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Bharathan (14 November 1946 – 30 July 1998) was an Indian film director, artist, and art director. Bharathan is noted for being the founder of a new school of film making in Malayalam cinema, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George, in the 1980s, which created films that were widely received while also being critically acclaimed. A train of directors, and screenwriters followed this school onto the 1990s including Sibi Malayil, Kamal, Lohithadas and Jayaraj. He was born at Engakkadu near Wadakkancherry, in present-day Thrissur district of Kerala, India.

Bharathan (cropped).jpg
Born(1946-11-14)14 November 1946
Died30 July 1998(1998-07-30) (aged 51)
OccupationArt director, sculptor, poster designer, film director, lyricist, music composer, editor
Years active1973–98
Spouse(s)K. P. A. C. Lalitha (1978–98)
ChildrenSreekutti, Siddharth
RelativesP. N. Menon (uncle)

Early careerEdit

After completing his diploma from the College of Fine Arts, Thrissur, Bharathan entered films as an art director Gandharavakshetram (1972), directed by A. Vincent. He was inspired by his uncle P. N. Menon, an established director. After working as an art director and assistant director in a few films, he made his directorial debut in 1975 with Prayanam, which was based on Padmarajan's script. It also marked the rise of two early proponents of middle-stream Malayalam cinema.[1]

Style and themesEdit

Bharathan's films were well known for their realistic portrayal of rural life in Kerala. Melodrama and escapism, often an integral part of mainstream cinema in India, were usually absent in his films. He also managed to steer clear of the "star-centric" culture, prevalent in Indian cinema, throughout his career. His later films did involve major movie stars but usually without compromising on plot or narrative. Bharathan, along with Padmarajan and K. G. George were largely responsible for introducing a counter culture of meaningful mainstream cinema which often tread the middle path between art-house and commercial cinema. This movement was often called the "middle of the road cinema". Bharathan's films were known for their visually appealing shot compositions. His background as a painter enabled him to create frames that were often credited for their visual beauty. Natural props and nature itself often became important characters in his films (like the railway track in Palangal, or the sea in Amaram). Bharathan is one of the few Indian directors known to use an elaborate story-board system for filming. He also often designed the posters for his films.He etched a separate cult of movies which had a typical "Bharathan touch".

Several of his early films were known for their bold portrayal of sexual themes.His films often defied social conventions and norms about man-woman relationships. Rathinirvedam was the sexual-coming-of-age story of the relationship between a teenager and an older woman while Chamaram dealt with the tumultuous affair between a student and his college lecturer. In Kattathe Kilikkoodu an elderly, married Professor falls for his student. Kaathodu Kaathoram was about the social ostracism of a woman who has an adulterous relationship.

The latter half of Bharathan's career saw a distinct change in film making style characterized by a wider canvas, more attention to detail with more distinct focus on narrative style (e.g., Vaishali, Amaram, Thaazhvaaram, and Thevar Magan). Some critics argue that this quest for technical excellence was at the expense of the quality of thematic content. Films like Vaishali and Amaram (where he collaborated with acclaimed cinematographer Madhu Ambat) set a new benchmark for cinematographic excellence in Malayalam and Indian Cinema. Thaazhvaaram was stylistically inspired by classic Hollywood Westerns though the theme and backdrop were distinctly original.

His last few films (Manjeeradhwani, Devaraagam and Churam) were received moderately by critics.

Film careerEdit

Bharathan directed over 40 films in Malayalam and Tamil. Starting his career in 1975 with Prayanam, Bharathan rode to fame with his off-beat Thakara, a film about a dumb-witted central character who falls in love with the village beauty. Some of his other memorable films include Rathinirvedam, Chamaram, Paalangal, Amaram, and Vaishali.[2]

His association with Padmarajan led to films including Rathi Nirvedam and Thakara. Rathi Nirvedam was a treatment of teenage sexual angst. In Thakara, he deals with life and longings of an intellectually disabled youth and his association with the society.

In the early 1980s he made several notable movies like Chamaram , Marmaram , Paalangal , Ormakkayi , Kattathe Kilikkoodu, and many more. They did well in theaters and set the trend for meaningful mainstream cinema. Other noted directors followed suit. It was the romantic era of Malayalam cinema.

Not all of Bharathan's films skirted with bold themes and controversy. In Oru Minnaaminunginte Nurunguvettam (1987), he tells the poignant story of a childless couple in their post retirement life. It deals with the isolation and loneliness that comes with old age. The film was a departure from Bharathan's usual style and proved to be a major commercial hit while garnering critical acclaim, too.

Screenwriter Lohithadas, director Bharathan and cinematographer Ramachandra Babu at the location of Venkalam.

His Vaisali (1988) is widely regarded as a modern-day masterpiece in Malayalam cinema. Scripted by the iconic Malayalam novelist M. T. Vasudevan Nair, it was an adaptation of a sub-story told in the epic Mahabharatha. Another movie born from their association was Thazhvaram, with versatile star actor Mohanlal. The subject was revenge, a theme quite uncharacteristic of Bharathan movies. The style was inspired by classic Westerns with a brooding, reticent central character and expansive shots of barren landscape.

Even though he was not known to cater to the star-centric system, Bharathan was instrumental in bringing together the two screen icons of Tamil cinema Sivaji Ganesan and Kamal Hassan in the Tamil film Thevar Magan which won critical acclaim and box office success. Sivaji gave an uncharacteristically restrained yet brilliant performance. The movie won several national awards and was remade into many regional languages (most notably Virasat in Hindi).

His more experimental films include Aaravam, more an arthouse than commercial venture, and Nidra, about the plight of a woman who is in love with a mentally deranged man. His film "Nidra" was remade by his son, film director Sidharth Bharathan. "Rathinirvedam" originally directed by Bharathan, which was a noted film was also remade by another famous director T K Rajeev Kumar with Swetha Menon in the lead.

His creativity was not confined to film direction. He also wrote lyrics and tuned songs for his films. (e.g., lyrics for “Thaaram Valkannadi Nokki" in Keli and "Tharum Thalirum Mizhipootti" in Chilambu or title song for Kathodu Kathoram). He associated with writer P. R. Nathan in Keli.

Later lifeEdit

Bharatan died at a private hospital in Chennai on 30 July 1998 at the age of 52 following prolonged illness. His body was taken to his native place Wadakkanchery and was cremated at the premises of his home. His last film was 'Churam', released a year before his death.

Personal lifeEdit

Bharathan was married to noted theatre and film actress K. P. A. C. Lalitha with whom he associated in a lot of films before and after marriage. It was on the sets of Rathinirvedam (1978) that he proposed to Lalitha and they got married soon after the shooting of this film.[3] Bharathan's own dream home was an amazing, artistic palatial house based on Kerala architecture.It was in K.K.Nagar Chennai.Bharathan's son Siddharth Bharathan is a noted film actor, director and scenarist. Having made his debut as an actor in the 2002 film Nammal, Siddharth went on to act in a few more low-budget ventures before he made his debut as a director by remaking Bharathan's 1981 film Nidra into a film with the same title in 2012.


Film Year Director Writer Art-director Composer Editor Notes Ref.
1972 Chembarathi Yes
1972 Gandharvakshethram Yes
1973 Chenda Yes
1973 Dharmayudham Yes
1973 Ponnaapuram Kotta Yes
1973 Enippadikal Yes
1973 Maadhavikkutty Yes
1974 Rajahamsam Yes
1974 Chakravaakam Yes
1974 Neelakkannukal Yes
1974 Mucheettukalikkaarante Makal Yes
1975 Prayanam Yes Yes
1976 Surveykkallu Yes
1976 Ponni Yes
1976 Yudhakaandam Yes
1977 Guruvayur Kesavan Yes Yes
1978 Rathinirvedam Yes
1978 Aniyara Yes
1978 Njaan Njaan Maathram Yes
1978 Aaravam Yes Yes Yes
1979 Thakara Yes Yes
1980 Lorry Yes
1980 Savithiri Yes Yes Tamil film
1980 Chamaram Yes Yes
1981 Nidra Yes Yes Yes
1981 Palangal Yes Yes
1981 Parankimala Yes Yes
1981 Chatta Yes Yes Yes
1981 Parvathy Yes Yes
1982 Marmaram Yes Yes
1982 Ormakkayi Yes Yes
1983 Eenam Yes Yes
1983 Sandhya Mayangum Neram Yes
1983 Kattathe Kilikkoodu Yes Yes
1984 Ente Upasana Yes
1985 Kathodu Kathoram Yes Yes
1984 Ithiripoove Chuvannapoove Yes Yes
1985 Ozhivukaalam Yes
1985 Oonjalaadum Uravugal Yes Tamil film
1986 Chilambu Yes
1986 Pranamam Yes Also lyricist
1987 Oru Minnaminunginte Nurunguvettam Yes Yes Yes
1987 Neela Kurinji Poothappol Yes
1988 Vaisali Yes Yes
1989 Oru Sayahnathinte Swapnam Yes Yes Yes
1990 Thazhvaram Yes Yes Yes
1990 Malootty Yes Yes
1991 Amaram Yes
1991 Keli Yes Yes
1992 Aavarampoo Yes Yes Tamil film
1992 Thevar Magan Yes Tamil film
1993 Venkalam Yes
1993 Chamayam Yes
1993 Padheyam Yes
1996 Devaraagam Yes Yes
1997 Churam Yes Yes
1998 Manjeeradhwani Yes Yes



  1. ^ "Bharathan". Cinema of Malayalam. Archived from the original on 25 May 2011. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
  2. ^ "Noted Malayalam film director Bharathan dead". Indian Express. 31 July 1998. Archived from the original on 26 June 2009.
  3. ^ "Emotional reunion". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 17 June 2011. Retrieved 26 November 2010.

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