater. New York: Harper Voyager. p. 160. ISBN 0-380-79056-4.
- "Familjen bakom julkalendern" (in Swedish). Sydsvenska. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- Infographic, Karl Tate 2014-11-07T21:09:59Z. "The Science of 'Interstellar' Explained (Infographic)". Space.com.
- "Blackstar". TV.Com. 1981. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- Mark Pellegrini (29 December 2015). "Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles (1987) Season 8 Review". Adventures in Poor Taste. Retrieved 25 October 2018.
- JLA Vol. 1 #77
- Superman Vol. 1 #665
- Superman Vol. 2 #191