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Bessel–Clifford function

In mathematical analysis, the Bessel–Clifford function, named after Friedrich Bessel and William Kingdon Clifford, is an entire function of two complex variables that can be used to provide an alternative development of the theory of Bessel functions. If

is the entire function defined by means of the reciprocal Gamma function, then the Bessel–Clifford function is defined by the series

The ratio of successive terms is z/k(n + k), which for all values of z and n tends to zero with increasing k. By the ratio test, this series converges absolutely for all z and n, and uniformly for all regions with bounded |z|, and hence the Bessel–Clifford function is an entire function of the two complex variables n and z.

Contents

Differential equation of the Bessel–Clifford functionEdit

It follows from the above series on differentiating with respect to x that   satisfies the linear second-order homogeneous differential equation

 

This equation is of generalized hypergeometric type, and in fact the Bessel–Clifford function is up to a scaling factor a Pochhammer–Barnes hypergeometric function; we have

 

Unless n is a negative integer, in which case the right hand side is undefined, the two definitions are essentially equivalent; the hypergeometric function being normalized so that its value at z = 0 is one.

Relation to Bessel functionsEdit

The Bessel function of the first kind can be defined in terms of the Bessel–Clifford function as

 

when n is not an integer we can see from this that the Bessel function is not entire. Similarly, the modified Bessel function of the first kind can be defined as

 

The procedure can of course be reversed, so that we may define the Bessel–Clifford function as

 

but from this starting point we would then need to show   was entire.

Recurrence relationEdit

From the defining series, it follows immediately that  

Using this, we may rewrite the differential equation for   as

 

which defines the recurrence relationship for the Bessel–Clifford function. This is equivalent to a similar relation for 0F1. We have, as a special case of Gauss's continued fraction

 

It can be shown that this continued fraction converges in all cases.

The Bessel–Clifford function of the second kindEdit

The Bessel–Clifford differential equation

 

has two linearly independent solutions. Since the origin is a regular singular point of the differential equation, and since   is entire, the second solution must be singular at the origin.

If we set

 

which converges for  , and analytically continue it, we obtain a second linearly independent solution to the differential equation.

The factor of 1/2 is inserted in order to make   correspond to the Bessel functions of the second kind. We have

 

and

 

In terms of K, we have

 

Hence just as the Bessel function and modified Bessel function of the first kind can both be expressed in terms of  , those of the second kind can both be expressed in terms of  .

Generating functionEdit

If we multiply the absolutely convergent series for exp(t) and exp(z/t) together, we get (when t is not zero) an absolutely convergent series for exp(t + z/t). Collecting terms in t, we find on comparison with the power series definition for   that we have

 

This generating function can then be used to obtain further formulas, in particular we may use Cauchy's integral formula and obtain   for integer n as

 

ReferencesEdit

  • Clifford, William Kingdon (1882), "On Bessel's Functions", Mathematical Papers, London: 346–349.
  • Greenhill, A. George (1919), "The Bessel–Clifford function, and its applications", Philosophical Magazine, Sixth Series: 501–528.
  • Legendre, Adrien-Marie (1802), Éléments de Géometrie, Note IV, Paris.
  • Schläfli, Ludwig (1868), "Sulla relazioni tra diversi integrali definiti che giovano ad esprimere la soluzione generale della equazzione di Riccati", Annali di Matematica Pura ed Applicata, 2 (I): 232–242.
  • Watson, G. N. (1944), A Treatise on the Theory of Bessel Functions (Second ed.), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Wallisser, Rolf (2000), "On Lambert's proof of the irrationality of π", in Halter-Koch, Franz; Tichy, Robert F., Algebraic Number Theory and Diophantine Analysis, Berlin: Walter de Gruyer, ISBN 3-11-016304-7.