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Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale

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Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale ([dʒəɾnɛl sɪ́ŋɡ pɪ̀ɳɖɾɑ̃ʋɑɭe], born Jarnail Singh Brar)[2] (2 June 1947 – 6 June 1984) was a leader of the Sikh organization Damdami Taksal, and a notable supporter of the Anandpur Resolution.[3][4][5][6] He advocated against the consumption of liquor, drugs and laxness in religious practices, such as the cutting of Kesh by Sikh youth.[7]

Jarnail Singh Brar Bhindranwale
Born Jarnail Singh Brar
2 June 1947
Rode, Moga, Punjab
Died 6 June 1984 (aged 37)
Akal Takht
Cause of death Operation Blue Star
Monuments Gurdwara Yaadgar Shaheedan, Amritsar
Alma mater Damdami Taksal
Occupation Sikh priest
Head of Damdami Taksal
Movement Sikh Punjabi nationalist movement
Spouse(s) not known
Children Ishar Singh and Inderjit Singh[1]

In the summer of 1982, Bhindranwale and the Akali Dal launched the Dharam Yudh Morcha (battle for righteousness), with its stated aim being the fulfillment of a list of demands based on the Anandpur Sahib Resolution. Thousands of people joined the movement in the hope of acquiring a larger share of irrigation water and the return of Chandigarh to Punjab.[8]

In June 1984 Operation Blue Star was carried out by the Indian Army to remove Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his armed followers from the buildings of the Harmandir Sahib Complex in Amritsar, Punjab.[9] Since his death, Bhindranwale has remained a controversial figure in Indian history. While the Sikhs' highest temporal authority Akal Takht describe him a great martyr of the Sikh Nation, who made the supreme sacrifice for the sake of faith, the Indian government and rest of the Indians views him as an extremist.[10]

Bhindranwale's views concerning the Khalistan movement have been subject to debate.

Contents

Early lifeEdit

Bhindranwale was born in the village of Rode, in Moga District located in the region of Malwa. The grandson of Sardar Harnam Singh Brar, his father, Joginder Singh Brar was a farmer and a local Sikh leader, and his mother was Nihal Kaur.[1] Jarnail Singh was the seventh of seven brothers and one sister. He was brought up as a strict vegetarian.[11] In 1965, he was enrolled by his father at the Damdami Taksal, a religious school, near Moga, Punjab, then headed by Gurbachan Singh Khalsa.[1] After a one-year course in Sikh studies he returned to farming again. He continued his studies under Kartar Singh, who was the new head of the Taksal. He quickly became the favourite student of Kartar Singh.[12] Kartar Singh was fatally injured in a car accident and nominated Bhindranwale as his successor, in preference to his son Amrik Singh. Amrik Singh later became a close associate of Bhindranwale.[13]


He married Pritam Kaur, the daughter of Sucha Singh of Bilaspur.[1] The couple had two sons, Ishar Singh and Inderjit Singh, in 1971 and 1975, respectively.[1] Pritam Kaur died of heart ailment at age 60, on 15 September 2007 in Jalandhar.[14]

Rise to popularityEdit

 
The Logo of the Damdami Taksal, reads 'the Shabd is forged in the True mint' in Punjabi (Gurmukhi).

In Punjab, Bhindranwale went from village to village as a missionary and asked people to live according to the rules and tenets of Sikhism. He preached to disaffected young Sikhs, encouraging them to return to the path of Khalsa by giving up vices like pornography[citation needed], adultery, drugs, alcohol and tobacco which had crept in. His focus on fighting for the Sikh cause appealed to many young Sikhs. Due to his religious background as a preacher and head of the most prestigious Sikh school of learning (Damdami Taksal), his followers formally called him Bhindranwale Mahapurkh, which meant "The Great Spiritual Man from Bhindran". Bhindranwale became the new leader of the Damdami Taksal when Kartar Singh Khalsa, the successor to Gurbachan Singh Khalsa, who died in a road accident on 16 August 1977, nominated Bhindranwale.[1] Bhindranwale was formally elected at a bhog ceremony at Mehta Chowk on 25 August 1977.[1]

Critics of Sant Bhindranwale accredit his rise in popularity to his alleged role as an agent of India's Congress party, particularly through his connection with former President Zail Singh.[15] However, years after the Sant's death the former Secretary to Zail Singh, Tarlochan Singh, would admit that the two had only met for the first time while attending the funeral for Jathedar Santokh Singh in December of 1981, at which time the Sant had already established himself as a household name in Punjab. [16] Academic works and supporters of Sant Bhindranwale also refute the allegation that he was an agent of the Congress government and contend that the Sant's rise in popularity was largely due to his stance on social issues affecting Punjab and dedication to the Sikh faith.[17][18]

It is generally agreed that Sant Bhindranwale's popularity skyrocketed following his voluntary surrender to police in response to arrest warrants for his alleged involvement in the murder of Lala Jagat Narain, a controversial news proprietor.[19] Sant Bhindranwale was released on October 15, 1981, due to the failure of authorities to produce evidence of his involvement.

ProtestsEdit

Conflict with NirankarisEdit

On 13 April 1978, a group of Amritdhari Sikhs of Akhand Kirtani Jatha went to protest against Nirankaris. The resulting violence led to the death of thirteen Sikhs. The death of the Sikhs shocked the Sikh community. The Nirankari leader, Gurbachan Singh was afforded a police escort to the safety of his home in Delhi by the Punjab police. When a criminal case was filed against him, the Baba had his case transferred to neighbouring Haryana state, where he was acquitted the following year. The Punjab government Chief Minister Prakash Singh Badal decided not to appeal the decision.[20] Among Sikhs there was a great frustration at this perceived sacrilege and the legal immunity of the perpetrators. This gave rise to new organizational expressions of Sikh aspirations outside the Akali party. It also created a sentiment amongst some that if the government and judiciary would not prosecute perceived enemies of Sikhism, taking extrajudicial measures could be justified.[21] The chief proponents of this attitude were the Babbar Khalsa founded by the widow, Bibi Amarjit Kaur of the Akhand Kirtani Jatha, whose husband Fauja Singh had been at the head of the march in Amritsar; the Damdami Taksal led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale who had also been in Amritsar on the day of the outrage; the Dal Khalsa, formed with the object of demanding a sovereign Sikh state; and the All India Sikh Students Federation, which was banned by the government.

When the Nirankari Baba was himself shot to death on 24 April 1980, the Baba's followers named Bhindranwale as a suspect, even though he was nowhere near the scene of the incident. Several of his associates and relatives were arrested. The FIR named nearly twenty people involved in the murder, most of whom had ties to Bhindranwale.[22] A member of the Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Ranjit Singh, surrendered and admitted to the assassination three years later, and was sentenced to serve thirteen years at the Tihar Jail in Delhi.

Targeting of Taksal StudentsEdit

Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale would often speak of his conviction that it was the aim of Indian authorities to target affiliates of the Damdami Taksal. As the Institutes fourteenth Jathedar (Leader), Sant Bhindranwale vocalized his outrage over incidents involving police raids of the Taksal in which students were arrested and allegedly executed by police extra-judicially during various recorded speeches.[23] Students who claimed to have been witness to the raids acknowledged that Sant Bhindranwale’s conviction was deeply influenced by these incidents.[24]

Assassination of Lala Jagat NarainEdit

Lala Jagat Narain, the editor of a widely circulated paper in which he had campaigned against Punjabi being adopted as a medium of instruction in Hindu schools, urged Hindus of Punjab to reply to government census that Hindi and not Punjabi was their mother tongue and decried the Anandpur Sahib Resolution. Narain had been present at the clash between the Nirankaris and the Akhand Kirtani Jatha[25] and his paper played a significant role in "fanning the flames of communal hatred between Hindus and Sikhs." [26]. On 9 September 1981 Lala Jagat Narain was found murdered and two days later police issued an arrest warrant for Bhindranwale because he often spoke out against the well-known editor.

The Incident at Chandon KalanEdit

A police search in Chando Kalan, a Haryana village, was conducted in an attempt to locate and arrest Sant Bhindranwale on September 14th 1981. Sant Bhindranwale and others Sikh luminaries alleged that police behaved disgracefully with the Sikh inhabitants of the village during the search in which the valuables from homes belonging to Sikhs were reported to have been looted and two buses owned by the Damdami Taksal containing a number of Birs (copies) of the Guru Granth Sahib were set on fire.[27][28]

However, Indian authorities acknowledged that incidents of arson occurred but alleged that it was the villagers that initiated the violence.[29]

The Incident at Mehta ChowkEdit

Upon learning about the arrest warrant and the incident at Chandon Kalan, Sant Bhindranwale offered to turn himself into police at village Mehta Chowk, Punjab on September 9th, 1981. Prior to turning himself in, Sant Bhindranwale requested that the large crowd that had gathered to witness his arrest remain peaceful and offered to meet the authorities at a distance from the crowd as a measure to avoid provocations from either side.[30] However, his request was denied and while the arrest did take peacefully it is alleged that the lingering police presence following his arrest resulted in the escalation of violence in which 18 members of the congregation were shot and killed by bullets fired by police.[31] During the years following the incident, Sant Bhindranwale would call on authorities to carry out an inquiry but to no avail, thus adding to his perception that authorities were discriminating against Sikhs.[32]

In contrast, Indian authorities claimed that members of the congregation initiated the violence by opening fire at police.[33]

Dissolution of Due ProcessEdit

During Sant Bhindranwale's time, both his critics and supporters agree that Indian police used the term 'encounters' as a euphemism for "cold-blooded murder" carried out extra-judiciously against alleged terrorists. This fact was acknowledged by then Chief Minister of Punjab, Darbara Singh.[34] These deadly encounters were justified as a reasonable method of avoiding lengthy court trials.[35]

In stark contrast, Sikh leadership, including Sant Jarnail Singh,[36] condemned the practice as an abuse of power enabling police to "freely resorted to inhuman tortures, fake encounters, custody deaths and ‘disappearances’.“ [37]


Alleged Targeting of Baptized SikhsEdit

Sant Bhindranwale accused then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of being aware that 'encounters' and other such incidents were taking place in Punjab and that Amrithdaari (baptized) Sikhs were allegedly being targeted by authorities.[38]

The allegations that baptized Sikhs were being targeted amplified before the assault on the Golden Temple in which Sant Bhindranwale was killed. Human rights groups also alleged discrimination against Amrithdaari Sikhs,[39] including a report that army personnel were given written statements that Amrithdari Sikhs "might appear harmless from outside but they are basically committed to terrorism" prior to carrying out Operations Blue Star and Woodrose.[40]

Disputed BeliefsEdit

KhalistanEdit

Sant Bhindranwale stated his position on Khalistan during numerous interviews with domestic and foreign journalists as well as during multiple public speeches. His statements indicate that he was supportive of remaining "in Hindustan [India]" provided that Sikhs were given rights as "equal citizens" of the country.[41] During the days before the assault, government representatives met with Sant Bhindranwale in a last ditch effort to negotiate a truce. Sant Bhindranwale warned of a backlash by the Sikh community in the event of an army assault on the Golden Temple and repeatedly stated “I don’t want Khalistan but they would give Khalistan on a platter” while meeting with moderators.[42]

Critics point to his use of the word 'kaum' (nation) when referring to the Sikh population of Punjab as an implicit endorsement of the Khalistan movement[43], a movement which was first introduced in concept during the 1946 independence negotiations.[44] However, Sant Bhindranwale made explicit distinctions between the terms 'kaum' and 'country' in the context of Khalistan that demonstrate his belief that Sikhs were a nation capable of living within the country of India: "How can a nation which has sacrificed so much for the freedom of the country want it fragmented." [45] Sant Bhindranwale frequently qualified his statements on Khalistan by saying that Sikhs could remain in India provided that due process was restored and that Sikhs were treated as equals.[46][47]

In light of the perceived discrimination and alleged violence against Sikhs in India, Sant Bhindranwale also consistently stated that, while he was not in favor of Khalistan, he would not repeat the mistakes made by Sikh leadership during the 1946 independence negotiations by refusing it if it was offered by then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi.[48]

The audio and video archives of his speeches would reveal a very common saying of his- "Sikh ik vakhri qaum hai" (or, "Sikhism is a distinct nation") and he never was reported to have demanded a nation-state but Bhindranwale is widely perceived to be a supporter of the creation of a Sikh majority state of Khalistan. In a BBC interview, he stated that if the government agreed to the creation of such a state, he would not refuse. Other quotes attributed to Bhindranwale on Khalistan include "we are not in favour of Khalistan nor are we against it". Responding to the formation of Khalistan he is quoted as saying, "I don't oppose it nor do I support it. We are silent. However, one thing is definite that if this time the Queen of India does give it to us, we shall certainly take it. We won't reject it. We shall not repeat the mistake of 1946. As yet, we do not ask for it. It is Indira Gandhi's business and not mine, nor Longowal's, nor of any other of our leaders. It is Indira's business. Indira should tell us whether she wants to keep us in Hindustan or not. We like to live together, we like to live in India."[49] To which he added, "if the Indian Government invaded the Darbar Sahib complex, the foundation for an independent Sikh state will have been laid."[50] The BBC reported that he was daring law enforcement to react to his actions of fortifying the Golden Temple in order to bolster support.[51]

CommunalismEdit

Critics of Sant Bhindranwale have alleged that he held a deep "hatred of Hindus"[52] and made statements to incite acts of communal violence between Sikhs and Hindus.

In stark contrast, a number of sources, including Hindu priests[53], authors,[54] and politicians[55], have come out refuting these allegations. Sant Bhindranwale's own publicly made statements appear to indicate that he believed that followers of Hinduism and Islam should remain true to their faiths[56] and that Sikhs should recognize those who did so as brothers.[57][58].

Terrorism/ExtremismEdit

Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale was accused by Indian authorities and critics for being responsible for several crimes and acts of terrorism including murdering and inciting hatred toward innocent Hindus, bank robbery, home invasion, organizing terrorist training camps, and stockpiling weapons.[59] However, supporters of the Sant point to the lack of evidence against him as well as various audio and video recordings where Sant Bhindranwale is seen and heard condemning the acts of terror and denying the allegations. [60][61][62][63][64]

In its’ White Paper on Operation Blue Star, the Indian Government published statements made by Sant Bhindranwale in an effort to illustrate his alleged intent to advocate the killing of Hindus in Punjab and to initiate a general exodus from the State for political purposes. [65] However, supporters of the Sant contend that the passages were removed from larger statements in such a way that the intended meaning was distorted in order to misrepresent Sant Bhindranwale’s views.[66][67][68]

Fortification of the Golden TempleEdit

In July 1982, Longowal invited Jarnail Singh Bindranwale to take up residence at the Golden Temple compound. He called Bhindrawale "our stave to beat the government."[69] Bhindranwale subsequently took shelter with a large group of his armed followers, in the Guru Nanak Niwas (Guest house), in the precincts of the Golden Temple.[11] In late July 1983, finding an increasing number of his followers arrested day by day, Bhindranwale left his base in Chowk Mehta for the Golden Temple to start a campaign for their release there. Also from there, he joined his campaign to the Akali campaign for their political, economic, cultural, and religious demands.[70] In the chaos of Punjab, Bhindranwale developed a reputation as a man of principle who could settle people's problems about land, property or any other matter without needless formality or delay. The judgement would be accepted by both parties and carried out. This added to his popularity.[71]

Early Warning Signs of the AssaultEdit

The planning for Operation Blue Start ininitated over a year before Sant Bhindranwale relocated to the complex in December 1983 and began to fortify it.[72][73][74] During publicly recorded speeches in May and July in 1983 (still several months before relocating to the Akal Takht and initiating efforts to fortify it) Sant Bhindranwale warned that government authorities were plotting to occupy and cease control over the Golden Temple.[75]

A previous request to solicit the use of army personnel and tanks was made by Chief Minister Darbara Singh and Prime Minister Gandhi to aid in the arrest of Sant Bhindranwale at Mehta Chowk in 1982. However, then military commander Lt. Gen. AK Sinha (who was also a dear friend of General Shabeg Singh, Sant Bhindranwale's military advisor) viewed the request as "very strange" and advised against the use of military force considering the sanctity of the complex and potential repercussions.[76] While Bhindranwale surrendered peacefully at Mehta Chowk, Sinha would opt for early retirement when the same request came again two years later for him to deploy tanks and army personnel to conduct Operation Blue Star.[77]

As the likelihood of the impending assault on the Golden Temple began to escalate, Sant Bhindranwale made his intentions to defend the complex clear stating "We do not go to anyone's home, we do not loot anybody's shop, nor do we lay siege to any place. However, if someone intoxicated by his power as a ruler attacks our home, we are not sitting here wearing bangles that we shall continue to suffer as eunuchs and as lifeless people." [78]

Relocation to the Akal TakhtEdit

As the days went by the law and order situation further deteriorated and violence around the complex escalated. While the Akalis pressed on with their two-pronged strategy of negotiations and massive campaigns of civil disobedience directed at the Central Government, others were not so enamoured of nonviolence. Communists known as "Naxalites", armed Sikh groups – the "Babbar Khalsa" and "Dal Khalsa", and the police clashed, and sometimes worked hand in hand. Subramaniam Swami, who at the time was an elected member of India’s Janata Party, accused the government of master-minding a disinformation campaign to create legitimacy for the action. [79] A covert government group known as the Third Agency was also engaged in dividing and destabilising the Sikh movement through the use of undercover officers, paid informants and agents provocateurs.[80] Bhindranwale himself always kept a revolver and wore a cartridge belt;[81][82] he encouraged his followers to be armed.[83]

With the conviction that the Indian Army was preparing for an imminent attack on the Golden Temple, on 15 December 1983 Sant Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his supporters moved to the Akal Takhat and began fortifying the complex with sand bags and light weaponry. While the move was supported by Gurcharan Singh Tohra, then President of the Gurdwara committee (SGPC), it was opposed by Harcharan Singh Longowal, leader of the Akali political party. Longowal attempted to block the move by persuading Giani Kirpal Singh, then Jathedar (head priest) of the Akal Takht, to use his authority and issue a Hukamnama (edict) disallowing Sant Bhindranwale from relocating to the complex.[84] In the end, while Giani Kirpal Singh did protest the move to some extent, Sant Bhindranwale's was permitted to relocate.[85]

Mark Tully and Satish Jacob wrote, "All terrorists were known by name to the shopkeepers and the householders who live in the narrow alleys surrounding the Golden Temple... the Punjab police must have known who they were also, but they made no attempt to arrest them. By this time Bhindranwale and his men were above the law."[86] However, Ranbhir Sandhu states that Bhindranwale presented himself, along with over 50 of his supporters, at the Deputy Commissioner's residence on the day he moved to the Darbar Sahib complex: therefore, his purpose in moving there was not hide from the law.[87] Gurdev Singh, District Magistrate at Amritsar till shortly before the invasion is on record as having assured the Governor of the state that he could arrest anyone in Darbar Sahib at any time.[88]

Disputes on the Need for Military ForceEdit

Critics of Sant Bhindranwale claim that he had refused all efforts made by the Gandhi administration to negotiate a settlement.[89] The Prime Minister reportedly attempted to renew negotiations but at the same time she warned “While the government is committed to solving all pending problems through negotiations, it should be obvious that no government can allow violence and terrorism in the settlement of issues. Those who indulge in anti-social and anti-national activities should make no mistake about this.”[90]

In contrast, in his book, 'Cannon Unto Canon’, Amritsar-born Indian Ambassador to Madagascar Daljit Singh Pannun recounts the terms he had struck with Sant Bhindranwale while inside the Golden Temple. These terms would have involved a period of 10 days where Bhindranwale and his supporters would agree to disarm their rifles in exchange for a commitment from the Indian government to stop torturing Sikh youths in captivity. During these negotiations, Pannun asserts that Sant Bhindranwale clearly stated that he did not have any demands for Khalistan.[91]

Gurdev Singh, former Deputy Commissioner of Amritsar from July, 1983, to June, 1984, also asserted his confidence that Bhindranwale and his supporters could have been arrested without the use of military action and that According to Gurdev Singh, Bhindranwale and his supporters "did not have more than 200-300 guns" and that "their gunes were not even sophisticated."[92][93]

Author Joyce Pettigrew offers the following perspective on the government’s motivation behind the assault on the Golden Temple: “The army went into Darbar Sahib not to eliminate a political figure or a political movement but to suppress the culture of a people, to attack their heart, to strike a blow at their spirit and self confidence”[94]

DeathEdit

On 3 June 1984 Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi initiated Operation Blue Star and ordered the Indian Army to raid the Golden Temple complex to remove armed Sikhs militants from the complex. Bhindranwale was killed in the operation.[95][96]

According to Lieutenant General Kuldip Singh Brar, who commanded the operation, the body of Bhindranwale was identified by a number of agencies, including the police, the Intelligence Bureau and militants in the Army's custody.[95] Bhindranwale's brother is also reported to have identified Bhindranwale's body.[97] Pictures of what appear to be Bhindranwale's body have been published in at least two widely circulated books, Tragedy of Punjab: Operation Bluestar and After and Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's Last Battle. BBC correspondent Mark Tully also reported seeing Bhindranwale's body during his funeral.

LegacyEdit

Cynthia Keppley Mahmood wrote in Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues With Sikh Militants that Bhindranwale never learned English but mastered Punjabi. He was adept at television, radio and press interviews.[98] Keppley further stated that "those who knew him personally uniformly report his general likability and ready humour as well his dedication to Sikhism".[98] The author further states that "Largely responsible for launching Sikh militancy, he is valorized by militants and demonised by enemies and the accounts from the two divergent sources seem to refer to two completely different persons."[98]

Though journalist Khushwant Singh believed himself to be on Bhindranwale's hit list, he allowed that the Sikh preacher-become-activist genuinely made no distinction between higher and lower castes, and that he had restored thousands of drunken or doped Sikh men, inured to pornographic films, to their families,[99] and that Operation Blue Star had given the movement for Khalistan its first martyr in Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale.[100] In 2003, at a function arranged by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, at Akal Takhat Amritsar under the vision of president SGPC Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar and Singh Sahib Giani Joginder Singh Vedanti, former jathedar of the Akal Takht made a formal declaration that Bhindranwale was a "martyr" and awarded his son, Ishar Singh, a robe of honour.[101] Harbans Singh's The Encyclopedia of Sikhism describes Bhindranwale as "a phenomenal figure of modern Sikhism".[102]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e f g Singh, Sandeep. "Saint Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (1947–1984)". Sikh-history.com. Retrieved 18 March 2007. [permanent dead link]
  2. ^ Singh, Sandeep. "Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale (1947)". Sikh-history.com. Retrieved 18 March 2007
  3. ^ "Bhindranwale firm on Anandpur move". Hindustan Times. 5 September 1983. 
  4. ^ "Bhindranwale, not for Khalistan". Hindustan Times. 13 November 1982. 
  5. ^ "Sikhs not for secession: Bhindranwale". The Tribune. 28 February 1984. 
  6. ^ Joshi, Chand (1985). Bhindranwale: Myth and Reality. New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House. p. 129. ISBN 0-7069-2694-3. 
  7. ^ Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia by Stanley Jeyaraja Tambiah (1996). University of California Press. Page 143-144. ISBN 978-0-520-20642-7.
  8. ^ Akshayakumar Ramanlal Desai (1 January 1991). Expanding Governmental Lawlessness and Organized Struggles. Popular Prakashan. pp. 64–66. ISBN 978-81-7154-529-2. 
  9. ^ Swami, Praveen (16 January 2014). "RAW chief consulted MI6 in build-up to Operation Bluestar". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 31 January 2014. 
  10. ^ Akal Takht declares Bhindranwale 'martyr'
  11. ^ a b Singh, Tavleen (14 January 2002). "An India Today-100 People Who Shaped India". India Today. Retrieved 28 October 2006. 
  12. ^ Deol, Harnik (2000). Religion and Nationalism in India: The Case of the Punjab. Routledge. p. 168. ISBN 0-415-20108-X. 
  13. ^ Tully, p. 54
  14. ^ "Bhindranwale's widow dead". The Tribune. 16 September 2007. Retrieved 19 March 2008. 
  15. ^ Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. p.57 ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  16. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/jalandhar/radicals-protest-nayar-s-remarks/467439.html
  17. ^ Cynthia Keppley Mahmood, Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, pp. 77
  18. ^ http://www.tribuneindia.com/news/jalandhar/radicals-protest-nayar-s-remarks/467439.html
  19. ^ Truth about Punjab: SGPC White Paper, 103 Gurdarshan Singh Dhillon. p. 104
  20. ^ Cynthia Keppley Mahmood, Fighting for Faith and Nation: Dialogues with Sikh Militants, Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania Press, 1996, pp. 58–60; Gopal Singh, A History of the Sikh People, New Delhi, World Book Center, 1988, p. 739.
  21. ^ Singh (1999), pp. 365–66.
  22. ^ Sandhu, Ranbir S. (May 1997). "Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale – Life, Mission, and Martyrdom" (PDF). Sikh Educational and Religious Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 May 2008. Retrieved 10 March 2008. 
  23. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.69
  24. ^ Fighting for Faith and Nation, Cynthia Keppley Mahmoud p.62-65
  25. ^ Jalandhri, Surjeet (1984). Bhindranwale. Jalandhar: Punjab Pocket Books. p. 25. 
  26. ^ Amritsar: Mrs. Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. p.65-66,102 ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  27. ^ Truth about Punjab: SGPC White Paper, 103 Gurdarshan Singh Dhillon. p. 103
  28. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.252
  29. ^ Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. p.67 ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  30. ^ The Spokesman, 30th Annual Number, 1981.
  31. ^ The Spokesman, 30th Annual Number, 1981.
  32. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p. 272
  33. ^ <<Mark Tully. Amritsar Mrs. Gandhi's Last Battle (pp. 68-69).
  34. ^ Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. p.105 ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  35. ^ Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. Preface ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  36. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p. 155
  37. ^ Truth about Punjab: SGPC White Paper, 103 Gurdarshan Singh Dhillon. p.3
  38. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eN8w2ZA0C-k
  39. ^ https://www.ensaaf.org/publications/reports/fabricatingterrorism/fabricatingterrorism.pdf
  40. ^ Oppression in Punjab - Citizens for Democracy, 1985. Forward by Justice V.M. Tarkunde
  41. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.lvii
  42. ^ Walia, Varinder. "Man who made efforts to avert Op Bluestar is no more", "Tribune India", Amritsar, 18 December 2007.
  43. ^ Globalization and Religious nationalism in India: The Search for Ontological Security by Catarina Kinnvall. Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-13570-7. Page 170
  44. ^ Globalization and Religious nationalism in India: The Search for Ontological Security by Catarina Kinnvall. Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-13570-7. Page 106
  45. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.vi
  46. ^ Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's last battle by Mark Tully. Pan in association with Cape, 1986. p.149 ISBN 978-0-330-29434-8.
  47. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.211
  48. ^ Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale by Ranbir Singh Sandhu p.lvi
  49. ^ Sandhu (1999), p. LVI.
  50. ^ Sandhu (1999), p. LVII.
  51. ^ "Player – 1984: Troops raid Golden Temple". BBC News. 6 June 1984. Retrieved 9 August 2009. 
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  53. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eN8w2ZA0C-k
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BibliographyEdit

  • Sandhu, Ranbir Singh, "Struggle for Justice: Speeches and Conversations of Sant Jarnail Singh Khalsa Bhindranwale" (Dublin, Ohio: Sikh Educational & Religious Foundation, 1999
  • Singh, Sangat (1999) The Sikhs in History, New Delhi, Uncommon Books
  • Dilgeer, Harjinder Singh (2011) Sikh History in 10 volumes (vol. 7, 9), Waremme, Sikh University Press
  • Tully, Mark; Satish Jacob (1985). Amritsar: Mrs Gandhi's Last Battle. London: Jonathan Cape. ISBN 0-224-02328-4. 

External linksEdit