Big-scale sand smelt
|Big-scale sand smelt|
|Big-scale sand smelt from the offshore of Sardinia, Italy|
A. Risso, 1810
It is a small pelagic fish species which occurs near the surface in the littoral estuarine zone: in lagoons, salt marshes (77 psu), shallow brackish areas (2 psu) and inland waters which are rather unsuitable for other fish species, due to their high ionic strength and salinity.
Body is rather long, slender, moderately flattened. Eyes are large. Head and body are scaly. Mouth is protractible, upwardly directed, with small teeth. Lower jaw has an upper expansion within mouth (high dentary bone). There are two separate dorsal fins, with all rays of first and 1-2 anterior rays of second dorsal fin being unsegmented. The anal fin is similar to the second dorsal fin, while the caudal fin is forked. The first dorsal fin has 6-10 flexible spines.
It is found in the eastern Atlantic from Portugal and Spain to Nouadhibou (Mauritania) and Madeira. Also it occurs in the Mediterranean, including the inshore lagoons, such as Trasimeno and Lesina in Italy, Hyères in the southern France such as Marseille and Lake Qarun in Egypt; an isolated population is found near the coasts of England and the Netherlands. In the Black Sea, it is widespread along all coasts, in lagoons and estuaries, in the downstreams of rivers Danube, Dniester, Southern Bug, Inhulets, and Dnieper, with a permanent population is in the Kakhovka Reservoir.
The major small-scale fishing gears exploiting this species are coastal beach seines, small mesh size (10 mm) gill nets and lift-nets. It is often used as bait fish on small and medium longlines, handlines, fishing using rods and reels, as trolling bait, even as bait in fish traps.
- Freyhof, J. & Kottelat, M. (2008). "Atherina boyeri". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2008: e.T2352A9434124. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T2352A9434124.en.
- Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2019). "Atherina boyeri" in FishBase. February 2019 version.
- Review of Croatian selected scientific literature on species mostly exploited by the national small-scale fisheries on FAOAdriaMed.org
- Atherina boyeri at FishBase
- Manzo, Cristina; Fabbrocini, Adele; Roselli, Leonilde; D’Adamo, Raffaele (2016). "Characterization of the fish assemblage in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon: Lesina Lagoon (central Adriatic Sea)". Regional Studies in Marine Science. 8: 192–200. doi:10.1016/j.rsma.2016.04.003.
- Fishes of the North-eastern Atlantic and the Mediterranean, Vol. 3., (Eds.:) Whitehead P.J.P., Bauchot M.-L., Hureau J.-C., Nielsen J., Tortonese E., Paris, UNESCO, 1986.
- Movchan Yu.V. (1988) True loaches, catfishes, canal catfishes, freshwater eels, congers, needlefishes, cods, sticklebacks, syngnathids, mosquitofishes, zeids, barracudas, grey mullets, old world silversides, cusk eels [in:] Fauna of Ukraine, Vol. 8, No 3, Kiev: Naukova Dumka, 399 pp. (in Russian).
- Christopher Scharpf & Kenneth J. Lazara (1 January 2019). "Order ATHERINIFORMES: Families ATHERINOPSIDAE, ATHERINIDAE and ATHERIONIDAE". The ETYFish Project Fish Name Etymology Database. Christopher Scharpf and Kenneth J. Lazara. Retrieved 16 July 2019.