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Betrixaban (trade name Bevyxxa) is an oral anticoagulant drug which acts as a direct factor Xa inhibitor.[1] Betrixaban is FDA approved for venous thrombosis prevention in adults hospitalized for an acute medical illness who are at risk for thromboembolic complications due to restricted mobility and other risk factors.[2] Compared to other DOACs betrixaban has relatively low renal excretion (ca. 17%) and is not metabolized by CYP3A4.[3]

Betrixaban
Betrixaban.svg
Clinical data
Trade namesBevyxxa
SynonymsPRT054021, PRT064445
ATC code
  • none
Legal status
Legal status
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
ChemSpider
UNII
KEGG
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard100.207.746 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
FormulaC23H22ClN5O3
Molar mass451.905 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
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HistoryEdit

Betrixaban was originally developed by Millenium pharmaceuticals. It has been selected from a group of similar compounds for its low hERG affinity.[4] Portola Pharmaceuticals acquired rights for betrixaban in 2004 and co-developed it with Merck. In 2011 Merck discontinued joint development.[5]

The drug has undergone human clinical trials for prevention of embolism after knee surgery[6] and for prevention of stroke following non-valvular atrial fibrillation[7] with promising results.[8]

Later betrixaban was studied in a large phase III clinical trial ("APEX") for extended duration thromboprophylaxis in acute medically ill patients.[9] Previously apixaban and rivaroxaban have failed to show positive risk/benefit ratio in this indication compared to enoxaparin[10][11]. APEX trial compared betrixaban with enoxaparin and included 7513 patients. Lower rate of VTE events was found in betrixaban arm with no increase in major bleedings compared to enoxaparin[12]. Based on these results betrixaban was approved by FDA on June 23rd, 2017 becoming the first DOAC approved for extended prophylaxis in hospitalized patients.[13]

Betrixaban has been also reviewed by EMA and didn't receive marketing approval in EU[14].

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Eriksson BI, Quinlan DJ, Weitz JI (2009). "Comparative pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics of oral direct thrombin and factor xa inhibitors in development". Clinical Pharmacokinetics. 48 (1): 1–22. doi:10.2165/0003088-200948010-00001. PMID 19071881.
  2. ^ Research, Center for Drug Evaluation and. "Approved Drugs - FDA approved betrixaban (BEVYXXA, Portola) for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients". www.fda.gov. Retrieved 2018-10-29.
  3. ^ Huisman, Menno V; Klok, Frederikus A (2018-05-01). "Pharmacological properties of betrixaban". European Heart Journal Supplements. 20 (suppl_E): E12–E15. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/suy016. ISSN 1520-765X. PMC 6016700. PMID 29977164.
  4. ^ Zhang P, Huang W, Wang L, Bao L, Jia ZJ, Bauer SM, Goldman EA, Probst GD, Song Y, Su T, Fan J, Wu Y, Li W, Woolfrey J, Sinha U, Wong PW, Edwards ST, Arfsten AE, Clizbe LA, Kanter J, Pandey A, Park G, Hutchaleelaha A, Lambing JL, Hollenbach SJ, Scarborough RM, Zhu BY (April 2009). "Discovery of betrixaban (PRT054021), N-(5-chloropyridin-2-yl)-2-(4-(N,N-dimethylcarbamimidoyl)benzamido)-5-methoxybenzamide, a highly potent, selective, and orally efficacious factor Xa inhibitor". Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters. 19 (8): 2179–85. doi:10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.02.111. PMID 19297154.
  5. ^ Husten, Harry. "Merck Abandons Development of Factor Xa Inhibitor Betrixaban". CardioBrief. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
  6. ^ Turpie AG, Bauer KA, Davidson BL, Fisher WD, Gent M, Huo MH, Sinha U, Gretler DD (January 2009). "A randomized evaluation of betrixaban, an oral factor Xa inhibitor, for prevention of thromboembolic events after total knee replacement (EXPERT)". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 101 (1): 68–76. doi:10.1160/th08-07-0460. PMID 19132191.
  7. ^ Piccini, J. P.; Lopes, R. D.; Mahaffey, K. W. (2010). "Oral factor Xa inhibitors for the prevention of stroke in atrial fibrillation". Current Opinion in Cardiology. 25 (4): 312–20. doi:10.1097/HCO.0b013e32833a524f. PMID 20520539.
  8. ^ Sobieraj-Teague, M.; O’donnell, M.; Eikelboom, J. (2009). "New Anticoagulants for Atrial Fibrillation". Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis. 35 (5): 515–24. doi:10.1055/s-0029-1234147. PMID 19739042.
  9. ^ Cohen, Alexander T.; Harrington, Robert; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Hull, Russell; Gibson, C. Michael; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Kitt, Michael M.; Lorenz, Todd J. (2014-01-01). "The design and rationale for the Acute Medically Ill Venous Thromboembolism Prevention with Extended Duration Betrixaban (APEX) study". American Heart Journal. 167 (3): 335. doi:10.1016/j.ahj.2013.11.006. PMID 24576517.
  10. ^ Cohen, Alexander T.; Spiro, Theodore E.; Büller, Harry R.; Haskell, Lloyd; Hu, Dayi; Hull, Russell; Mebazaa, Alexandre; Merli, Geno; Schellong, Sebastian (2013-02-07). "Rivaroxaban for Thromboprophylaxis in Acutely Ill Medical Patients". New England Journal of Medicine. 368 (6): 513–523. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1111096. ISSN 0028-4793.
  11. ^ Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Leizorovicz, Alain; Kakkar, Ajay K.; Haas, Sylvia K.; Merli, Geno; Knabb, Robert M.; Weitz, Jeffrey I. (2011-12-08). "Apixaban versus Enoxaparin for Thromboprophylaxis in Medically Ill Patients". New England Journal of Medicine. 365 (23): 2167–2177. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1110899. ISSN 0028-4793.
  12. ^ Cohen, Alexander T.; Harrington, Robert A.; Goldhaber, Samuel Z.; Hull, Russell D.; Wiens, Brian L.; Gold, Alex; Hernandez, Adrian F.; Gibson, C. Michael (2016-08-11). "Extended Thromboprophylaxis with Betrixaban in Acutely Ill Medical Patients". New England Journal of Medicine. 375 (6): 534–544. doi:10.1056/nejmoa1601747. ISSN 0028-4793.
  13. ^ "FDA approved betrixaban (BEVYXXA, Portola) for the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) in adult patients". Retrieved 28 June 2017.
  14. ^ "CHMP decision" (PDF).