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Bharathan (14 November 1946 – 30 July 1998) was an Indian film maker, artist, and art director. Bharathan is noted for being the founder of a new school of film making in Malayalam cinema, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George, in the 1980s, which created films that were widely received while also being critically acclaimed. Known for his unconventional works, he is widely regarded as one of the greatest film makers in the Indian Film Industry of all time. Bharathan is one of the directors who revolutionised Malayalam Cinema. A train of directors, and screenwriters followed this school onto the 1990s including Sibi Malayil, Kamal, Lohithadas and Jayaraj. He was born at Engakkadu near Wadakkancherry, in present-day Thrissur district of Kerala, India.
|Died||30 July 1998 (aged 51)|
|Occupation||Art director, sculptor, poster designer, film director, lyricist, music composer, editor|
|Spouse(s)||K. P. A. C. Lalitha|
|Relatives||P. N. Menon (uncle)|
After completing his diploma from the College of Fine Arts, Thrissur, Bharathan entered films as an art director Gandharavakshetram (1972), directed by A. Vincent. He was inspired by his uncle P. N. Menon, an established director. After working as an art director and assistant director in a few films, he made his directorial debut in 1975 with Prayanam, which was based on Padmarajan's script. It also marked the rise of two early proponents of middle-stream Malayalam cinema.
Style and themesEdit
Bharathan's films were known for their realistic portrayal of rural life in Kerala. Melodrama and escapism, often an integral part of mainstream cinema in India, were usually absent in his films. He also managed to steer clear of the "star-centric" culture, prevalent in Indian cinema, throughout his career. His later films did involve major movie stars but usually without compromising on plot or narrative. Bharathan, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George were largely responsible for introducing a counter culture of meaningful mainstream cinema which often tread the middle path between art-house and commercial cinema. This movement was often called the "middle of the road cinema". Bharathan's films were known for their visually appealing shot compositions. His background as a painter enabled him to create frames that were often credited for their visual beauty. Natural props and nature itself often became important characters in his films (like the railway track in Palangal, or the sea in Amaram). Bharathan is one of the few Indian directors known to use an elaborate story-board system for filming. He also often designed the posters for his films.
Several of his early films were known for their bold portrayal of sexual themes. His films often defied social conventions and norms about man-woman relationships. Rathinirvedam was the sexual-coming-of-age story of the relationship between a teenager and an older woman while Chamaram dealt with the tumultuous affair between a student and his college lecturer. In Kattathe Kilikkoodu an elderly, married Professor falls for his student. Kaathodu Kaathoram was about the social ostracism of a woman who has an adulterous relationship.
The latter half of Bharathan's career saw a distinct change in film making style characterized by a wider canvas, more attention to detail with more distinct focus on narrative style (e.g., Vaishali, Amaram, Thaazhvaaram, and Thevar Magan). Some critics argue that this quest for technical excellence was at the expense of the quality of thematic content. Films like Vaishali and Amaram (where he collaborated with acclaimed cinematographer Madhu Ambat) set a new benchmark for cinematographic excellence in Malayalam and Indian Cinema. Thaazhvaaram was stylistically inspired by classic Hollywood Westerns though the theme and backdrop were distinctly original.
His last few films (Manjeeradhwani, Devaraagam and Churam) were received moderately by critics.
Bharathan directed over 40 films in Malayalam and Tamil. Starting his career in 1975 with Prayanam, Bharathan rode to fame with his off-beat Thakara, a film about a dumb-witted central character who falls in love with the village beauty. Some of his other memorable films include Rathinirvedam, Chamaram, Paalangal, Amaram, and Vaishali.
His association with Padmarajan led to films including Rathi Nirvedam and Thakara. Rathi Nirvedam was a treatment of teenage sexual angst. In Thakara, he deals with life and longings of an intellectually disabled youth and his association with the society.
In the early 1980s he made several notable movies like Chamaram , Marmaram , Paalangal , Ormakkayi , Kattathe Kilikkoodu, and many more. They did well in theaters and set the trend for meaningful mainstream cinema. Other noted directors followed suit. It was the romantic era of Malayalam cinema.
Not all of Bharathan's films skirted with bold themes and controversy. In Oru Minnaaminunginte Nurunguvettam (1987), he tells the poignant story of a childless couple in their post retirement life. It deals with the isolation and loneliness that comes with old age. The film was a departure from Bharathan's usual style and proved to be a major commercial hit while garnering critical acclaim, too.
His Vaisali (1988) is widely regarded as a modern-day masterpiece in Malayalam cinema. Scripted by the iconic Malayalam novelist M. T. Vasudevan Nair, it was an adaptation of a sub-story told in the epic Mahabharatha. Another movie born from their association was Thazhvaram, with versatile star actor Mohanlal. The subject was revenge, a theme quite uncharacteristic of Bharathan movies. The style was inspired by classic Westerns with a brooding, reticent central character and expansive shots of barren landscape.
Even though he was not known to cater to the star-centric system, Bharathan was instrumental in bringing together the two screen icons of Tamil cinema Sivaji Ganesan and Kamal Hassan in the Tamil film Thevar Magan which won critical acclaim and box office success. Sivaji gave an uncharacteristically restrained yet brilliant performance. The movie won several national awards and was remade into many regional languages (most notably Virasat in Hindi).
His more experimental films include Aaravam, more an arthouse than commercial venture, and Nidra, about the plight of a woman who is in love with a mentally deranged man. His film "Nidra" was remade by his son, film director Sidharth Bharathan. "Rathinirvedam" originally directed by Bharathan, which was a noted film was also remade by another famous director T K Rajeev Kumar with Swetha Menon in the lead.
Apart from film direction, he also wrote lyrics and tuned songs for his films. (e.g., lyrics for “Thaaram Valkannadi Nokki" in Keli and "Tharum Thalirum Mizhipootti" in Chilambu or title song for Kathodu Kathoram). He collaborated with writer P. R. Nathan in Keli.
Bharatan died at a private hospital in Chennai on 30 July 1998 at the age of 52 following prolonged illness. His last film was 'Churam', which released a year before his death.
|1978||Njaan Njaan Maathram||Yes|
|1983||Sandhya Mayangum Neram||Yes|
|1985||Oonjalaadum Uravugal||Yes||Tamil film|
|1987||Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1987||Neela Kurinji Poothappol||Yes|
|1989||Oru Sayahnathinte Swapnam||Yes||Yes||Yes|
|1992||Thevar Magan||Yes||Tamil film|
National Film AwardsEdit
Kerala State Film AwardsEdit
|1||1975||Best Art Director||Prayanam|
|2||1979||Best Art Director||Thakara|
|3||1980||Best Art Director||Chamaram|
|4||1980||Second Best Film||Chamaram|
|5||1981||Best Art Director||Chatta|
|7||1982||Second Best Film||Ormakkayi|
|9||1982||Best Art Director||Ormakkayi|
|10||1984||Best Art Director||Ithiri Poove Chuvannapoove|
|11||1987||Best Popular Film||Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam|
|12||1992||Best Popular Film||Venkalam|
- "Bharathan". Cinema of Malayalam. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Noted Malayalam film director Bharathan dead". Indian Express. 31 July 1998. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009.
- "Emotional reunion". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 17 June 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2010.
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