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Roman Catholic Diocese of Oloron

  (Redirected from Bishop of Oloron)

The former Roman Catholic Diocese of Oloron was a Latin rite bishopric in Pyrénées-Atlantiques department, Aquitaine region of south-west France, from the 6th to the 19th century.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The diocese of Oleron already existed in the 6th century, when Bishop Gratus attended the Council of Agde. The diocese of Oleron was a suffragan (provincial subordinate) to the Archdiocese of Eauze, holding the eighth place of nine, until Eauze was destroyed by the Normans around 845.[1] It then became a suffragan of Auch, which was raised to the status of a metropolitan archbishopric in 847. For administrative purposes the diocese was subdivided (by the thirteenth century) into six archdeaconries, those of Oleron, Soule, Navarrenx, Garenz, Aspe, and Lasseube.[2] The archdeaconries and archpriesthoods disappeared in the sixteenth century, when Béarn was protestantized by the official policy of the royal house of Navarre, especially by Jeanne d'Albret.[3]

The bishops of Oleron were also seigneurs of the Barony of Moumour, thanks to the liberality of Gaston V, Viscount of Béarn (died 1170).[4]

Cathedral ChapterEdit

The Chapter of the Cathedral of Sainte-Marie was composed of twelve Canons and eight prebendaries. The Bishop and Chapter were jointly seigneurs of the town of Sainte-Marie, on the opposite bank of the river Gave from Oloron, where the episcopal palace was located.[5]

There was also the Collegiate Church of Sainte-Engrâce, which had been founded in the mid-11th century. It had a Chapter composed of a Sacristan and twelve non-residential Canons.[6]

Bishop and Papal LegateEdit

Bishop Amatus (1073? – 1089), who had been a Benedictine monk, presided as Legate of Pope Gregory VII in a Council held at Poitiers on 26 May 1075, to deal with the marital irregularities of Count Guillaume of Poitou. He was also present, with the title of Legate, at the Council of Poitiers held by the Papal Legate Hugh of Die in 1078. He presided as Papal Legate at a Council held at Gerona in Aragon in 1078, and, again with Hugh de Die, at the Council of Bordeaux in December 1079. In December 1079 Pope Gregory VII appointed him Legate to Britain. On 6 October 1080, Amat and Hugh presided at another council at Bordeaux; and likewise in the same year at Saintes, and likewise on 27 March 1181 at Issoudun (Exoldunense). The reward for this very busy and loyal bishop was a promotion to the Archbishopric of Bordeaux (1089-1102).[7]

Election of 1246Edit

Late in May or early in June 1246, the Canons of the Chapter of the Cathedral of Saint-Marie assembled, and in accordance with canon law conducted an election by scrutiny for a new bishop. Everyone finally agreed on Pierre de Gavarret, who held the office of Sacristan in the Cathedral Chapter of Vic. They immediately notified Pope Innocent IV, who was staying at Lyon at that time, and drew his attention to the Elect's sterling qualities, but also to the fact that the bishop-elect was not eligible for the office super natalium defectu (illegitimacy). The Chapter requested that the Pope dispense Pierre from this obstacle to his promotion. The Pope appointed a committee of three bishops, the Archbishop of Auch and the bishops of Lascar and Dax (Aquensis), to inquire into the canonical form of the election, the behavior of the petitioners, and the merits of the Elect. They were to inform the Pope immediately of their findings, which they did, and which were all positive. On 14 July 1246 Pope Innocent provided the necessary dispensation and the mandate to the Archbishop to consecrate Pierre de Gavarret as Bishop of Oloron. On 27 June 1246 he notified the Chapter that he had approved their petition.[8]

Election of 1308Edit

The episcopal election of 1308 produced a scandal of major proportions in southern France. Guillaume Arnaudi, called Dodaus, had apparently been elected by the Canons of the Cathedral Chapter. His election was notified to the Metropolitan, Archbishop Armanevus of Auch, who announced a day by which any opponent of the election might present any evidence he wished. One of the clergy of Oloron, Arnaldus Guillelmi de Mirateug, went in person to Auch, armed with documents and petitions, intending to persuade the archbishop not to ratify the election. Bishop-elect Guillaume Arnaudi was accused of having some of his friends seize and detain Arnaldus for some time. When he was released, he was not able to gain admission to the Archbishop (the Bishop-elect's enemies said). He then went to the Cathedral, and harangued a crowd of clergy and people to persuade them to oppose the confirmation of the bishop-elect. Certain clergy and Canons of the Cathedral made off with his documentary evidence (it was said), and tried to expel him from the cathedral or even kill him. The Archbishop, on account of the uproar, was not willing to proceed with a confirmation, and secretly entrusted the matter to a committee of clerics. He then left the city and took up residence in a castle some two leagues away. Arnaldus, however, pursued the archbishop, and eventually got an interview; he presented his criminal charges, and to prevent the confirmation of the election, he appealed to the Pope. The Archbishop in reply issued the confirmation, despite the existence of the investigatory committee.

The entire affair was reported at a papal audience by Garsias Arnaldi, lord of Novaliis, who laid charges of simony, homicide, perjury, public money-lending, and living in concubinage. Pope Clement, who wished to know the truth of the dispute, sent a mandate on 10 August 1308 to the Bishop of Tarbes (Gerold Doucet), whom he trusted, to make a thorough investigation of the affair, and if he were to find anything amiss, to cite the Bishop-elect, Guillaume Arnaudi, to the Papal Court, and give him three months to appear personally.[9] Nothing more is known, beyond the Pope's letter, except that Guillaume Arnaudi was confirmed as bishop of Oloron. He appears as confirmatus et electus in a charter of Count Gaston de Foix, dated the Wednesday after the Feast of Notre-Dame (8 September) 1308.[10]

Election of 1342Edit

Another difficult election followed the death of Bishop Arnaud de Valensun in 1341. The Chapter of the Cathedral proceeded to the usual election, and chose Petrus de Capite-pontis, but Petrus refused the election. At that point Pope Benedict XII intervened and decided to reserve the appointment to his own judgment. The Chapter, however, perhaps in ignorance or perhaps to assert its traditional rights, proceeded to a second election, of Arnaud de Cadalhono. When the election was referred to Avignon for papal confirmation and bulls, Benedict XII quashed the election, on the grounds that he had already reserved the appointment. On 4 March 1342 he appointed Bernard d'En Julia, the Prior of the Priory of Saint-Christine (diocese of Oloron).[11]

The Great Western SchismEdit

During the Western Schism (1378–1417) the Kings of England supported the Roman Obedience, at least until 1408, when they sent official delegates to the Council of Pisa (March–August 1409), while the Kings of France, Aragon, and Castile supported the Avignon Obedience. Oloron, which was the feudal property of the Counts of Foix, who were also Vicomtes of Béarn, found itself in the middle of the dispute. Gaston III, Count of Foix and Vicomte de Béarn, attempted to please both sides. The chronicler Jean Froissart recalls a Christmas dinner at the court of Foix in 1388, in which the Count entertained two bishops of the Avignon Obedience, those of Pamiers and Lascar, and two bishops of the Roman Obedience, those of Aire and of Oleron.[12] The bishops of the Roman Obedience were Pierre de Monbrun (and Pierre Salet).[13] The bishops of the Avignon Obedience were Orgier de Villesonques, Sance le Moine, Arnaud de Buzy, Pierre Lafargue, and Sance Muller.[14]

ProtestantismEdit

 
Huguenot control (purple) and influence (violet), 16th century

In July 1566, Queen Jeanne d'Albret issued a set of twenty-three Ordonnances ecclésiastiques. These allowed only one synod a year, at the call of the Lieutenant General of the realm (who, at the time, was the Bishop of Oleron, Claude Régin). The subject of marriage was reserved to the Queen. Dancing was forbidden. Prostitutes were banned. Priests and monks were forbidden to beg (mendier). Public religious processions were forbidden. The youth were to be educated at the Collège d'Orthez (a Protestant institution). Protestant ministers were permitted to preach and pray in any place in the kingdom, and Catholic clergy were forbidden to interfere in such sermons and prayers. Roman Catholic persons were forbidden to preach in any place in the country. Burial inside a church was forbidden, but were to take place only in cemeteries and without ceremonies or prayers. Catholic priests were forbidden to return to places which had been taken over by the Protestant religion. Benefices were to be suppressed on the death or resignation of the incumbent, and the money applied to poor relief of members of the Reformed Church. Bishops and others were forbidden to confer benefices (collation), except where they were the lay patron.[15] On her return from Paris in December 1566, Queen Jeanne appointed commissioners to carry out the destruction of images and altars.

At Easter 1567, there was an uprising of Catholics at Oloron, led by the Abbot of Sauvelade.[16] And at the Estates of Béarn, which opened on 29 July 1567, the delegates, led by Bishop Claude Régin, petitioned the Queen to revoke her ordinances of July 1566.[17]

At the Estates of April 1568, the Bishop of Oleron was not permitted to participate, nor were some of the nobility and many of the Third Estate. Despite repeated Catholic protests, the carefully selected Protestant majority passed resolutions accepting the disputed ordonances of 1566.[18]

On 28 January 1570, by order of Queen Jeanne d'Albret, the Catholic religion was abolished in Béarn. "We [Seneschals and Lieutenants General], following the will of God and of the aforesaid Lady [Jeanne d'Albret]... have annulled, expelled, and banned from this land every exercise of the Roman religion without any exception, such as masses, processions. litanies, Matins, Vespers, Complines, vigils, feasts, vows, pilgrimages, painted images or images made of wood, votive lights, flowers, candles, the cross...."[19]

Jeanne d'Albret died on 9 June 1572. The Saint Bartholomew's Day massacres began on 24 August 1572.

At Lescar, nine Canons of the Cathedral Chapter were killed, and three went over to Protestantism. At Oleron, two priests were massacred by Huguenot mobs, and half of the monks and nuns fled to Spain while the rest were killed. The convent of the Capuchins was destroyed.[20]

The Bishop of Oleron and the Canons of the Cathedral took refuge in Mauléon, where they continued their capitular offices. Bishop Régin, who was living on a small pension from the King of France, became seriously ill in 1582 in Mauleon, but he recovered. But he was pursued by the Protestants of Béarn, who sacked his house. He left Mauléon and sought refuge in Vendôme, where he died in 1593.[21]

End of the dioceseEdit

During the French Revolution the diocese of Oloron was suppressed by the Legislative Assembly, under the Civil Constitution of the Clergy (1790).[22] Its territory was subsumed into the new diocese, called 'Basses-Pyrenees', which was coterminous with the new civil department of the same name. The dioceses of Bayonne and Lescar were also suppressed and their bishops dismissed, and their territories were joined to the former diocese of Oleron, with the seat of the Constitutuonal Diocese at Oloron. Basses-Pyrenees was made part of the Metropolitanate called the 'Métropole du Sud'.

The new Civil Constitution mandated that bishops be elected by the citizens of each 'département',[23] which immediately raised the most severe issues in Canon Law, since the electors did not need to be Catholics and the approval of the Pope was not only not required, but actually forbidden. Erection of new dioceses and transfer of bishops, moreover, was not canonically in the competence of civil authorities or of the Church in France. The result was schism between the 'Constitutional Church' and the Roman Catholic Church.

All monasteries, convents and religious orders in France were dissolved, and their members were released from their vows by order of the National Constituent Assembly (an act which was uncanonical); their property was confiscated "for the public good", and sold to pay the bills of the French government.[24] Cathedral Chapters were also dissolved.[25]

The legitimate bishop of Oloron, Jean-Baptiste-Auguste de Villoutreix, was in Paris when the Civil Constitution was enacted on 27 July 1790. He declined to take the required oath to the Civil Constitution, and instead wrote a monitory letter to the clergy of his diocese on 22 February 1791, encouraging them to resist. He then fled to England where he died in March 1792.[26] The diocese was not reestablished after the French Revolution, and the Napoleonic Concordat of 1801. From the point of view of Canon Law, it was Pope Pius VII's bull Qui Christi Domini of 29 November 1801,[27] which reestablished the dioceses of France, that did not restore Oleron. Its territory was merged into the Diocese of Bayonne.

On 22 June 1909, however, the title, though not the diocese, was revived along with that of the former Diocese of Lescar, and assigned as titles of the successor Diocese of Bayonne; the former cathedrals of the former dioceses did not obtain the status of a co-cathedral. This change was purely decorative, involving no change in the life of the diocese.

One of the branches of the pilgrimage route called The Way of St James passes through Oloron on its way to Santiago in Galicia.[28]

Notable buildingsEdit

 
The gothic apse of the former Oloron Cathedral, now St Mary's Church.

CathedralEdit

The episcopal see of the bishops of Oloron was in the Cathédrale Sainte-Marie, dedicated to the Virgin Mary, in Oloron-Sainte-Marie, in the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques. The former cathedral has now reverted to the status of a parish church, and is called the Ancienne cathédrale Sainte-Marie.

Chateau de LamotheEdit

Another significant building is Chateau de Lamothe, dating from the early 12th century, when a Moorish fortification on the hill,[29] was destroyed as the French drove the Moorish forces from France, and rebuilt to serve as the summer residence for the bishops of Oloron, a role it filled for 600 years.[30][31]

SeminaryEdit

The collège-seminaire Oleron-Sainte-Marie was founded in 1708 by Bishop Joseph de Révol, and was entrusted to priests of the Barnabite Order of the Congregation of Saint-Paul de Lascar.[32] They fell into disfavor, however, and in 1768 Bishop François de Révol remarked that they had not talent for bringing up young ecclesiastics. In 1776 he began the process for expelling them and replacing them with diocesan priests.[33] His successor, Jean-Baptiste-Auguste de Villoutreix, continued the policy, and appointed a new principal, Barthelelmy Bover, who was a doctor of the Sorbonne. In 1791, when the oath of allegiance to the Civil Constitution of the Clergy was demanded of all the teachers, they refused and the seminary was closed.[34]

BishopsEdit

All of the printed lists of bishops are unreliable, down to 1500, both in names and dates. The absence of documents allowed for a great deal of creative reconstruction.

Early Bishops of OleronEdit

Bishops without name of See, or unattestedEdit

These bishops are rejected by Saine-Marthe, Gams, and Duchesne, as well as by Canon Dubarat.[39]
Abientius (c. 653)
c. 659: Zozime
c. 661: Tructémonde
c. 668: Arcontius
c. 850: Gérard
'Basque' Episcopi Vasconiensis :[40]
Gombaldus = Gombaud (mentioned in 977)
Arsius Raca (c. 977 - mentioned in 982)
Raymond I le Vieux (1033 – deposed 1050)[41]

Bishops of Oleron, from 1060 to 1400Edit

[Bernard III (1225)][47]
  •  ? R. (de Massanc) (c. 1231)[48]
  • Guillaume de Castanet (1228–1241)[49]
  • Pierre de Gavarret (1246 – 1254)[50]
  • G[uillaume II de Gaujac] (death 1255)[51]
  • R. (1256–1259)[52]
  • Compaing (c. October 1260 – 1283)[53]
  • Bernard IV de La Mothe (1284–1288)
  • Gérard (Gaillardus, Guillard) de Leduix (30 April 1289 - death 1308)[54]
  • Guillaume Arnaud (10 August 1308 – 1322)[55]
Raymond de Saint-Sever, O.S.B. Clun. (mentioned in 1309) [56]
  • Arnaud de Valensun (1323?24 – 1341)[57]
  • Bernard V d'En Julia, C.R.S.A. (4 March 1342 - death 1345? 1347)[58]
  • Bernard de Richano, O.F.M. (? – 1348) [59]
  • Pierre II d'Estiron (1348–1370)[60]
  • Guillaume III d'Assat (1371 – c. 1380) [61]
  • Ogier de Villesangues (1380? – 1396?) (Avignon Obedience)[62]
  • Arnaud Guillaume de Buzy (November 1396? – 1399?) (Avignon Obedience)[63]

from 1400 to 1600Edit

  • Pierre Laforgue/Lafargue (?1400 - ?1403) (Avignon Obedience)[64]
  • Pierre de Montbrun (? – 1404/1407) (Roman Obedience)[65]
  • Sance Muller, O.P. (1406 - 7 February 1418) (Avignon Obedience)[66]
  • Pierre de Limoges, O.E.S.A. (14 February 1418 - 23 August 1419)[67]
  • Garsias Arnaud (6 September 1419 - 1425)
  • Gérard II d'Araux (d'Orbignac) (5 December 1425 - 1434)[68]
  • Arnaud-Raymond I d'Espagne (1 October 1434 - 5 July 1451)[69]
  • Beltrandus (5 July 1451 – before 20 September 1451)[70]
  • Guillaume de Fordera (20 September 1451 – 1465)[71]
  • Garsias II. de La Mothe (24 July 1466 – 1474)[72]
  • Sance de Casenave (8 December 1475 – 1491)[73]
Pierre de Fabrique (Vicar Capitular)
Antoine de Corneilhan[74]
Cosmas dei Pazzi (10 December 1492 – 17 April 1497) (Bishop-elect)[75]
Cardinal Juan López (17 April 1497 – 1498) (Administrator)[76]
  • 1498–1499: Jean de Pardailhan[77]
Amanieu d'Albret (15 May 1500 – ?) (Administrator)[78]
Cardinal Giovanni Salviati (1521 – 1523) (Administrator)[80]
Sede Vacante (1593 – 1599)[85]

from 1600Edit

[1647: Louis de Bassompierre][88]
  • 1648–1652: Pierre V de Gassion[89]
  • 1652–1658: Jean de Miossens-Sansons[90]
  • 1659–1681: Arnaud-François de Maytie[91]
  • 1682–1704: François Charles de Salettes[92]
1705: Antoine de Maigny[93]
Constitutional Church

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Dubarat, pp. 86-87.
  2. ^ Dubarat, p. 87.
  3. ^ Dubarat, p. 87.
  4. ^ Menjoulet, II, p. 486. Marca, p. 313.
  5. ^ Dubarat, p. 90.
  6. ^ Dubarat, p. 91.
  7. ^ J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XX (Venice: Zatta 1775), pp. 447-450, 500-501, 520, 529-530, 551-552; 571-572; 577-580. Dubarat, pp. 48-49. Gams, p. 520.
  8. ^ Élie Berger, Les Registres d'Innocent IV, Tome I (Paris: Ernest Thorin 1884), pp. 284-285, no. 1923; p. 288, no. 1945.
  9. ^ Monks of the Order of Saint Benedict (1885). Regestum Clementis papae V: ex vaticanis archetypis sanctissimi domini nostri Leonis XIII pontificis maximi iussu et munificentia (in Latin). Roma: Typographia Vaticana. pp. 261–262, no. 3334.
  10. ^ Dubarat, p. 57.
  11. ^ J.-M. Vidal, Benoit XII, Lettres communes Tome II (Paris: Albert Fontemoing 1904), p. 408, no. 9267.
  12. ^ Menjoulet, II, p. 419. Froissart, Book III, chapter xviii. There was also a bishop of Aire of the Avignon Obedience, Garsias Arnaudi: Eubel, I, p. 72.
  13. ^ Dubarat, p. 62.
  14. ^ Dubarat, pp. 60-62.
  15. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 111-114.
  16. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 117-118.
  17. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 119-122.
  18. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 134-140.
  19. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 184-185.
  20. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 190-191; 192-193.
  21. ^ Dubarat, Protestantisme, pp. 349-350. Dubarat (1887), p. 91.
  22. ^ Ludovic Sciout (1872). "Chapitre IV: La Constitution Civile". Historie de la constitution civile du clergé (1790-1801) (in French). Tome premier. Paris: Firmin Didot frères.
  23. ^ Bishops and priests were also to be salaried by the State. The salaries were paid out of funds realized from the confiscation and sale of church properties. After the Concordat of 1801, bishops and priests continued to be salaried and pensioned by the State, down to the Law of Separation of 1905, Article 2. Jean Marie Mayeur (1991). La séparation des Églises et de l'État (in French). Paris: Editions de l'Atelier. p. 11. ISBN 978-2-7082-4340-8.
  24. ^ Pierre Brizon (1904). L'église et la révolution française des Cahiers de 1789 au Concordat (in French). Paris: Pages libres. pp. 27–30.
  25. ^ Philippe Bourdin, "Collégiales et chapitres cathédraux au crible de l'opinion et de la Révolution," Annales historiques de la Révolution française no. 331 (janvier/mars 2003), 29-55, at 29-30, 52-53.
  26. ^ Dubarat, p. 83 (following Menjoulet). Cf. Jean, p. 89 (who believes he died in Paris).
  27. ^ Pius VI; Pius VII (1821). Collectio (per epitomen facta,) Bullarum, Brevium, Allocutionum, Epistolarumque, ... Pii VI., contra constitutionem civilem Cleri Gallicani, ejusque authores et fautores; item, Concordatorum inter ... Pium VII. et Gubernium Rei publicae, in Galliis, atque alia varia regimina, post modum in hac regione, sibi succedentia; tum expostulationum ... apud ... Pium Papam VII., Contra varia Acta, ad Ecclesiam Gallicanam, spectantia, a triginta et octo Episcopis, Archiepiscop. et Cardinal. antiquae Ecclesiae Gallicanae, subscriptarum, etc. 6 Avril, 1803 (in Latin). London: Cox & Baylis. pp. 111–121.
  28. ^ Confraternity of Saint James, the Arles route; retrieved: 2017-10-28.
  29. ^ hence the town's name: Moumour = Mount Moor. Pierre Bernard Palassou (1821). Supplément aux mémoires pour servir à l'histoire naturelle des Pyrénées et des pays adjacents (in French). Pau: Vignaucour. p. 177.
  30. ^ During the French revolution Chateau de Lamothe was once again destroyed and rebuilt to become the home of the Lamothe family, who lived there until 1956. It later became a holiday colony for children of the local paper factory's employees. For years it was abandoned until it was acquired by Christine and Laurent Nederlof, who created a retreat.
  31. ^ Moumour, Oloron Sainte Marie at The International Kitchen.com[self-published source?][better source needed]
  32. ^ Dubarat, pp. 122-128.
  33. ^ Dubarat, pp. 79, 82.
  34. ^ Marie-Madeleine Compère and Dominique Julia, Les collèges français: 16e–18e siècles (Paris: CNRS 1984), pp. 507-508.
  35. ^ Bishop Gratus was present at the Council of Agde on 10 September 506, in the reign of King Alaric II. Sainte-Marthe, Gallia christiana I, p. 1263. Duchesne, p. 102 no. 1. Carolus Munier (ed.), Concilia Galliae, A. 314 – A. 506 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), p. 213. The alleged successor Agrestius Toronnicae civitatis has been adequately explained by Sainte-Marthe as an error for 'Tours'.
  36. ^ Bishop Licerius was present at the Council of Paris on 11 September 573, and the Council of Mâcon on 23 October 585. Duchesne, p. 102 no. 2. Carolus De Clercq (ed.), Concilia Galliae, A. 511 – A. 695 (Turnholt: Brepols 1963), pp. 215 and 249.
  37. ^ Bishop Helarianus attended the Council of Paris in 614. Gams, p. 590 column 2. ex civitate Lorione Helarianus episcopus: De Clercq, p. 282 line 226.
  38. ^ Artemon was present at the Council of Bordeaux (Modogarnomense), which took place ca. 662–675. Gams, p. 590 column 2. De Clercq, p. 313.
  39. ^ In his list of Bishops of Oloron, at p. 84, Dubarat labels the 7th century names douteux.
  40. ^ These bishops, as well as the diocese of the Gascons, are rejected by J.-F. Bladé, L'évêché des Gascons (Paris: Picard 1899). See also, P. Fontanié, "L'évêché des Gascons, par M. J.-F. Bladé," Bulletin archéologique et historique de la Société archéologique de Tarn-et-Garonne 27 (1899) 289-291.
  41. ^ Raymond le Vieux was also Bishop of Bayonne (1025 – 1059) and Bishop of Lescar (1040 – death? 1059)
  42. ^ In 1060 Stephanus participated in the Council of Jaca (Jaccetanum), under Ranimirus and Sancho of Aragon. In 1068 Bishop Stephanus incorporated into his diocese the county of Soule, according to Dubarat. J. D. Mansi (ed.), Sacrorum Conciliorum nova et amplissima collectio, editio novissima, Tomus XIX (Venice: Zatta 1774), pp. 929-934. Dubarat, pp. 47-48 (who assigns the dates 1058-1070. Gams, p. 590 column 2.
  43. ^ Amatus was transferred to the diocese of Bordeaux (1089-1102). Dubarat, pp. 48-49. Gams, p. 520.
  44. ^ Odon de Bénac was present at the council of Piacenza on 18 February 1095, along with his Metropolitan Guillaume of Auch and three other bishops of the province. Bishop Amat's friend Hugh de Die was summoned, but did not attend or offer a valid canonical excuse, for which he was excommunicated for a time. Odon attended Archbishop Amat's council in Bordeaux in 1098. He participated in the establishment of the Canons Regular of Saint Augustine at Lascar in 1101. Gallia christiana I, p. 1267. Mansi, XX, p. 809-810. Dubarat, pp. 49-50 (whose early date is impossible, given the documentary evidence). Gams, p. 520.
  45. ^ Arnaud was a monk of Cluny and Prior of Morlana. Gallia christiana I, Instrumenta, p. 198. Dubarat, p. 51 no. XII.
  46. ^ Bernard de Sadirac had previously been Abbot of Saint-Pé. He attended the Lateran Council of Pope Alexander III in 1179. In 1192 he assigned the abbot of Sauvelade jurisdiction over the church of Camptort. There are reports that he died in Oloron in 1202 or in 1205, but his successor was already in office in 1196. Gallia christiana I, pp. 1269-1270. Dubarat, p. 52 no. XIII.
  47. ^ This alleged third Bishop Bernard is known only from a Liste des évêques d'Oleron, printed at Pau in 1754 by the firm Jean Duponts, which cites as a reference "Archives du Chapitre". Menjoulet, Chronique, p. 308. Gams and Eubel choose to ignore the claim. Arnaud Ouhinart, Notitia utriusque Vasconiae (Paris: Sebastien Cremoisy 1638), conjectured that the three Bernards were actually only one (quoted by Dubarat, p. 53).
  48. ^ Eubel, I, p. 121, 376. Cf. Gallia christiana I, p. 1271, where a single document of 1231 names a bishop of Oleron only with a initial letter, which may be R. The testimony is not accepted by Dubarat, who assigns Guillaume de Castanet the dates 1228–1243. Gams, pp. 590-591, has nobody between 1223 and 1250 except R. in 1231. The notion that R. was transferred to the Archdiocese of Auch is in fact a conjecture of Eubel, p. 121, note 2. One might as well conjecture that R. is a misreading of a manuscript B. for Bernard (III)—as do Menjoulet and Duvarat (p. 53).
  49. ^ Menjoulet, pp. 308-312. Duvarat, p. 53, gives the dates 1228 to 1243.
  50. ^ Pierre de Gavarret was elected by the Chapter, and approved by Pope Innocent IV on 27 June 1246. He died in 1254. Duvarat, p. 54. Eubel, I, p. 376 with note 1. Menjoulet, p. 312, cites evidence that contradicts surviving evidence, and claims wrongly that Pope Alexander IV appointed Gavarret in 1243. Duvarat, p. 54, also presents claims for a bishop named "Pierre-Guillaume de Gaujac" to whom he assigns the dates 1243 to 1249. Menjoulat (p. 313), however, had already shown the name to be a conflation of several real bishops' names, and the known evidence for Pierre de Gavarret shows the dates to be impossible.
  51. ^ Menjoulet, p. 319, points out that the surname "de Gaujac" is purely conjectural, and that the name "Guillaume" is a guess. The one piece of documentary evidence names only a "G.", with "Guillaume" being imported from a Necrology of Saint-Sever, as reported by Arnaud Oihénart. Duvarat, p. 55, accepts only the name Guillaume; Gams, p. 591, and Eubel, I, p. 376, accept only the initial G.
  52. ^ The bishop is called Raymond by Marca, and Roger by Oihénart. Duvarat, p. 55, has no preference, in the absence of evidence. Gams and Eubel print only the initial.
  53. ^ Bishop Campainus' name appears in the treaty of 2 October 1260 between Simon de Montfort and Esquivat de Bigorre. In the same year he was co-cosecrator of Arnaud de Miossens, Bishop of Tarbes. On 18 October 1273 he was one of the procurators appointed by Gaston of Bearn to make apologies to King Edward I of England for nonappearance to render hommage to He was present at the swearing of hommage to Constance of Bigorre in 1283. Duvarat, pp. 55-56. Menjoulet, pp. 333. Gams, p. 591. Eubel, I, p. 376
  54. ^ Gams, p. 591 column 1. Eubel, I, p. 376.
  55. ^ Dubarat, pp. 57-58. Eubel, I, p. 377 with note 2.
  56. ^ Raymundus, who is also called Pierre-Raymond de Monein (Dubarat, p. 57 no XXV), was created Cardinal-Priest of S. Pudenziana on 23 December 1312. He died on 19 July 1317. Gams, p. 591 column 1. Eubel, I, pp. 15 no. 24, 46, who credits Raimundus with being Abbot of Saint-Sever (diocese of Aire) but not Bishop of Oloron, pp. 376-377. Gams wrongly assigns him the dates of 1309–1317. Guillaume-Arnaud already elected on 10 August 1308.
  57. ^ On 12 January 1339, Bishop Arnaud was granted permission to regularize the status of churches and cemeteries in his episcopal city and diocese. On 4 October 1340 the bishop was ordered by the pope to inquire into the reputations of three Canons, two of Bayonne and one of Tarazona, and if anything perniciosa were found, to cite them to the Roman Curia. J.-M. Vidal, Benoit XII, Lettres communes Tome II (Paris: Albert Fontemoing 1904), pp. 185, no. 7175; 290, no. 8127.
  58. ^ Bernard d'En Julia had been Prior of the Priory of Saint-Christine (diocese of Oloron). He was appointed directly by Pope Benedict XII on 4 March 1342. In 1345 the Pope ordered him to cut the number of Canons in Collegiate Church of Lescar to fifteen. Dubarat, p. 58. Vidal, p. 408, no. 9267. Eubel, I, p. 376.
  59. ^ Bernard de Richano's successor was appointed on 14 August 1348 by Pope Clement VI. Eubel, I, p. 377.
  60. ^ Pierre d'Estiron was appointed on 14 August 1348 by Pope Clement VI. Eubel, I, p. 377.
  61. ^ Guillaume was appointed by Pope Gregory XI on 10 February 1371. He chose to adhere to the Obedience of Clement VII (1378–1394), and was therefore deposed circa 1380 by Urban VI of the Roman Obedience. He was followed in Oloron by an Apostolic administrator appointed by Urban VI, the Franciscan Bishop Menendo, who had been Bishop of Cordoba in Spain in 1378–1379; and then by Pietro, Patriarch of Grado, who was appointed by Boniface IX of the Roman Obedience on 16 January 1394; Pietro was succeeded as Administrator by Guillaume Raimundi on 21 April 1401. Eubel, I, pp. 209, 377 with note 5.
  62. ^ He is also called Roger Villesonques. He was abbot of the Premonstratensian abbey of La Honce (Bayonne), and was elected Bishop of Oloron. Duvarat, p. 60, assigns him to the Avignon Obedience. He notes that Menjoulet thinks that he was never consecrated.
  63. ^ Arnaud de Buzy was already in office on 27 November 1396. On 16 August 1398 he participated in the ceremonies of hommage of the lords of Bearn to Count Archambaud and Countess Mathilde. On 10 May 1399 he participated in the reconciliation between King Charles VI of France and Count Archambaud of Foix. Duvarat, p. 61.
  64. ^ Eubel, I, p. 377.
  65. ^ Dubarat, p. 62, who believes that Gregory XII transferred him to Auch in 1407; cf. Eubel, I, p. 121.
  66. ^ In 1408 he participated in Benedict XIII's Council of Perpignan. Gams, p. 590. Eubel, I, p. 121 note 6.
  67. ^ Dubarat, p. 62, believes him in office as Roman nominee since 1407, under the name Pierre Salet. He was transferred to Condom on 23 August 1419 by Pope Martin V, and then to Alet on 8 January 1421. Eubel, I, pp. 202, 237, 377.
  68. ^ Geraldus: Dubarat, p. 63. Eubel, I, p. 377.
  69. ^ A member of the family of the Vicomtes de Couserans, Arnaud was appointed to the diocese of Oleron by Pope Eugene IV on 1 October 1434. He was transferred to the See of Comminges on 5 July 1451 by Pope Nicholas V. The See of Comminges was vacant in 1464 and 1465. Dubarat, pp. 63-64. Eubel, II, pp. 135 with note 2; 206.
  70. ^ Eubel, II, p. 206-207.
  71. ^ Guillaume is called Garsias de Faudoas by Dubarat, p. 64. Eubel, II, p. 207. The See was vacant in August 1465: Menjoulet, I, p. 466.
  72. ^ Garsias de la Mothe: Menjoulet, I, pp. 465-469. Dubarat, p. 64-65. Eubel, II, p. 207.
  73. ^ Sance received his bulls on 8 December 1474. He was present at the Estates of Bearn in 1489, 1490 and 1491. Menjoulet, II, p. 14. Dubarat, p. 65. Eubel, II, p. 207.
  74. ^ Antoine de Corneilhan was a Chaplain of Pope Innocent VII, who appointed him bishop of Oloron in 1491. But he was rejected by the Chapter and people of the diocese. Dubarat, p. 65.
  75. ^ Pazzi was a Canon of the Vatican Basilica. He was appointed to Oloron in the Consistory of 10 December 1492 by Pope Alexander VI, but he was still Bishop-elect when he was transferred to the diocese of Arezzo on 17 April 1497. He probably never took possession of the diocese. Eubel, II, pp. 94, 207.
  76. ^ The cardinal resigned the administratorship and was assigned an annual pension of 400 florins from diocesan revenues. Eubel, II, p. 207, with note 6.
  77. ^ Jean de Pardailhan, a Canon of Couserans, was elected by the Chapter of Oleron following the death of Bishop de Casenave in 1491. He did not receive his bulls from the Pope, however, who appointed Antoine de Corneilhan. In 1493 and 1494 he was present at the Estates of Béarn with the title Abbot of Lézat. He was finally granted his bulls by Alexander VI in the Consistory of 28 May 1498. Dubarat, pp. 65-66. Eubel, II, p. 207.
  78. ^ D'Albret, who was only a Protonotary Apostolic, but was Cesare Borgia's brother-in-law, was granted the Administratorship of Oloron on 4 May 1500, according to the Actra Cameralia: Eubel, II, p. 207. He was named a cardinal on 28 September 1500. He had paid 10,000 ducats for the honor. He appeared in Rome on 14 March 1502. He was in Rome and participated in both Conclaves of 1503. Dubarat, pp. 66-67. Eubel, II, pp. 24 no 23; 207 with note 9. According to Dubarat, Oihenart said that the See of Oleron was vacant on 1 April 1501.
  79. ^ De Beon was provided by Pope Julius II on 23 December 1506. He paid for his bulls on 27 March 1507. Eubel, III, p. 262, with note 2.
  80. ^ Salviati was the son of Pope Leo X's sister Lucrezia. He was appointed Administrator of Oloron on 24 August 1521. Eubel, III, p. 262
  81. ^ Jacques de Foix, son of Corboran, Marquis de Foix, was elected by the Chapter of the Cathedral of Oloron, and approved as Bishop of Oleron in Consistory by Pope Clement VII on 18 March 1523. He was transferred to the diocese of Lascar by Pope Paul III on 13 November 1534. Dubarat, p. 68. Eubel, III, pp. 219, 262.
  82. ^ Pierre d'Albret died on 6 September 1535, apparently by poison. It had cost 10,000 livres to obtain his bulls. Dubarat, pp. 68-69. Eubel, III, p. 262.
  83. ^ Roussel: Dubarat, pp. 69-70.
  84. ^ Regin: Dubarat, p. 71.
  85. ^ Dubarat, p. 72.
  86. ^ Arnaud de Maytie had been elected Capitular Vicar to govern the diocese after the death of Claude Regin (Orégon). He was nominated bishop by Henri IV, and approved by Pope Clement VIII on 21 May 1597. In 1618 he needed assistance, and his nephew Arnaud de Maytie was named titular bishop of Beirut and Coadjutor with the right of survivorship on 18 January 1618. He succeeded his uncle, who died in 1620. Gams, p. 591. Dubarat, pp. 82-83. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 264 with note 2.
  87. ^ Arnaud V de Maytie was named titular bishop of Beirut and Coadjutor Bishop of Oleron with the right of survivorship on 18 January 1618. He succeeded his uncle in 1620. He died on 20 June 1646. Dubarat, p. 73-74. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 264 with note 3.
  88. ^ Louis de Bassompierre, Aumonier of Philippe d'Orléans, never received his bulls for Oloron. He became Bishop of Saintes instead. Dubarat, p. 74.
  89. ^ Son of Jacques de Gassion, President of the Parlement of Pau, and brother of Marechal Jean de Gassion, Bishop de Gassion was nominated by Louis XIV on 20 July 1647, and preconised (approved) by Pope Innocent X on 13 January 1648. He died on 24 April 1652. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 264 with note 4.
  90. ^ Jean de Miossens was nominated by King Louis XIV on 1 April 1652, and granted his bulls of institution and consecration in Consistory by Pope Innocent X on 13 November 1652. He died on 8 February 1658. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 264 with note 5.
  91. ^ Arnaud-François was the nephew of Arnaud V, and the grand-nephew of Arnaud IV. He was nominated by King Louis XIV on 11 April 1659, and granted his bulls of institution and consecration in Consistory by Pope Alexander VII on 1 September 1659. He was consecrated by the Archbishop of Auch, Dominique de Vic, on 27 April 1661. He was responsible for admitting the Capuchins into the diocese of Oleron. He died at Oloron on 2 July 1681. Jean, p. 87. Gauchat, Hierarchia catholica IV, p. 264 with note 6.
  92. ^ Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 296 with note 3.
  93. ^ A native of Chartres and Dean of Saint-Martin-de-Tours, as well as Vicar General of Chartres, De Maigny was nominated by Louis XIV on 16 August 1704, approved in Consistory by Pope Clement XI on 9 February 1705. He died on 26 February 1705 without ever having been consecrated. Dubarat, p. 78. Jean, p. 88. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 296 with note 4.
  94. ^ A native of Belley, Joseph de Révol had been Vicar General of Poitiers. He was nominated by Louis XIV on 11 April 1705, and preconised by Clement XI on 7 September 1705. He was consecrated at Poitiers on 8 November 1705 by Bishop Jean-Claude de la Poype de Vertrieu. He founded the seminary of Oleron. He resigned the diocese on 26 June 1735, and died at Oleron on 21 March 1739 at the age of 76. Dubarat, p. 78. Jean, p. 88. Ritzler-Sefrin, V, p. 296 with note 5.
  95. ^ De Montillet: Jean, p. 88. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 318 with note 2.
  96. ^ François de Révol, the Vicar General of Oloron, was nominated by King Louis XV on 2 April 1742, and was preconised by Pope Benedict XIV on 9 July 1742. He was consecrated on 5 August by his Metropolitan, Archbishop Jean-François de Chatillard de Montillet-Grenaud. He died at Oloron on 25 April 1783. Jean, p. 89. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 318 with note 3.
  97. ^ Villoutreix was Vicar General of Toulouse when he was named bishop of Oleron by King Louis XIV on 18 May 1783. He was preconised by Pope Pius VI on 18 July 1783. He was consecrated on 17 August by the Archbishop of Toulouse, Etienne-Charles de Loménie de Brienne. A member of the Estates General in 1789, he died in Paris on 12 March 1792. Jean, p. 89. Dubarat, p. 83. Ritzler-Sefrin, VI, p. 318 with note 4.
  98. ^ Sanadon was principal of the Collège de Pau, when he was called on to take the oath to the Civil Constitution. On 1 March 1791 he was elected Constitutional Bishop of Hautes-Pyrenées by a vote of 174 to 96. He was consecrated a bishop in Paris on 26 April by Constitutional Bishop Jean-Baptiste Gobel. On his return to Pau, the Vicar General of the legitimate bishop excommunicated him. He was a member of the Convention which voted on the execution of King Louis XVI, which he opposed. His opposition brought him under suspicion of the Jacobins, and he was arrested and imprisoned in Bayonne. He was released, but died on 9 January 1796. Dubarat, p. 84. Pisani, pp. 382-384.

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Coordinates: 43°11′N 0°37′W / 43.19°N 0.62°W / 43.19; -0.62