beta-Carboline

  (Redirected from Beta-carboline)

β-Carboline (9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole) represents the basic chemical structure for more than hundred alkaloids and synthetic compounds. The effects of these substances depend on their respective substituent. Natural β-carbolines primarily influence brain functions but can also exhibit antioxidant[1] effects. Synthetically designed β-carboline derivatives have recently been shown to have neuroprotective,[2] cognitive enhancing and anti-cancer properties.[3]

β-Carboline
Beta-Carboline.svg
Chemical structure of β-carboline
Names
Preferred IUPAC name
9H-Pyrido[3,4-b]indole
Other names
  • Norharmane
  • Norharman
  • 9H-β-Carboline
Identifiers
3D model (JSmol)
128414
ChEBI
ChEMBL
ChemSpider
ECHA InfoCard 100.005.418 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 205-959-0
KEGG
MeSH norharman
UNII
  • InChI=1S/C11H8N2/c1-2-4-10-8(3-1)9-5-6-12-7-11(9)13-10/h1-7,13H checkY
    Key: AIFRHYZBTHREPW-UHFFFAOYSA-N checkY
  • InChI=1/C11H8N2/c1-2-4-10-8(3-1)9-5-6-12-7-11(9)13-10/h1-7,13H
    Key: AIFRHYZBTHREPW-UHFFFAOYAG
  • c1ccc3c(c1)[nH]c2cnccc23
Properties
C11H8N2
Molar mass 168.20 g/mol
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)
Infobox references

PharmacologyEdit

The pharmacological effects of specific β-carbolines are dependent on their substituents. For example, the natural β-carboline harmine has substituents on position 7 and 1. Thereby, it acts as a selective inhibitor of the DYRK1A protein kinase, a molecule necessary for neurodevelopment.[4][5] It also exhibits various antidepressant-like effects in rats by interacting with serotonin receptor 2A.[6][7] Furthermore, it increases levels of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in rat hippocampus.[7][8] A decreased BDNF level has been associated with major depression in humans. The antidepressant effect of harmine might also be due to its function as a MAO-A inhibitor by reducing the breakdown of serotonin and noradrenaline.[8][9]

A synthetic derivative, 9-methyl-β-carboline, has shown neuroprotective effects including increased expression of neurotrophic factors and enhanced respiratory chain activity.[10][11] This derivative has also been shown to enhance cognitive function,[12] increase dopaminergic neuron count and facilitate synaptic and dendritic proliferation.[13][14] It also exhibited therapeutic effects in animal models for Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative processes.[11]

However, β-carbolines with substituents in position 3 reduce the effect of benzodiazepine on GABA-A receptors and can therefore have convulsive, anxiogenic and memory enhancing effects.[15] Moreover, 3-hydroxymethyl-beta-carboline blocks the sleep-promoting effect of flurazepam in rodents and - by itself - can decrease sleep in a dose-dependent manner.[16] Another derivative, methyl-β-carboline-3-carboxylate, stimulates learning and memory at low doses but can promote anxiety and convulsions at high doses.[15] With modification in position 9 similar positive effects have been observed for learning and memory without promotion of anxiety or convulsion.[12]

β-carboline derivatives also enhance the production of the antibiotic reveromycin A in soil dwelling "Streptomyces" species.[17][18] Specifically, expression of biosynthetic genes is facilitated by binding of the β-carboline to a large ATP-binding regulator of the LuxR family.

Also Lactobacillus spp. secretes a β-carboline (1-acetyl-β-carboline) preventing the pathogenic fungus Candida albicans to change to a more virulent growth form (yeast-to-filament transition). Thereby, β-carboline reverses imbalances in the microbiome composition causing pathologies ranging from vaginal candidiasis to fungal sepsis.[19]

Since β-carbolines also interact with various cancer-related molecules such as DNA, enzymes (GPX4, kinases, etc.) and proteins (ABCG2/BRCP1, etc.), they are also discussed as potential anticancer agents.[3]

Explorative human studies for the medical use of β-carbolinesEdit

The extract of the liana Banisteriopsis caapi has been used by the tribes of the Amazon as an entheogen and was described as a hallucinogen in the middle of the 19th century.[20] In early 20th century, European pharmacists identified harmine as the active substance.[21] This discovery stimulated the interest to further investigate its potential as a medicine. For example, Louis Lewin, a prominent pharmacologist, demonstrated a dramatic benefit in neurological handicaps after injections of B. caapi in patients with postencephalitic Parkinsonism.[20] By 1930, it was generally agreed that hypokinesia, drooling, mood, and sometimes rigidity improved by treatment with harmine. Altogether, 25 studies had been published in the twenties and thirties with patients suffering from Parkinson’s disease and postencephalitic Parkinsonism. The pharmacological effects of harmine have been attributed mainly to its central monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitory properties. In-vivo and rodent studies have shown that extracts of Banisteriopsis caapi and also Peganum harmala lead to striatal dopamine release.[22][23][24] Furthermore, harmine supports the survival of dopaminergic neurons in MPTP-treated mice.[25] Since harmine also antagonizes N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors,[26] some researchers speculatively attributed the rapid improvement in patients with Parkinson’s disease to these antiglutamatergic effects.[20] However, the advent of synthetic anticholinergic drugs at that time led to the total abandonment of harmine.[20]

StructureEdit

β-Carbolines belong to the group of indole alkaloids and consist of a pyridine ring that is fused to an indole skeleton.[27] The structure of β-carboline is similar to that of tryptamine, with the ethylamine chain re-connected to the indole ring via an extra carbon atom, to produce a three-ringed structure. The biosynthesis of β-carbolines is believed to follow this route from analogous tryptamines.[28] Different levels of saturation are possible in the third ring which is indicated here in the structural formula by coloring the optionally double bonds red and blue:

Examples of β-carbolinesEdit

Some of the more important β-carbolines are tabulated by structure below. Their structures may contain the aforementioned bonds marked by red or blue.

Short Name R1 R6 R7 R9 Structure
β-Carboline H H H H  
Pinoline H OCH3 H H  
Harmane CH3 H H H  
Harmine CH3 H OCH3 H  
Harmaline CH3 H OCH3 H  
Harmalol CH3 H OH H  
Tetrahydroharmine CH3 H OCH3 H  
9-Methyl-β-carboline H H H CH3  
3-Carboxy-Tetrahydrononharman H / CH3 / COOH H H H  

Natural occurrenceEdit

β-Carboline alkaloids are widespread in prokaryotes, plants and animals. Some β-carbolines, notably tetrahydro-ß-carbolines, may be formed naturally in plants and the human body with tryptophan, serotonin and tryptamine as precursors.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Francik R, Kazek G, Cegła M, Stepniewski M (March 2011). "Antioxidant activity of beta-carboline derivatives". Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica. 68 (2): 185–189. PMID 21485291.
  2. ^ Gulyaeva N, Aniol V (June 2012). "Good guys from a shady family". Journal of Neurochemistry. 121 (6): 841–842. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07708.x. PMID 22372749.
  3. ^ a b Aaghaz S, Sharma K, Jain R, Kamal A (April 2021). "β-Carbolines as potential anticancer agents". European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 216: 113321. doi:10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113321. PMID 33684825.
  4. ^ Mennenga SE, Gerson JE, Dunckley T, Bimonte-Nelson HA (January 2015). "Harmine treatment enhances short-term memory in old rats: Dissociation of cognition and the ability to perform the procedural requirements of maze testing". Physiology & Behavior. 138: 260–265. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.09.001. PMC 4406242. PMID 25250831.
  5. ^ Becker W, Sippl W (January 2011). "Activation, regulation, and inhibition of DYRK1A". The FEBS Journal. 278 (2): 246–256. doi:10.1111/j.1742-4658.2010.07956.x. PMID 21126318.
  6. ^ Glennon RA, Dukat M, Grella B, Hong S, Costantino L, Teitler M, et al. (August 2000). "Binding of beta-carbolines and related agents at serotonin (5-HT(2) and 5-HT(1A)), dopamine (D(2)) and benzodiazepine receptors". Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 60 (2): 121–132. doi:10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00148-9. PMID 10940539.
  7. ^ a b Fortunato JJ, Réus GZ, Kirsch TR, Stringari RB, Stertz L, Kapczinski F, et al. (November 2009). "Acute harmine administration induces antidepressive-like effects and increases BDNF levels in the rat hippocampus". Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry. Bed nucleus of the stria terminalis: anatomy, physiology, functions. 33 (8): 1425–1430. doi:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2009.07.021. PMID 19632287.
  8. ^ a b Fortunato JJ, Réus GZ, Kirsch TR, Stringari RB, Fries GR, Kapczinski F, et al. (October 2010). "Chronic administration of harmine elicits antidepressant-like effects and increases BDNF levels in rat hippocampus". Journal of Neural Transmission. 117 (10): 1131–1137. doi:10.1007/s00702-010-0451-2. PMID 20686906.
  9. ^ López-Muñoz F, Alamo C (2009-05-01). "Monoaminergic neurotransmission: the history of the discovery of antidepressants from 1950s until today". Current Pharmaceutical Design. 15 (14): 1563–1586. doi:10.2174/138161209788168001. PMID 19442174.
  10. ^ Antkiewicz-Michaluk L, Rommelspacher H, eds. (2012). "Isoquinolines And Beta-Carbolines As Neurotoxins And Neuroprotectants". doi:10.1007/978-1-4614-1542-8. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  11. ^ a b Wernicke C, Hellmann J, Zieba B, Kuter K, Ossowska K, Frenzel M, et al. (January 2010). "9-Methyl-beta-carboline has restorative effects in an animal model of Parkinson's disease". Pharmacological Reports. 62 (1): 35–53. doi:10.1016/s1734-1140(10)70241-3. PMID 20360614.
  12. ^ a b Gruss M, Appenroth D, Flubacher A, Enzensperger C, Bock J, Fleck C, et al. (June 2012). "9-Methyl-β-carboline-induced cognitive enhancement is associated with elevated hippocampal dopamine levels and dendritic and synaptic proliferation". Journal of Neurochemistry. 121 (6): 924–931. doi:10.1111/j.1471-4159.2012.07713.x. PMID 22380576.
  13. ^ Hamann J, Wernicke C, Lehmann J, Reichmann H, Rommelspacher H, Gille G (March 2008). "9-Methyl-beta-carboline up-regulates the appearance of differentiated dopaminergic neurones in primary mesencephalic culture". Neurochemistry International. 52 (4–5): 688–700. doi:10.1016/j.neuint.2007.08.018. PMID 17913302.
  14. ^ Polanski W, Reichmann H, Gille G (June 2011). "Stimulation, protection and regeneration of dopaminergic neurons by 9-methyl-β-carboline: a new anti-Parkinson drug?". Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics. 11 (6): 845–860. doi:10.1586/ern.11.1. PMID 21651332.
  15. ^ a b Venault P, Chapouthier G (February 2007). "From the behavioral pharmacology of beta-carbolines to seizures, anxiety, and memory". TheScientificWorldJournal. 7: 204–223. doi:10.1100/tsw.2007.48. PMC 5901106. PMID 17334612.
  16. ^ Mendelson WB, Cain M, Cook JM, Paul SM, Skolnick P (January 1983). "A benzodiazepine receptor antagonist decreases sleep and reverses the hypnotic actions of flurazepam". Science. 219 (4583): 414–416. Bibcode:1983Sci...219..414M. doi:10.1126/science.6294835. PMID 6294835. S2CID 43038332.
  17. ^ Panthee S, Takahashi S, Hayashi T, Shimizu T, Osada H (April 2019). "β-carboline biomediators induce reveromycin production in Streptomyces sp. SN-593". Scientific Reports. 9 (1): 5802. Bibcode:2019NatSR...9.5802P. doi:10.1038/s41598-019-42268-w. PMC 6456619. PMID 30967594.
  18. ^ Panthee S, Kito N, Hayashi T, Shimizu T, Ishikawa J, Hamamoto H, et al. (June 2020). "β-carboline chemical signals induce reveromycin production through a LuxR family regulator in Streptomyces sp. SN-593". Scientific Reports. 10 (1): 10230. Bibcode:2020NatSR..1010230P. doi:10.1038/s41598-020-66974-y. PMC 7311520. PMID 32576869.
  19. ^ MacAlpine J, Daniel-Ivad M, Liu Z, Yano J, Revie NM, Todd RT, et al. (October 2021). "A small molecule produced by Lactobacillus species blocks Candida albicans filamentation by inhibiting a DYRK1-family kinase". Nature Communications. 12 (1): 6151. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26390-w. PMID 34686660.
  20. ^ a b c d Djamshidian A, Bernschneider-Reif S, Poewe W, Lees AJ (2016). "Banisteriopsis caapi, a Forgotten Potential Therapy for Parkinson's Disease?". Movement Disorders Clinical Practice. 3 (1): 19–26. doi:10.1002/mdc3.12242. PMC 6353393. PMID 30713897.
  21. ^ Foley P (2003). "Beans, roots and leaves: a brief history of the pharmacological therapy of parkinsonism". Wurzburger Medizinhistorische Mitteilungen. 22: 215–234. PMID 15641199.
  22. ^ Schwarz MJ, Houghton PJ, Rose S, Jenner P, Lees AD (June 2003). "Activities of extract and constituents of Banisteriopsis caapi relevant to parkinsonism". Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior. 75 (3): 627–633. doi:10.1016/s0091-3057(03)00129-1. PMID 12895680.
  23. ^ Brierley DI, Davidson C (January 2013). "Harmine augments electrically evoked dopamine efflux in the nucleus accumbens shell". Journal of Psychopharmacology. 27 (1): 98–108. doi:10.1177/0269881112463125. PMID 23076833.
  24. ^ Samoylenko V, Rahman MM, Tekwani BL, Tripathi LM, Wang YH, Khan SI, et al. (February 2010). "Banisteriopsis caapi, a unique combination of MAO inhibitory and antioxidative constituents for the activities relevant to neurodegenerative disorders and Parkinson's disease". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 127 (2): 357–367. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2009.10.030. PMC 2828149. PMID 19879939.
  25. ^ Barallobre MJ, Perier C, Bové J, Laguna A, Delabar JM, Vila M, Arbonés ML (June 2014). "DYRK1A promotes dopaminergic neuron survival in the developing brain and in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease". Cell Death & Disease. 5 (6): e1289. doi:10.1038/cddis.2014.253. PMC 4611726. PMID 24922073.
  26. ^ Du W, Aloyo VJ, Harvey JA (October 1997). "Harmaline competitively inhibits [3H]MK-801 binding to the NMDA receptor in rabbit brain". Brain Research. 770 (1–2): 26–29. doi:10.1016/s0006-8993(97)00606-9. PMID 9372198.
  27. ^ The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants: Ethnopharmacology and its Applications. Ratsch, Christian. Park Street Press c. 2005
  28. ^ Baiget J, Llona-Minguez S, Lang S, Mackay SP, Suckling CJ, Sutcliffe OB (2011). "Manganese dioxide mediated one-pot synthesis of methyl 9H-pyrido[3,4-b]indole-1-carboxylate: Concise synthesis of alangiobussinine". Beilstein Journal of Organic Chemistry. 7: 1407–1411. doi:10.3762/bjoc.7.164. PMC 3201054. PMID 22043251.
  29. ^ Hemmateenejad B, Abbaspour A, Maghami H, Miri R, Panjehshahin MR (August 2006). "Partial least squares-based multivariate spectral calibration method for simultaneous determination of beta-carboline derivatives in Peganum harmala seed extracts". Analytica Chimica Acta. 575 (2): 290–299. doi:10.1016/j.aca.2006.05.093. PMID 17723604.
  30. ^ Herraiz T, González D, Ancín-Azpilicueta C, Arán VJ, Guillén H (March 2010). "beta-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48 (3): 839–845. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.019. hdl:10261/77694. PMID 20036304.
  31. ^ Lake RJ, Blunt JW, Munro MH (1989). "Eudistomins from the New Zealand ascidian Ritterella sigillinoides". Aust. J. Chem. 42 (7): 1201–1206. doi:10.1071/CH9891201.
  32. ^ Badre A, Boulanger A, Abou-Mansour E, Banaigs B, Combaut G, Francisco C (April 1994). "Eudistomin U and isoeudistomin U, new alkaloids from the Caribbean ascidian Lissoclinum fragile". Journal of Natural Products. 57 (4): 528–533. doi:10.1021/np50106a016. PMID 8021654.
  33. ^ Davis RA, Carroll AR, Quinn RJ (July 1998). "Eudistomin V, a new beta-carboline from the Australian ascidian Pseudodistoma aureum". Journal of Natural Products. 61 (7): 959–960. doi:10.1021/np9800452. PMID 9677285.
  34. ^ Becher PG, Beuchat J, Gademann K, Jüttner F (December 2005). "Nostocarboline: isolation and synthesis of a new cholinesterase inhibitor from Nostoc 78-12A". Journal of Natural Products. 68 (12): 1793–1795. doi:10.1021/np050312l. PMID 16378379.
  35. ^ Herraiz, Tomás (2011-11-10), "β-Carbolines as Neurotoxins", Isoquinolines And Beta-Carbolines As Neurotoxins And Neuroprotectants, Boston, MA: Springer US, pp. 77–103, retrieved 2021-11-16
  36. ^ Herraiz, T.; González, D.; Ancín-Azpilicueta, C.; Arán, V.J.; Guillén, H. (March 2010). "β-Carboline alkaloids in Peganum harmala and inhibition of human monoamine oxidase (MAO)". Food and Chemical Toxicology. 48 (3): 839–845. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2009.12.019. ISSN 0278-6915.
  37. ^ Stachel SJ, Stockwell SA, Van Vranken DL (August 1999). "The fluorescence of scorpions and cataractogenesis". Chemistry & Biology. 6 (8): 531–539. doi:10.1016/S1074-5521(99)80085-4. PMID 10421760.

External linksEdit