Bida Emirate

The Bida Emirate is a traditional state in Nigeria, a successor to the old Nupe Kingdom, with its headquarters in Bida, Niger State. The head of the state is the Etsu Nupe, considered the leader of the Nupe people.[1]

Bida Emirate
Flag of Bida Emirate
Bida Emirate is located in Nigeria
Bida Emirate
Bida Emirate
Location in Nigeria
Coordinates: 9°05′N 6°01′E / 9.083°N 6.017°E / 9.083; 6.017Coordinates: 9°05′N 6°01′E / 9.083°N 6.017°E / 9.083; 6.017
Country Nigeria
StateNiger State
 • EtsuDr. Alh. (Brig Gen). Yahaya Abubakar
Etsu palace, wadate Bida


The old Nupe Kingdom was established in the middle of the 15th century in a basin between the Niger and Kaduna rivers in what is now central Nigeria. Early history is mostly based on verbally-transmitted legends. King Jibiri, who reigned around 1770, was the first Nupe king to become Muslim. Etsu Ma’azu brought the kingdom to its period of greatest power, dying in 1818. During that period the Fulani were gaining power across Northern Nigeria. After Ma’azu's death and during the subsequent wars of succession the Nupe Kingdom came under the control of the Gwandu Emirate. Masaba, son of the Fulani leader Mallam Dendo and a Nupe mother, gained power in 1841.[2][3]

Faced with revolt by one of his generals, Masaba allied with the former Etsu Nupe, Usman Zaki, to recover control. Usman Zaki was enthroned as Etsu Nupe at Bida, and after his death around 1859 Masaba again became ruler until 1873. During his second period of rule, Masaba established the Bida Emirate as an important military power, steadily expanding its territory at the expense of its neighbors to the south and east. His successors retained control until 1897, when British Niger Company troops finally took Bida and established a puppet ruler. The Bida emirate became subject first to the British colonial regime, then to the independent state of Nigeria, with its rulers playing an increasingly ceremonial role.[4][5]

Till today now this emirate celebrates its cultural day known as Nupe Cultural Day, for the remembrance of the defeat to British rulers in their region.[6][7]


Rulers used the title "Etsu".[8]

Names, dates and notes taken from John Stewart's African States and Rulers (1989).[8]

Nupe Kingdom (1531-1835)

Name Start End Notes
Tsoede 1531 1591 Founded the Kingdom of Nupe in 1531. Illegitimate son of Attah of Idah. Also known as Edegi or Choede.
Shaba 1591 1600 Also known as Tsoacha.
Zaulla 1600 1625 Also known as Zavunla or Zagulla.
Jiga 1625 1670 Also known as Jia or Jigba.
Mamman Wari 1670 1679 -
Abdu Waliyi 1679 1700 -
Aliyu 1700 1710 -
Ganamace 1710 1713 Also known as Sachi Gana Machi.
Ibrahima 1713 1717 -
Idrisu I 1717 1721 Also known as Ederisu.
Tsado 1721 1742 Also known as Chado or Abdullahi.
Abu Bakr Kolo 1742 1746 -
Jibrin 1746 1759 Also known as Jibrilu.
Ma'azu 1759 1767 -
Majiya I 1767 1777 Also known as Zubeiru.
Iliyasu 1777 1778 -
Ma'azu 1778 1795 Second reign.
Alikolo Tankari 1795 1795 -
Mamma 1795 1796 -
Jimada 1796 1805 In 1796 a civil war broke out between Jimada and Majiya II (grandsons of Iliyasu), which led to the Nupe Kingdom being temporarily spilt into West and East Nupe.[9] Jimada ruled East Nupe until his death in 1805.[10]
Majiya II 1796 1810 Ruled West Nupe until the death of Jimada in 1805, after which the Nupe Kingdom was reunited.[9]
Idrisu II 1810 1830 -
Majiya II 1830 1834 Second reign.
Tsado 1834 1835 In 1835 Nupe became part of the Fulani Empire.

Nupe Emirate (1835-1901)

Name Start End Notes
Usuman Zaki dan Malam Dendo 1835 1841 -
Masaba dan Malam Dendo 1841 1847 -
Umar Bahaushe 1847 1856 -
Usuman Zaki dan Malam Dendo 1856 1859 Second term.
Masaba dan Malam Dendo 1859 1873 Second term.
Umaru Majigi dan Muhamman Majigi 1873 1884 -
Maliki dan Usman Zaki 1884 1895 -
Abu Bakr dan Masaba 1884 1895 Died 1919.[11]
Muhammadu dan Umaru Majigi 1895 1901 Nupe Emirate incorporated into the Northern Nigeria Protectorate in 1901.

Bida Emirate (1901-

Name Start End Notes
Muhammadu dan Umaru Majigi 1901 February 1916 -
Bello dan Maliki 6 March 1916[11] 1926[11] -
Malam Sa'idu dan Mamudu 1926[11] February 1935[11] -
Malam Muhammadu Ndayako dan Muhammadu 28 February 1935[11] 29 October 1962[11] -
Usman Sarki dan Malam Sa'idu 29 October 1962[11] 1969[11] Died 1984.[11]
Malam Musa Bello 1969[11] 10 January 1975[11] -
Umaru Sanda Ndayako January 1975[11] 1 September 2003[11] -
Yahaya Abubakar[12] 1 September 2003 -

See alsoEdit

Category:Etsu Nupe


  1. ^ Salahu, Mohammed Lawal (15 September 2017). "Slave Factor in the Development of Bida Emirate: 1857–1900". African Research Review. 11 (3): 13. doi:10.4314/afrrev.v11i3.2. ISSN 2070-0083.
  2. ^ "History of Nupe Kingdom (The Fulani Conquest)". National Youth Service Corps. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  3. ^ Nadel, S. F. (3 September 2018), "Political History of Nupe Kingdom", A Black Byzantium, Routledge, pp. 69–86, doi:10.4324/9780429487545-6, ISBN 978-0-429-48754-5
  4. ^ "Origin of Bida Emirate". National Youth Service Corps. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 9 September 2010.
  5. ^ Nadel, S. F. (Siegfried Frederick), 1903-1956, author. A black byzantium : the kingdom of Nupe in Nigeria. ISBN 978-0-429-48754-5. OCLC 1049150141.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  6. ^ Nadel, S. F. (2018), "The Nupe Creed", Nupe Religion, Routledge, pp. 1–37, doi:10.4324/9780429487446-1, ISBN 978-0-429-48744-6
  7. ^ Oleribe, EOO; Alasia, DD (11 January 2007). "Cultural and health: The effect of nupe cultural practice on the health of nupe people". Nigerian Journal of Medicine. 15 (3): 325–8. doi:10.4314/njm.v15i3.37241. ISSN 1115-2613. PMID 17111771.
  8. ^ a b Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 204. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  9. ^ a b Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 291. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  10. ^ Stewart, John (1989). African States and Rulers. London: McFarland. p. 80. ISBN 0-89950-390-X.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n "Traditional States of Nigeria". Archived from the original on 26 September 2010. Retrieved 7 September 2010.
  12. ^ Agha Ibiam (4 March 2009). "As New Makaman Nupe Steps in". ThisDay. Retrieved 4 September 2010.