Beth Nahrain or Bet Nahrain or (Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪ̈ܝܢ, translit. Bêṯ Nahrayn; "between (two) rivers," often erroneously translated as "house of the (two) rivers") is the name for the region known as Mesopotamia in the Syriac language. Geographically, it refers to the areas between and surrounding the Euphrates and Tigris rivers (as well as their tributaries). The Aramaic name loosely describes the area of the rivers, not only literally between the rivers. The area is considered by Assyrians as their homeland.
This area roughly encompasses almost all of present-day Iraq, parts of southeastern Turkey, and northeastern Syria. The Assyrians are considered to be indigenous inhabitants of Beth Nahrain. "Nahrainean" or "Nahrainian" is the Anglicized name for "Nahrāyā", which is the Aramaic equivalent of "Mesopotamian".
While it may be thought that the name is derived from Mesopotamia (Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία), the opposite is more probable. The Aramaic name has been attested since the adoption of Old Aramaic as the lingua franca of the Neo Assyrian Empire in the 8th century BCE, but the Greek name Mesopotamia was first coined in the 2nd century BCE by the historian Polybius during the Seleucid period. The name Bayn al-Nahrayn is also found in Arabic (بين النهرين; "between the two rivers").
The term "Beth Nahrain" is commonly used by both Eastern and Western Assyrians and acts as a united front for an autonomous Assyrian region. The following is a list of political/military organizations developed using the "Beth Nahrain" name:
The Assyrians (also referred to as Syriacs, Arameans or Chaldeans) are the native people of Beth Nahrain. They speak different dialects of Neo-Aramaic depending on their geographical location within Beth Nahrain. Today, Assyrians in Iraq and Iran as well as the Khabour River Valley in Syria speak varieties of Northeastern Neo-Aramaic while the Assyrians in Turkey and Syria mainly speak Turoyo.
Beth Nahrain occupies the land between two rivers - referring to the Euphrates and Tigris rivers. The Tigris-Euphrates river system covers 35,600 km² and forms a major river system originating from the Taurus mountains of Eastern Turkey through Syria and Iraq towards the Persian Gulf.
- Donabed, Sargon (2015). Reforging a Forgotten History: Iraq and the Assyrians in the Twentieth Century. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 978-0-7486-8605-6.
- Simo Parpola, Assyrian Identity in Ancient Times and Today, Lecture given at the March 27, 2004 historical seminar of the Assyrian Youth Federation in Sweden (AUF)
- Hugoye: Journal of Syriac Studies Past and Present Archived May 10, 2006, at the Wayback Machine., Perceptions of Syriac Literary Tradition by Lucas VAN ROMPAY
- Finkelstein, J. J.; 1962. “Mesopotamia”, Journal of Near Eastern Studies 21: 73–92
- Geoffrey Wigoder, The Illustrated Dictionary & Concordance of the Bible, Sterling Publishing (2005).
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