Berliner FC Dynamo

Berliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V., commonly abbreviated to BFC Dynamo (German pronunciation: [beːʔɛfˌt͡seː dyˈnaːmo] (listen)) or BFC (German pronunciation: [beːʔɛfˈt͡seː] (listen)), alternatively sometimes called Dynamo Berlin, is a German football club based in the locality of Alt-Hohenschönhausen of the borough of Lichtenberg of Berlin. BFC Dynamo was founded in 1966 from the football department of SC Dynamo Berlin and became one of the most successful clubs in East German football. The club is the record champion of East Germany with ten consecutive league championships from 1979 through 1988. BFC Dynamo competes in the fourth tier Regionalliga Nordost. The club enjoys a cross-city rivalry with 1. FC Union Berlin and a historical rivalry with SG Dynamo Dresden. The rivalry with Union Berlin is part of the Berlin derby.

Berliner FC Dynamo
BFC Dynamo - 2009.svg
Full nameBerliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V.
Nickname(s)Die Weinroten (The Clarets)
Short nameBFC
Founded15 January 1966; 56 years ago (1966-01-15)
GroundStadion im Sportforum
Capacity12,400
Coordinates52°32′27″N 13°28′34″E / 52.54083°N 13.47611°E / 52.54083; 13.47611Coordinates: 52°32′27″N 13°28′34″E / 52.54083°N 13.47611°E / 52.54083; 13.47611
PresidentNorbert Uhlig
ChairmanPeter Meyer
Head coachHeiner Backhaus
LeagueRegionalliga Nordost (IV)
2021–221st
WebsiteClub website

HistoryEdit

Colours and crestEdit

The traditional colours of BFC Dynamo are claret and white.[1] The colours were inherited from SC Dynamo Berlin and followed the claret colour scheme of SV Dynamo. BFC Dynamo has been playing in claret and white since its founding, with the exception of a period in the 1990s. The home kit has traditionally been a claret shirt, paired with claret or white shorts and socks. The team is occasionally nicknamed "die Weinroten", which means "the Clarets".[2][3]

The club was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990 and subsequently adopted a new red and white colour scheme in the 1990–91 season.[4] The club played in red and white home kits for most of the FC Berlin era, but wore a black and red striped home shirt, paired with black shorts and black socks from the 1996–97 season through the 1998–99 season. The club reverted to its original name on 3 May 1999 and consequently also later returned to its traditional colour scheme.[5]

 
The former crest of BFC Dynamo that was used from 1966–1990 and 1999–2009.

The crest of BFC Dynamo during the East German era featured a stylized "D" for SV Dynamo and the lettering "BFC" in red and yellow on a white background, surrounded by a yellow wreath.[6][7] BFC Dynamo abandoned its East German crest when it was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990.[8][9][6] The club used two different crests during the FC Berlin era. The first crest featured a stylized image of the roof of the Brandenburg Gate with the lettering "FCB" underneath and the club name "Fussballclub Berlin" in capital letters in white on a red background. It was only used during the spring of 1990.[10] The second crest featured a stylized image of a football with the Brandenburg Gate on top and the lettering "FCB" and the club name "FC Berlin" in red on a white background.[10][11]

BFC Dynamo reclaimed its East German crest when the club reverted to its original name on 3 May 1999.[9] But the club was no longer in possession of the crest.[9] The club had neglected to seek legal protection for its East German crest after German reunification. The neglect was likely due to managerial inexperience. Protection of trademarks was neither necessary nor common in East Germany.[6] The crest was now owned by Peter Klaus-Dieter Mager, commonly known as "Pepe". Pepe Mager was a famous fan of Hertha and a fan merchandise dealer.[12] The club tried to recover the crest from Mager though court action, without success.[9][6] The ownership of the crest was instead passed on to Rayk Bernt and his company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH.[13][14][15]

BFC Dynamo continued to use the disputed crest on its kits and webpage. But the club would have to ask the owner of the crest every time it wanted to have a pennant made and was unable to exploit the commercial value of the crest for its own benefit.[13][16] The legal situation around the crest would also have caused problems in the event of an advance to the Regionalliga, as the German football Association (DFB) required clubs to own their crests.[17] In order establish independence, the club finally decided to adopt a new crest in 2009.[18]

The new crest abandoned the traditional stylized "D" and the lettering "BFC", as they would have met legal challenges.[15] The new crest featured a black Berlin bear on claret and white stripes, together with the club name and the founding year.[15] The first version of the new crest sparked controversy. The word "fußball" in the club name had been written in lower case with a double "s" instead of the graphene "ß".[15] This was contrary to German spelling rules, where it is only permissible to write "fußball" with a double "s" when the word is written in upper case. Club President Norbert Uhlig ensured that there was absolutely no ulterior motive behind the spelling and claimed that the word had always been spelled like that on club pennants and scarfes.[15] The chairman of the Economic Council Peter Meyer later claimed that the spelling was a deliberate marketing ploy, in order to have new crest immediately known across Germany.[15] A second version of the crest was soon made public, where the club name was written in upper case. The new crest has been used by BFC Dynamo since the 2009–10 season.[16]

Ownership of the former crestEdit

Many clubs in East Germany rushed to drop their East German names during the Peaceful revolution. BFC Dynamo was among the clubs to do so, in an attempt to distance the club from the Stasi.[9][19] The club was rebranded as FC Berlin on 19 February 1990 and consequently abandoned its East German crest.

Pepe Mager was a famous fan of Hertha BSC and fan merchandise dealer.[12] Mager had organized away trips for the fans Hertha in the early 1960s and was one of the founders of the notorious supporter group "Hertha-Frösche". He now sold his own fan merchandise from a mobile stand outside the Olympiastadion.[12][20][21] Mager inquired with the register of associations in Charlottenburg in 1991 about all deleted names of East German clubs.[12] He immediately found BFC Dynamo and saw business opportunities.[12][9] Mager claimed that he first secured the former crest of BFC Dynamo for 80 D-Marks in 1992.[5][15]

The name FC Berlin never became popular with the fans.[19] Fans continued to identify themselves with the former name and crest.[9] An overwhelming majority voted for the club to revert to its original name at the general meeting on 3 May 1999.[5] Of the 135 present, 125 voted in favor, three against and seven abstained.[22] BFC Dynamo thus reclaimed its East German crest, but the rights to the crest now belonged to Mager.[9] Mager had registered the crest in his name at the German Patent and Trademark Office on 13 May 1997.[9][23][6]

BFC Dynamo contacted Mager for a co-operation, but an agreement could not be reached.[12][23] Mager held the opinion that the club should buy its merchandise from him, or simply buy the rights to the crest.[9] He later informed the club that he had received interest from foreign buyers and offered the club to buy the rights.[23] He claimed that the crest was worth 200,000 D-Marks.[9] BFC Dynamo on the other hand claimed that the crest should legally belong to the club. The club sued Mager in court on 20 November 2000, but eventually lost the case.[9][6] The club decided to suspend the legal dispute with Mager in the summer of 2001 and instead wanted to find a solution outside court.[24] Mager was repeatedly exposed to minor threats from the environment around BFC Dynamo and eventually sold the crest to Rayk Bernt and his company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH for a price of 50,000 D-Marks in June 2002.[13][14][17][25]

Bernt was a close associate of André Sommer.[26] Bernt and Sommer had assisted the club at the opening of the insolvency proceedings in 2001–2002.[26][27][13] Both were long time fans of BFC Dynamo.[28][13][14] But the duo was controversial for their connections to Hells Angels.[28][26] Bernt and Sommer were almost as restrictive towards the club when it came to the crest as Mager had been. Bernt organized the production of fan merchandise in his own regime.[14] The club would have to ask his company every time it wanted to have a pennant made.[13] Bernt and Sommer usually agreed, manufactured the pennant and then sold it at their own fan merchandise stand at the stadium.[13] BFC Dynamo continued to use the crest and would at times be given ten percent of the revenues from their sales.[27][13][14][15] The club eventually offered 5,000 Euros for the crest, but was turned down.[27] Bernt demanded a seven-digit sum, according to former Club President Mario Weinkauf.[27] The lawyer representing RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH allegedly claimed the crest was worth around 600,000 Euros at the time.[29]

President Weinkauf planned to recover the rights to the former crest with the help of Thomas Thiel and the company Treasure AG before the general meeting on 23 June 2007. Thiel was a co-owner of Treasure AG, which was intended as a new major sponsor.[13] Bernt sold parts of the rights to the former crest to Thiel.[30] The price was allegedly a six-digit sum.[13][15] According to the plan, the club would be given the rights of use to the crest. The profits would thus go to the club. The club would pay a symbolic sum of 1 Euro per month for the rights of use. BFC Dynamo would then have a right of first refusal after the ten-year contract had expired and thus have the opportunity to eventually acquire ownership of the crest.[13][31] However, Weinkauf was ultimately rejected by club members in a vote of no-confidence at the general meeting on 23 June 2007.[32] Weinkauf would then be contacted by the former president of Tennis Borussia Berlin Peter Antony. Treasure AG became a sponsor of Tennis Borussia Berlin instead and Weinkauf would later become president of the club.[33]

Thiel sold his rights to the crest back to Bernt and his company BFC Dynamo Vermarktungsgesellschaft m.b.H in 2009.[34] The rights to the old crest are now fully held by the company RA-BE Immobilien- und Handelsgesellschaft mbH as of 2021.[35][36] The company is controlled by Bernt, who sells occasional items with the former crest at his own webpage.[8] BFC Dynamo sells its official fan merchandise with the new crest at its official fan shop.

Championship starEdit

The German Football League (DFL) introduced a system of championship stars in the 2004–05 season. The system was meant to honor the most successful teams in the Bundesliga by allowing teams to display stars on their shirts for the championships they have won. The system awarded one star for three titles, two stars for five titles, and three stars for ten titles.[37] However, the system only counted titles won in the Bundesliga since the 1963–64 season.[38][39][40]

BFC Dynamo submitted an application to the DFL and the DFB on 9 August 2004 to receive three stars for it ten titles in the DDR-Oberliga. The club asked for equal rights and argued that the DFB had absorbed the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) with all its statistics, international matches and goal scores.[37][41][42][38] BFC Dynamo received support from Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Magdeburg in its attempts to achieve recognition for East German titles.[41][38]

The DFL responded that it was not the responsible body, but the DFB remained silent for a long time.[39] The DFB eventually declared itself responsible and recommended BFC Dynamo to submit a formal application for a new title symbol in accordance with a relevant paragraph.[38][39] BFC Dynamo sent a new letter to the DFB in January 2005. The DFB announced that the application of BFC Dynamo was going to be negotiated in a meeting with the DFB presidium.[39] The meeting with the DFB presidium on 18 March 2005 agreed that all titles won in East Germany, as well all others titles won in Germany since the first recognized championship in 1903, should qualify for stars.[43] However, the decision was subject to approval by the DFL.[44] No final decision had yet been made by the DFB presidium.[45][46][47][48]

 
BFC Dynamo is allowed to wear one star inscribed with the number ten for its ten East German championships.

However, BFC Dynamo took matters in its own hands and unilaterally emblazoned its shirts with three stars.[46] The team displayed the three stars for first time in the match against FC Energie Cottbus II on 25 March 2005.[46] The claim by BFC Dynamo was controversial because the club had been the favorite club of Erich Mielke and had a connection to the Stasi during the East German era.[46][47][49][50][40] Critics in the DFB environment pointed to politically influenced championships in East Germany. BFC Dynamo had been sponsored by the Stasi and was given advantages.[39] The club had privileged access to talents and a permanent training camp at Uckley in Königs Wusterhausen. However, also other clubs in East Germany had enjoyed similar advantages, which put the DFB in a difficult situation.[39] Also former East German referee and CDU parliamentarian Bernd Heynemann spoke out for recognition of all East German titles.[40]

The DFL rejected the application from the DFB and recommended the DFB to only honor clubs that were champions in the Bundesliga.[51] However, the DFB chose to not follow the recommendation. The DFB presidium instead decided on a compromise solution on 19 July 2005 and adopted a new regulation for the 2005–06 season which gave all clubs the right to wear one single star for the championships they have won in the former East Germany and in Germany since 1903. Clubs were also allowed to indicate the number of championships they have won in the center of the star.[52][53][54] The regulation only applies to clubs playing in a league under the DFB umbrella. It does not apply to clubs playing in the 2. Bundesliga and Bundesliga, which are organized by the DFL.[53]

The new regulation meant that BFC Dynamo was finally allowed to emblazon its shirts with a championship star. The regulation also affected other former East German teams including Dynamo Dresden with its eight titles, 1. FC Frankfurt with its six titles and Magdeburg with its three titles in the Oberliga.[39][54] BFC Dynamo has since then used the championship star in accordance with DFB graphic standards, displaying a star inscribed with the number ten for its ten East German titles.[55]

StadiumsEdit

The long-time home and training area of BFC Dynamo is the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in Alt-Hohenschönhausen in Berlin. The Sportforum is the location of the club offices and the base of the youth teams.[7] It is considered the spiritual home of the club.[7] The Sportforum was known as the Dynamo-Sportforum during the East German era.[56] The sports complex was built as a training center for elite sport and was home to sports club SC Dynamo Berlin with its many sports, disciplines and squads.[57][58] Development began in 1954 and expansion continued into the 1980s.[59] The Sportforum is still unique as of today.[60] The sports complex covers an area of 45 to 50 hectares and comprises 35 sports facilities as of 2020.[57][60][61][62]

 
A match between SC Dynamo Berlin and SC Turbine Erfurt at the Walter-Ulbricht-Stadion in 1959.

SC Dynamo Berlin played its first seasons at the Walter-Ulbricht-Stadion in Mitte.[63] The team moved its home matches to the football stadium in the Dynamo-Sportforum after the construction of the Berlin wall in the autumn of 1961.[63] The football stadium in the Dynamo-Sportforum was opened in 1959 and held a capacity of 10,000 spectators at the beginning of the beginning of the 1961–62 season.[64][56][nb 1] The team drew average attendances between 3,000 and 6,000 spectators at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum in the 1960s.[77] The capacity of the football stadium in the Dynamo-Sportforum was gradually expanded during the 1960s.[nb 2]

BFC Dynamo began to play some matches in the larger and more centrally located Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in Prenzlauer Berg during the 1971–72 season.[68] The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark had become vacant when FC Vorwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder on 31 July 1971.[80] The large stadium in the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark was also equipped with floodlights, unlike the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum. Nevertheless, BFC Dynamo played its home matches in the 1972-73 UEFA Cup at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum. The capacity of the stadium was 20,000 spectators from the 1972–73 season.[81][82] The attendance of 20,000 spectators during the match against Liverpool on 29 November 1972 is still a record attendance for the stadium.[68] BFC Dynamo eventually moved its home matches parmanentely to the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in the mid-1970s.[nb 3] The Sportforum would primarily serve as a training facility from then. The Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum would be used mostly by the reserve team BFC Dynamo II.

 
A match between BFC Dynamo and BSG Chemie Leipzig in the Dynamo-Sportforum in 1966.

A permanent training camp for BFC Dynamo was built in Uckley in the Zernsdorf district of Königs Wusterhausen in Bezirk Potsdam in the late 1960s.[84] It was located in the woods and completely sealed off from the surroundings.[84][85] The training camp covered an area of around 10 hectares.[85] The complex was equipped with a boarding school, several football pitches, a sports hall, a swimming pool, a fitness area and a sauna.[86][87][88][85][89] The team would gather in Uckley days before its European matches.[63] The players would have access to catering facilities, a nearby lake, a bowling alley, a cinema and pinball machines, among other things.[88][89]

 
The team of BFC Dynamo in front of the new main stand of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion in 1987.

The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion was built in 1951 and had a capacity of 30,000 spectators at the time.[68] The team celebrated nine of its ten DDR-Oberliga titles in the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadium and played most of its home matches in the European competitions at the stadium. BFC Dynamo hosted teams such as FC Dynamo Moscow, Red Star Belgrade, Nottingham Forest, Aston Villa, AS Roma and FC Aberdeen at the stadium in the 1970s and 1980s. The average home attendance of 16,538 spectators for BFC Dynamo at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion in the 1975-76 DDR-Oberliga was the highest average league attendance in club history.[63][90] However, all matches against local rival Union Berlin were played at the neutral Stadion der Weltjugend from the 1976–77 season, for security reasons.[91][92][93][94] BFC Dynamo also played its home matches in the 1986-87 DDR-Oberliga and the 1986-87 European Cup at the Sportforum, as the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion was under renovation during the 1986–87 season.[68] The current grandstand and the floodlights of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion dates from this time.[68]

FC Berlin returned to the Sportforum for the 1992–93 season.[68] However, the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion would occasionally still be used for larger matches. FC Berlin made plans to buy and redevelop the stadium in 1998 under Club President Volkmar Wanski, but the plans did not materialize for a lack of funds.[95] Supporters of BFC Dynamo equipped the stadium with buckets seats during the summer of 2002.[96] The Stadion im Sportforum now has a capacity of 10,000 standing places and 2,400 seated places, of which 400 are roofed.[67] The stadium was then equipped with a 25-meter player tunnel and plexiglass-clad coaching benches in November 2004.[97] BFC Dynamo made new plans for a modern football stadium in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in 2006 under Club President Mario Weinkauf. The club now wanted to build a new modern stadium for 10,000–15,000 spectators. However, these plans did not materialize either.[98] The Stadion im Sportforum was closed at the end of the 2005–06 season following the riots during the match between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin on 13 May 2006.[99] BFC Dynamo temporarily had to move to the Friedrich-Ludwg-Jahn-Sportpark.[100] The team was only allowed to return to the Stadion im Sportforum by the Northeastern German Football Association (NOFV) when the stadium could be considered safe again.[101] The stadium was then refurbished in 2006–2007 to increase safety and meet the requirements of the NOFV.[102] The refurbishment included a new fence.[103] Active supporters of BFC Dynamo have traditionally been found on the Nordwall stand and in the Block D of the back strait (German: Gegengerade) at the Stadion im Sportforum.[90]

 
A match between BFC Dynamo and SV Babelsberg 03 on 23 April 2017.

BFC Dynamo moved its home matches to the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark following its advance to the Regionalliga Nordost in 2014.[68][104] The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion had a capacity of 19,708 spectators as of 2020.[105] Active supporters of BFC Dynamo are found on the grandstand and on the back strait, which is the side opposite the grandstand.[90] BFC Dynamo had to play matches at the Stadion im Sportforum at the end of the 2018–19 season due to safety issues relating to the dilapidated floodlights at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion.[106] The move was greeted by some supporters as a move to the true home of the club.[107] The club was then set to return to the Sportforum in the 2020–21 season the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion was planned to be demolished for a complete redevelopment.[7] The team was allowed to continue play in the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion until 31 December 2020.[108]

The German Football Association (DFB) has earlier classified the football stadium in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen as suitable for third division play, if only a few remaining requirements are met.[68][109] But the Sportforum suffers from a large investment backlog.[110] BFC Dynamo is cooperating with those responsible for the Sportforum and the Berlin Football Association (BFV) to find common solutions for the most urgently needed construction work.[110] The Senate of Berlin is planning to invest €3 million in the Sportforum as of 2020.[109] The money is part of the budget for the demolition of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion.[109]

BFC Dynamo officially announced on 21 March 2021 that it has now returned to the Sportforum, as the operating permit for the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion expired on 31 December 2020.[111] The Sportforum was equipped with a floodlight system in April 2021.[112][113] The club organized a work effort in the summer of 2021 to get the stadium in shape for the upcoming Regionalliga season. [114] Supporters gathered and cleared sections of the old stadium from weeds.[115] Members of the interest group IG BFC'er also restored the iconic manual scoreboard in time for the first home match of the 2021–22 season against Energie Cottbus on 28 July 2021.[116]

Future stadiumEdit

The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion is planned to be demolished during the 2020–21 season for a complete redevelopment.[117] BFC Dynamo is planned to become one of the main tentants of the new stadium. The new Fredrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark is going to be multi-sports facility with 20,000 seats. The stadium will be designed as an inclusive sports facility and offer second division fit.[118][119] The new Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Stadion is planned to be opened in 2025.[120]

SupportersEdit

East German eraEdit

BFC Dynamo played only a minor role in football in Berlin until the relocation of FC Vorwärts Berlin to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1971.[90] The club initially had modest support, but with its growing successes in the 1970s, the club began to attract young fans, primarily from the central areas around the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, such as Prenzlauer Berg and Mitte.[121] Many came from working class families in Prenzlauer Berg.[122] One of the first big supporter groups of BFC Dynamo was Black Eagle. The fan club was founded in 1972 and was one of the earliest fan clubs in East German football. Fans of BFC Dynamo were the first to sew their embroidered fan club badges on their jackets. This was a novelty among football supporters in East Germany in the 1970s.[123]

The supporter scene became a focal point for various subcultures in the late 1970s and beginning of the 1980s.[124][125][126] There were punks, rockers, hippies and a few early skinheads.[124][90][127][128][129] Some were left-leaning and others were right-leaning.[124][128] Football and stadium life offered free spaces that were difficult for the authorities to control.[129] For some fans, being part of the supporter scene was an opportunity to rebel against the East German regime.[124] Most supporters of BFC Dynamo had little to do with the state. It was more important for them to protest, do their own thing and break out from everyday life.[90] Despite cheering for a club associated the Stasi, supporters of BFC Dynamo were not true to the line.[124] Many active fans in the 1980s were against the regime.[130][128]

"We provoked with chants and slogans. We were right, left, punk, hippie, skinhead. We were direct and provocative, kind and evil, in love, or drunk. Cool words were always well received. Right or left, I don't want to classify one. We were all in our fan group against the GDR, rebellion!"

– A fan of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s[131]

Young people were gradually attracted by the provocative image of the club: its reputation as a Stasi club, its successes and the hatred of opposing fans.[125][126] Some fans of BFC Dynamo found delight in the unpopularity of their club and took pride in the hatred they met.[128][132][133] One fan recalled that the 1980s "were my greatest years, as we always had glorious success in provoking other fans" and another one that "we were really hated by everyone".[132] Fans of BFC Dynamo would sometimes respond to the hatred they met by singing chants in praise of Erich Mielke as a provocation.[134] They would also throw tropical fruits, that were only available in East Berlin, at home fans during away matches in Saxony.[135][127]

BFC Dynamo came to be associated with areas such as Prenzlauer Berg, Pankow, Weißensee, Hohenschönhausen and certain cafés and restaurants in vicinity of Alexanderplatz.[136][137] The supporter scene included groups such as Black Eagle, Norbert Trieloff, Bobbys, Iron Fist, Beatles BFC Club, Die Ratten, Berliner Wölfe, Heavy Horses, Black Pahnter and Madness boys of Preussen in the 1980s.[138] Fashion played a big role in the BFC Dynamo supporter scene.[133][128] Football supporters in East Berlin shared a sense of superiority over their counterparts in the regional districts.[137][124] This was also the case with the supporters of Union Berlin, but notably with the supporters of BFC Dynamo.[137][139][130][140] A saying among the supporters of BFC Dynamo was "We are few, but awesome!".[133]

Football-related violence spread in East Germany in the 1970s.[129][141] The supporter scene of BFC Dynamo was still young at the time, while clubs such Union Berlin and BSG Chemie Leipzig had large followings.[133] A trip to Leipzig or Dresden was a difficult task.[90] Supporters of BFC Dynamo responded to the hostile environment, and learned to compensate their smaller numbers, by being more aggressive and better organized.[142][121][133][143] The dislike against BFC Dynamo in stadiums around the country and the hatred of opposing fans welded its supporters together.[144] One fan of BFC Dynamo recalled: "It was really rumbling at away trips, and only then you felt your own strength. When we went with 200 people against 1,000 Unioners and you noticed: If you stick together, you have an incredible amount of violence."[145] Supporters of BFC Dynamo would eventually gain a reputation for being particularly violent and organized.[121] One fan of Union Berlin recalled: "There was hardly an enemy mob against us, we were just too many. But the people who stood in the way of the violence-seeking BFC:ers were very few. The BFC:ers were completely organized. These hundred and fifty people, everyone knew each other. They stood as a block like a wall."[146] The book "Riot Boys!" by Jochen Schramm depicts the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo and contains stories of violent away trips in the early 1980s. Jochen "Ellis" Schramm was a member of the hooligan scene of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s.[147]

The development in the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo would eventually catch the attention of the authorities. The Stasi conducted a study on the violent structures of the supporter scene at the beginning of the 1980s. It found that 80 percent of those committing violent acts were 16–25 years old. Most of them were workers or students.[137] It also found that 20 percent came from families of the socialist intelligentia.[130][137] The Stasi assigned a group of two full-time officers from the district administration to the supporter scene during 1982–83 season.[148] From then, supporters were accompanied, observed and documented.[149] This was a measure that had previously also been applied to the supporter scene of Union Berlin.[135] The authorities had allegedly been particularly alarmed when supporters of BFC Dynamo unfurled a poster in memory of Lutz Eigendorf with the text "Iron Foot, we mourn you!" during a match at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in April 1983.[150][149][121] Supporters had also started a fan club in honour of Eigendorf.[127] The Stasi would try to control the supporter scene with a broad catalogue of measures: persistent talks, intimidation attempts, reporting requirements and arrests.[90][124] It would also attempt to infiltrate the fan clubs by unofficial collaborators (IM).[148] All football fan clubs in East Germany had to undergo registration.[129] According to Stasi information, BFC Dynamo had six registered fan clubs and 22 unauthorized fan clubs in 1986. Unauthorized fan clubs were those that were unregistered or did not meet DFV guidelines.[151]

The supporter scene of BFC Dynamo came to be increasingly associated with skinheads and far-right tendencies from the mid-1980s.[121] More and more supporters of BFC Dynamo began to embrace skinhead fashion in the early 1980s.[124][90] Skinhead fashion was now considered the most provocative outfit.[124] The club had become one of the most popular football clubs in the growing skinhead movement by the mid-1980s.[133][nb 4] The reputation of BFC Dynamo as the hated Stasi club also attracted skinheads, who used the club as a stage for their provocations.[125] Right-wing slogans and fascist chants were considered as the most challenging provocations, as anti-fascism was state doctrine and Nazism officially did not exist in East Germany.[159][129][121][124][160][7] For young people, being a Nazi was sometimes considered the sharpest form of opposition.[161] However, instances of Nazi provocations did not necessarily reflect genuine political convictions. At least some part of the "drift to the right" among East German youth during the 1980s was rooted in a desire to position oneself wherever the state was not.[162] One fan of BFC Dynamo said: "None of us really knew anything about politics. But to raise your arm in front of the Volkspolizei was a real kick. You did that and for some of them, their whole world just fell apart".[163][90][121][nb 5]

The first East German hooligan group developed from the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s. The development was partly a response to the increasing state repression against the supporter scene, notably from the Stasi.[170] An organized hooligan scene with groups, structures and training rooms that was unique in East Germany would eventually emerge at BFC Dynamo.[143] The final of the 1987-88 FDGB-Pokal between BFC Dynamo and Carl Zeiss Jena on 4 June 1988 saw some of the most serious violence ever witnessed at an East German football match.[157] A group of 100 to 150 skinheads and other hooligans marched through Pankow to the Stadion der Weltjugend for the match. They chanted fascist slogans and clashed with other supporters.[171][154] Riots then broke out in one of the blocks shortly before the end of the match. Supporters destroyed fences and threw seats at match stewards.[172] A group of 300 supporters of BFC Dynamo had attempted to invade the pitch during the victory ceremony. They caused extensive damage to 60 seats.[162] Abour a year later, supporters of BFC Dynamo would also destroy large parts of a block of the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark during the match against AS Monaco in the 1989–90 European Cup Winners' Cup on 1 November 1989.[173][174][nb 6]

German reunificationEdit

 
Supporters of FC Berlin during an away match against FC Carl Zeiss Jena on 8 April 1990.

A wave of violence swept through the football stadiums of East Germany in 1990.[135] The collapse of the East German regime resulted in a security vacuum.[177][178][179] The Volkspolizei was overwhelmed by the amount of disorder and often reluctant to use enough force, due to the political situation.[180][135][181][182] Masked supporters of FC Berlin rioted in central Jena before the away match against FC Carl Zeiss Jena in the 1989-90 DDR-Oberliga on 8 April 1990. They broke shop windows, smashed windscreens of police vehicles with stones and left a trail of destruction in the city center. Supporters of FC Berlin also fired flares at police officers during the match.[183] The disorder at the stadium would not cease and the match was eventually interrupted.[133] The riots in Jena caught rare attention by East German state media, which until then had been generally silent about football related disorder.[133][124]

Hooligans who had left East Germany for various reasons in recent years rejoined the hooligan scene after the opening of the Berlin Wall.[184][185] Some were former skinheads who had been deported by the Stasi to West Germany in the late 1980s. Now they chanted things such as "Who should be our Führer? Erich Mielke!" as a provocative fun, to the dismay of the club.[184][181] Supporters who returned from West Germany also brought back a new fashion based on designer clothing labels and expensive sportswear, which was adopted by the supporter scene.[184][144] While combat boots and bomber jackets were now common at many places in East Germany, some supporters of BFC Dynamo wanted to differentiate themselves. Expensive sneakers was now the new fashion in the supporter scene.[90][185][186] Brands such as Diesel, Iceberg, Chevignon, Adidas, Best Company, New Balance and Ray Ban became popular.[144][184][186][137]

Hooligans of FC Berlin stormed the home end of the Stadion an der Alten Försterei armed with clubs and flares and hunted down supporters of Union Berlin during the match between Union Berlin and FC Berlin in the second round of the 1990-91 FDGB-Pokal on 23 September 1990.[187][188] Serious riots broke out in the city after the match, involving hundreds of supporters. Street battles broke out in areas of East Berlin, even spreading to Kreuzberg in West Berlin.[189] One supporter of FC Berlin said: "In 1990, thanks to the many departures to the West, it became clear relatively quickly that there was no flowerpot to be won with the current team. We then turned our attention to other things."[190] Hooligans in East Germany unleashed almost unbridled violence against the representatives of the disintegrating East German state.[179] Violent riots had occurred in Rostock, Dresden, Erfurt and East Berlin.[179] Police had been forced to shoot warning shots during violent riots in Leipzig and one match in the 1990-91 NOFV-Oberliga had already been abandonned due to riots in the stadium.[180][191][192][193][nb 7]

The situation peaked during a match between FC Sachsen Leipzig and FC Berlin on 3 November 1990. Supporters of FC Berlin travelled in large numbers to Leipzig for the match.[179] The police had only 219 officers available for the match.[182] There were clashes at the Leipzig main railway station, with one police officer injured and 50 supporters taken into custody.[182][194] A first group of around 100 supporters of FC Berlin entered the Georg-Schwarz-Sportpark in time for kick-off.[179] They had been joined by hooligans of 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, who had forced their way into the stadium.[195][196][197][152] Supporters of both camps tried to attack each other in the stadium and the police had difficulties in maintaining a buffer zone.[182] A second group of around 400 supporters of FC Berlin arrived later at the nearby Leipzig-Leutzsch S-Bahn station at Am Ritterschlößchen street.[179][182] Fireworks were fired as they made their way to the stadium.[198] The group was blocked from entering the stadium by police equipped with helmets and shields, despite showing valid tickets.[199][200][184] The supporters were not given any reason.[198] They were then pushed back by the police using tear gas and truncheons.[179][182][199] The group returned to the S-Bahn station and made an attempt to reach the stadium from the Pettenkofer Straße instead.[179] They were again blocked by police who immediately used truncheons.[179][198]

Riots broke out at the S-Bahn station.[179] The station building was vandalized and numerous cars were smashed or burned, including at least one W 50 police truck and one police car.[179][182][198][194] The police was allegedly outnumbered.[201] However, the high number of supporters of FC Berlin at the scene claimed by the police has been disputed.[198][nb 8] Cobblestones were thrown at the police waiting at the Pettenkofer Straße.[179] The police now decided to use their firearms.[179] 18-year old supporter Mike Polley (de) from the locality of Malchow in Berlin was hit by several bullets and instantly killed.[184][185] He was allegedly about to bend down to a friend when hit.[204] Several others were injured and at least another three people were seriously injured.[178][182][199] One supporter of FC Berlin was hit in the head and suffered critical injuries, but survived.[184] The police had fired between 50 and 100 shots in about a minute, from 11 different police pistols.[182][199] Reports and sources vary on what happened on the scene and how the situation was.[182] The police claim that they were surrounded.[201] But this was rebuffed by an eyewitness.[198] Shots had been fired from distances as long as 30–40 meters.[182][198] The police had also fired at fleeing supporters.[198] One supporter was hit while trying to escape into an S-Bahn train.[198] Not every injured had come with the supporters of FC Berlin. Also an uninvolved woman was shot in the leg.[182]

After the shootings, some supporters of FC Berlin left the S-Bahn station by train.[201] Many were shaken, but other wanted to take revenge.[198] A group of supporters stopped a tram, kicked the driver out and maneuvered it down town.[184][179] Riots now continued in central Leipzig, where policed presence was low.[198] The riots in central Leipzig continued for several hours and the damage was extensive.[184][179][152] Supporters of FC Berlin devastated entire streets.[201] All shop windows on the Nikolaistraße opposite the main railway station were broken.[194] There was rampage at the Park Hotel.[196][202] The ground floor of a department store on Brühl was destroyed.[202] Numerous cars were demolished and up to 31 shops were smashed and looted.[202][201][182] Supporters clashed with transport police at the main railway station. New shots were fired by the police, but no one was injured.[201][184][182]

 
Supporters of FC Berlin commemorate Mike Polley at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, during a match against HFC Chemie on 10 November 1990.

Mike Polley was considered a beginner in the supporter scene.[201] A demonstration against police violence with 1,000 participants was arranged in Prenzlauer Berg by supporters of FC Berlin after the match against HFC Chemie on 10 November 1990.[133][182][152] The demonstration was supported by the recently founded Fanprojekt Berlin.[182] Also professional FC Berlin players such as Waldemar Ksienzyk participated in the march.[205] The demonstration received support from politicians such as Lena Schraut from the Alternative List and from left-wing activists, notably from the occupied houses near Senefelderplatz at the Schönhauser Allee.[152][184] The friendly match between East Germany and West Germany that was planned to be held on the Zentralstadion in Leipzig on 21 November 1990 was cancelled for security reasons and due to the tense situation among football supporters after the shootings.[182][152] An investigation against ten police officers was opened, but closed in April 1992.[182][152] The exact circumstances around the death of Mike Polley were never fully clarified.[200][206]

Stadium attendance collapsed in 1990. Many supporters stopped attending matches after the Peaceful revolution, as the best players were sold off to clubs in West Germany, sports performance slumped, tickets prices rose, mass unemployment spread and hooligans had come to dominate the stands.[135][178][7][207] Some shifted their focus to ice hockey instead.[208] The average league attendance of the 1990–91 NOFV-Oberliga was by far the lowest in the league history.[178] BFC Dynamo was hit particularly hard by the decline. Average attendance had dropped from 8,385 in the 1988–89 season to 1,076 in the 1990–91 season.[209][210][211] Ordinary supporters had disappeared. Only young supporters remained in the stadium at FC Berlin in 1990 and 1991.[135]

The violent faction of FC Berlin would come to shape the entire 1990–91 season.[184] Matches involving FC Berlin were all security matches.[182] A group of 500–600 supporters of FC Berlin travelled with a special train to Rostock for an away match against F.C. Hansa Rostock on 16 March 1991.[184][212] The police did not manage to control the situation despite a record strong presence of more than 600 officers.[212][213] Riots broke out in central Rostock, where supporters smashed shops, demolished cars and attacked people.[184][144][212] Supporters without tickets stormed the Ostseestadion and there were fights with supporters of F.C. Hansa Rostock around the stadium.[212] Riots at the train station after the match had to be suppressed by the police with tear gas and water cannons.[212][184] The damage was again extensive. Up to 17 shops at the Wismarischen Straße were smashed and looted, the train station was devastated and the special train was vandalized.[213] Two police officers were injured in the turmoil.[212]

HooliganismEdit

The hooligan scene of FC Berlin at the beginning of the 1990s was considered the most notorious for years in Germany. Hooligans of FC Berlin were subsequently involved in many fights in stadiums, woods and meadows.[135] The youth television programme Elf99 on Deutscher Fernsehfunk (DFF) ran a special story on the hooligans of FC Berlin in August 1991. The story was called "Elf-Spezial: Das randalierende Rätsel – Der Berliner Hooligans zwischen Wahn und Scham?" and can be found on YouTube as of 2020.[214] Hooligans of FC Berlin attacked an asylum shelter in Greifswald in connection to an away match against Greifswalder SC 1926 in the 1991-92 NOFV-Oberliga Nord on 3 November 1991.[164][215] SV Hafen Rostock 61 subsequently postponed its upcoming league match at home against FC Berlin for security reasons.[216][215]

Playing for meager crowds in regional leagues, the club eventually became a meeting place for individuals from the Berlin far-right, hooligan and criminal underground.[7][217] The hooligan scene of FC Berlin developed a connection to the eastern Berlin bouncer scene in the mid-1990s.[218] The eastern Berlin bouncer scene would eventually be almost completely organized from the hooligan scene of BFC Dynamo.[175][219] One of those involved in the assault on French policeman Daniel Nivel during the 1998 FIFA World Cup had connections to the hooligan scene of FC Berlin.[7] The same man was later linked to organized crime and eventfully involved in a high-profile drug trafficking case.[220][221][7]

The match between BFC Dynamo and Berlin Türkspor 1965 in the final of the 1998–99 Berlin Cup on 11 May 1999 was marked by violence. Supporters of BFC Dynamo directed far-right chants and others provocations against Berlin Türkspor 1965 during the match.[222] 400 supporters of BFC Dynamo invaded the pitch after the final whistle to celebrate the title. Some supporters also attacked players of Berlin Türkspor 1965. Two players of Berlin Türkspor 1965 were injured, one of them had suffered a stab wound.[223] BFC Dynamo Club President Volkmar Wanski was able to prevent a total escalation by giving a calming speech over the stadium microphone.[224] He immediately apologized for the behavior of the supporters at the press conference after the match.[223] Older supporters of BFC Dynamo openly expressed their contempt for the far-right supporters that had visited the match.[225] BFC Dynamo and Berlin Türkspor 1965 agreed to meet in a friendly match later in the season and to organize a joint meal for players and responsible.[226] Wanski made it clear in the speakers ahead of the last home match against FC Rot-Weiß Erfurt in the 1998-99 Regionalliga Nordost on 15 May 1999 that "anyone who cannot behave has no business in our stadium".[227]

Serious riots broke out in Prenzlauer Berg after the match between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin in the quarter finals of the 2000–01 Berlin Cup at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 25 March 2001. Around 150 supporters of BFC Dynamo attacked the police after the match. The police employed water cannons against supporters at Eberswalder Straße and Schönhauser Allee. Nine people, including four police officers, were injured.[228] BFC Dynamo Club President Karin Halsch (de) and 1. FC Union Berlin Club President Heiner Bertram criticized the police in unison for provocations during the match and for triggering riots.[229] Karin Halsch simultaneously expressed sadness that the riots destroyed a lot of reconstruction work in the club and announced that there would be many stadium bans.[229][230] Also coach Jürgen Bogs spoke out about "senseless violence" that would once again fall back on the club, but also criticized the police for provocations.[229] Many of those involved in the riots did not come from the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo. Many were visitors from other cities in Germany.[218]

BFC Dynamo had the highest number of violent supporters in Germany in 2005.[231] Violence broke out during the match between Tennis Borussia Berlin and BFC Dynamo in the 2004-05 NOFV-Oberliga Nord at the Mommsenstadion on 11 February 2005. A flare was lit and a couple of bangers set off in the guest block at the beginning of the second half. Police then decided to intervene against away supporters. Police officers were pelted with beer cups and attacked by supporters of BFC Dynamo when they entered gest block. Eight police officers were injured and 11 supporters of BFC Dynamo arrested. BFC Dynamo criticized the police operation as "disproportionate".[232][233] Supporters of BFC Dynamo claimed that they had been called "Nazis", "Ossis" and "Unioners" by police officers. Riots had broken out also when Tennis Borussia Berlin played 1. FC Union Berlin in round of 16 of the 2004-05 Berlin Cup at the Mommsenstadion a couple of weeks before.[233]

Fighting between supporters of BFC Dynamo and police again broke out in connection with the match between BFC Dynamo and SV Yeşilyurt at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 24 April 2005. The mood had been tense during the match. The situation escalated when celebrating supporters of BFC Dynamo attacked the fence after the final whistle. Police intervened with water hoses, batons and tear gas against supporters of BFC Dynamo. Four police officers were injured and five hooligans arrested. One police officer suffered a broken nose and another one a concussion.[234][235] Riots again broke out in connection to a match between BFC Dynamo and SV Yeşilyurt at the opening of the 2005-06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark 5 August 2005. The match was attended by 1,200 supporters of BFC Dynamo. Hooligans in the crowd threw bottles and stones at police officers during the match. Fights between hooligans and police then broke out after match. Around 150 hooligans had participated in the riots, according to police information.[236][237] BFC Dynamo spokesperson Yiannis Kaufmann claimed that those involved were a "mob of travelling fans who wants to cause trouble everywhere and now discredit the BFC".[236] As many as 13 police officers were injured in the riots.[238][239]

 
The Stadion im Sportforum on 14 May 2006.

Police made a controversial raid against the discotheque Jeton in Friedrichshain where supporters of BFC Dynamo and other people had gathered to celebrate in connection to a fan tournament in memory of Mike Polley on the night of 20 August 2005. The fan tournament had been visited by numerous teams, including teams from FC St. Pauli, 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig, Aberdeen F.C., VfL Bochum and Malmö FF.[240][241][242] The large-scale police operation involved 300 officers, including 100 members of the SEK.[243][244][245] 158 persons were arrested. Among the detainees were 19 Category C-supporters and 22 Category B-supporters.[238][244] Supporters filed numerous complaints against the police for use of excessive violence.[246] 39 people at the discotheque were injured.[239] Also bystanders were affected.[239] Police initially claimed they had been pelted with bottles and furnishings, but later corrected their statement and admitted that there had been no resistance.[243][239][238] The police had allegedly beaten defenseless people.[247] Police stated that the raid was a preventative measure on short notice to prevent hooligans from organizing for the upcoming match against Union Berlin on 21 August 2005.[239][244] There were speculations that police also took revenge for riots during the match between BFC Dynamo and SV Yeşilyurt at the opening of the season.[239][238] More than 1,000 police officers were deployed to the derby and the match was played without crowd trouble.[244][245] Banners in solidarity with the supporters of BFC Dynamo were displayed in 17 football stadiums across Germany during the following matchdays.[248]

The return match between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin in the 2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord was played at the Stadion im Sportforum on 13 May 2006. The standing was 1–1 when supporters of BFC Dynamo invaded the pitch in an attempt to storm the block of Union Berlin around the 75th minute.[249] Supporters of Union Berlin fled in panic.[250] The match was abandoned and Union Berlin was awarded a 2–0 win.[249][251] The players of BFC Dynamo wore the motto "No power of violence" on their shirts in the following match against BFC Preussen away on 17 May 2006.[252] The Stadion im Sportforum was temporarily closed for matches in the NOFV-Oberliga Nord after the riots.[99] The riots during the match against 1. FC Union Berlin threw the club into a financial crisis. Treasurer Sven Radicke concluded: "Four years of our work were ruined in five minutes".[176]

BFC Dynamo has often attracted hooligans from outside, and hooligans who are otherwise not involved in the supporter scene, to high-profile matches.[125][253][254] The club has repeatedly complained about so-called "riot tourists".[254][255] Riots broke out after the match against Berliner AK 07 in the final of the 2009–10 Berlin Cup at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 2 June 2010. Around 100–150 supporters of BFC Dynamo attempted to invade the pitch after the final whistle.[256][253] Match stewards and players of BFC Dynamo threw themselves in to restrain supporters and prevent further riots.[256][257][253][125] Goalkeeper Nico Thomaschewski later received an award from the Berlin Football Association (BFV) for his actions.[253] Polish fans of Pogoń Szczecin were allegedly linked to the riots.[253] Those who had invaded the pitch were whistled by other supporters of BFC Dynamo when they returned to the stands.[258]

Major riots then occurred after the match against 1. FC Kaiserslautern in the first round of the 2011-12 DFB-Pokal at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 3 July 2011.[259][260] Around 200–300 supporters of BFC Dynamo invaded the buffer zone and stormed the guest block after the match.[254][125] 18 police officers and many supporters from Kaiserslautern were injured in the attack.[125] The Chairman of the Economic Council Peter Meyer openly expressed his embarrassment and disappointment over the behavior of some supporters and publicly apologized.[254] There were allegations that hooligans outside the BFC Dynamo environment had been involved.[254] While the police stated that most of those arrested were from Berlin, the club claimed it had never seen most of the recent perpetrators before.[125]

The contemporary supporter sceneEdit

The contemporary supporter scene contains various subcultures and categories of supporters. It ranges from older supporters to younger ultras.[122] Older supporters constitute an essential part of the supporter scene.[126] Many are active in the supporter group 79er.[253] The group is credited for its commitment to the club, notably the youth teams. Its members have been supporters of BFC Dynamo since the late 1970s.[253][90]

The supporter scene played an important part in saving the club from bankruptcy in 2001.[7] Supporters organized a demonstration against the impending bankruptcy. The demonstration marched from the Sportforum to the Rotes Rathaus where it was met by the former club president and SPD politician Karin Halsch.[261][262] Supporters threw parties and organized collections, made donations and travelled to countries such as Austria and Switzerland to convince creditors to accept smaller pay-offs in order to save the cub.[7] Supporters also installed bucket seats at the Stadion im Sportforum and built a new clubhouse in the Sportforum during the insolvency.[96][263] The insolvency crisis remains a defining moment for older supporters.[7] The supporter scene has traditionally arranged an annual Mike-Polley-Gedenkturnier, which is a football fan tournament in memory of Mike Polley.[200][264] The first edition of the fan tournament was arranged in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen in 2003 and comprised 28 teams.[265] A march in memory of Mike Polley in Leipzig in 2018 was attended by 850 supporters of BFC Dynamo.[266]

New groups of younger ultra-oriented supporters have emerged since the 2000s.[253][90] Supporter group Fraktion H was founded in 2006 by younger supporters who wanted to create more atmosphere in the stadium.[253][90] A minor ultras scene then emerged with the founding of Ultras BFC in 2011. The ultras of BFC Dynamo have initiated campaigns such as "Brown is not Claret" and have also engaged in football tournaments for refugees.[217][90][267][268] The club has encouraged the new groups of younger supporters and club management has taken a stand against racism and right-wing extremism.[269][267][268] Fraktion H maintains a friendship with the supporters of Eintracht Trier, while members of Ultras BFC have contacts with the ultras of Swedish side GAIS.[270]

BFC Dynamo is affiliated with Fanprojekt Berlin, which is an independent organization that engages in socio-pedagogical fan work.[126][271] The organization supports young fans in various aspects of life and aims at promoting a positive supporter culture.[271] BFC Dynamo engages in active fan work and has taken measures to control violent elements, to exclude known violators and to distance itself from radical supporters.[126][254][267] Far-right symbols and slogans are not tolerated by the club.[126] The Chairman of the Economic Council Peter Meyer stated in 2007 that the club did not want people who cannot follow the rules and that "anyone who shouts Nazi slogans will be thrown out of the stadium".[272] A large number of stadium bans has been issued by the club since the mid-2000s.[273][254] A total of 40 stadium bans was issued only in 2006.[274][273] No riots has occurred since 2011.[126]

The contemporary supporter scene includes groups such as 79er, Mythos BFC, Fraktion H, Piefkes, Ultras BFC, East Company, Riot Sport, Black Boys Dynamo, Bärenbande, Gegengerade, Hipstercrew, Märkische Jungs and Sektion Süddeutschland.[253][275][90][276] Gegengerade is a left wing-oriented fan club.[276] BFC Dynamo had 100 Category C-supporters and 190 Category-B supporters in 2019.[277] Younger hooligans of BFC Dynamo have contacts with supporter group Kaliber 030 at Hertha.[7][278] 20–25 supporters of BFC Dynamo joined Hertha in the guest block of the Stadion an der Alten Försterei during the derby between Union Berlin and Hertha on 2 November 2019.[279] Older hooligans of BFC Dynamo, on the other hand, maintain friendly relationships with parts of the supporter scene of 1. FC Magdeburg.[7] Supporters of BFC Dynamo attempted to travel in numbers to the return leg against VfB Oldenburg in the promotion play-offs for the 3. Liga on 4 June 2022. Up to 2,500 supporters of BFC Dynamo wanted to join the team in Oldenburg.[280] Around 1,300 supporters of BFC Dynamo was eventually admitted to the Marschweg-Stadion, where they marked their presence with a banner, a scarf choreography and flares.[281][282][283]

One of the most well-known books in Germany about the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo is "Der BFC war schuld am Mauerbau" by German author Andreas Gläser (de). The book was first published in 2002 and describes the supporter scene from the late 1970s and forward. The club, its reputation and supporter scene, was also the theme of stage play "Dynamoland" by Gudrun Herrbold. The play was set up in 2007 and involved young football players from BFC Dynamo as well as Andreas Gläser.[160][125][284] The fanzine "Zugriff" is dedicated to BFC Dynamo. The fanzine is produced by Andreas Gläser and members of supporter group Gegengerade since 2008.[285] The tenth and latest issue was published in 2014. The tenth issue came with as music CD mixed by Andreas Gläser. The CD included numerous ska and punk tracks as well as a 25 seconds long recording of Erich Mielke ranting about skinheads and punks.[122]

Musicians from German rock band Klaus Renft Combo composed the anthem "Auf, Dynamo!" for BFC Dynamo in 1999.[286] German rap musician Joe Rilla has also dedicated a song to BFC Dynamo. The song is called "Heb die Faust Hoch (BFC Dynamo Straßenhymne)" and was released in 2008. Joe Rilla, whose real name is Hagen Stoll (de), has a background in the hooligan scene of BFC Dynamo.[287] The clothing store Hoolywood on Schönhauser Allee in Prenzlauer Berg is associated with the supporter scene of BFC Dynamo. The store was founded at the beginning of the 1990s.[126][284][288] The store has been an advertising partner of BFC Dynamo.[289]

RivalriesEdit

SG Dynamo DresdenEdit

The oldest rival of BFC Dynamo is SG Dynamo Dresden. The rivalry dates back to 1954 when the team of Dynamo Dresden and its place in the DDR-Oberliga was transferred to SC Dynamo Berlin during the course of the 1954-55 season. The relocation aroused a sense of victimhood among the fans of Dynamo Dresden which would later be compounded by the successes of BFC Dynamo.[134] Matters were exacerbated when additional players of Dynamo Dresden were delegated to Dynamo Berlin by the German Football Association of the GDR (DFV) following the relegation of Dynamo Dresden after the 1962–63 season.[290]

 
A duel between Harald Schütze (left) and Reinhard Häfner of Dynamo Dresden (right) during a match between BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden in the DDR-Oberliga in 1976.

The antagonism between the two clubs was underpinned by a historical German rivalry between Prussian Berlin and Saxony.[93][291] It was fueled by contemporary resentment in Dresden at the better provision of housing and consumer goods in the East German capital.[93] East Berliners were generally unpopular outside the city limits, especially in the southern regional districts of East Germany. They were considered arrogant and clearly preferred.[124]

Dynamo Dresden slowly recovered from the relocation. The club was declared a regional district center of excellence (German: Leistungszentrum) by the regional district board of the DTSB on 5 August 1968.[292][293] The club could now draw on the best players in Bezirk Dresden.[292] Dynamo Dresden eventually re-established itself in the DDR-Oberliga and became campions once again in the 1970-71 DDR-Oberliga. BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden then met in the final of the 1970-71 FDGB-Pokal. Klaus Sammer scored 1-0 for Dynamo Dresden, but Norbert Johannsen equalized on a penalty. Dynamo Dresden eventually won the match 2-1 after a second goal by Sammer in extra time.[294] Dynamo Dresden thus secured the first Double in the history of East German football.[295] However, BFC Dynamo did not go completely empty-handed from the final. The team qualified for its first UEFA competition as runners-up. Its participation in the 1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup would be a success.

Dynamo Dresden would come to dominate East German fotball in the 1970s. The team managed to capture a third consecutive league title in the 1977–78 DDR-Oberliga. What happened after is subject to various rumors. Formal title celebrations took place in June 1978 at the hotel and restaurant Bastein at Prager Straße in Dresden. Erich Mielke paid a visit as the president of SV Dynamo to congratulate the team to the title. Dynamo Dresden player Reinhard Häfner recalls how Mielke held a speech where he said that he would be happier if BFC Dynamo was champions. Mielke should have added that "since BFC Dynamo is also SV Dynamo, the title stays in the family, so to speak, and that is good too". According to other versions of the same event, he allegedly proclaimed that everything will be done so that in the coming year, the champion will come from Berlin, and that it was now the turn of the BFC Dynamo.[296][297][298][299][nb 9]

 
Thomas Doll and defending Matthias Döschner of Dynamo Dresden during a match between Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo in 1987.

BFC Dynamo stood out among other clubs within SV Dynamo. The club was located at the frontline of the Cold War. It was also a representative of the capital of East Germany. This meant that the club had to be well equipped.[304] BFC Dynamo would come to benefit from a nationwide scouting system, supported by numerous training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo across East Germany.[305][306] The team embarked on a period of unparalleled success in the 1978–79 season under young coach Jürgen Bogs. Dynamo Dresden had been the dominant team in East German football until then. BFC Dynamo would now be its main obstacle to success.

BFC Dynamo opened the 1978-79 DDR-Oberliga with ten consecutive wins. The team thus broke the previous record of Dynamo Dresden of seven consecutive wins from the 1972-73 DDR-Oberliga. Dynamo Dresden, on the other hand, had a moderately successful start to the season and stood in second place. The two teams met in the 11th matchday in front of 33,000 spectators at Dynamo-Stadion in Dresden on 2 December 1978.[307] The match ended in a draw 1-1 after an equalizer by Hans-Jürgen Riediger for BFC Dynamo. The match was marked by crowd trouble, with 38 fans to both teams arrested.[157] 17 of the 38 fans arrested were fans of BFC Dynamo.[308] Inexperienced linesman Günter Supp should allegedly have missed an offside position on Riediger in the situation leading up to the equalizer.[309][310] There were accusations in Dresden that the match had been manipulated by the referees in favor of BFC Dynamo.[157][311][312] This alleged manipulation was cited as yet another example of discrimination against the Saxon city in comparison with East Berlin.[157][311] BFC Dynamo continued to lead the league for the rest of the season. The team finally secured its first DDR-Oberliga title after defeating Dynamo Dresden 3–1 in the 24th match day in front of 22,000 spectators at Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 6 June 1979.

The 1979-80 DDR-Oberliga would be tight race between the two rivals. Dynamo Dresden led the league for most of the season. Dynamo Dresden was still in first place before the last matchday. However, BFC Dynamo was only one point behind. The two rivals met at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark in the last matchday of the league season on 10 May 1980. Dynamo Dresden only needed a draw to win the league title. There was huge excitement around the match and the stadium was sold out. East German fotboll weekly Die neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) reported on "international match atmosphere".[313] The standing was 0-0 for a long time. Dynamo Dresden player Peter Kotte fell in the BFC Dynamo penalty area with about 15 minutes left of regular time, but Dynamo Dresden was denied a penalty.[314] Norbert Trieloff instead scored a goal for BFC Dynamo just a moment later. BFC Dynamo eventually won the match 1-0 and captured its second consecutive league title in front of 30,000 spectators. Dynamo Dresden would not come this close to BFC Dynamo in the league until the end of the 1980s. It was rumoured that referee Hans Kulicke from Oderberg had favored BFC Dynamo. However, also BFC Dynamo had been denied a chance to decide the match. A goal by Hartmut Pelka had been disallowed by referee Kulicke due to a foul on Dynamo Dresden goalkeeper Bernd Jakubowski.[298]

Both clubs were affiliated to SV Dynamo and supported by the security organs. However, BFC Dynamo was more associated with the Stasi, while Dynamo Dresden was more associated with the Volkspolizei.[315] BFC Dynamo was known as the favourite club of the head of the Stasi Erich Mielke.[316] Dynamo Dresden, on the other hand, was patronaged by Volkspolizei Lieutenant general Willi Nyffenegger. Nyffenegger was the long-time head of the regional district authority of the Volkspolizei in Bezirk Dresden.[317] However, also Dynamo Dresden had its supporters in the Stasi. The Stasi had helped Dynamo Dresden to obtain secret information about the line-up of FC Bayern Munich before the match between Dynamo Dresden and FC Bayern Munich in the 1973–74 European Cup on 7 November 1973.[318] Dynamo Dresden would also be supported by Stasi Major general Horst Böhm in the 1980s.[319] Böhm was the head of the regional district administration of the Stasi in Bezirk Dresden.[320][317][134] He was a committed local patriot when it came to Dynamo Dresden and a sponsoring member of the club.[321][317][322] The rivalry between the two clubs also spread to the Stasi Guards Regiment "Felix E. Dzerzhinsky".[93][157] The behavior of members of the Dresden unit during a match between the two teams in 1985 was likened to that of "rioting fans" by another Stasi officer.[93]

 
BFC Dynamo midfielder Bernd Schulz celebrates a goal against Dynamo Dresden in the DFV-Supercup together with Thomas Doll (left) and Jörg Fügner (right).

Resentment in Dresden over the rise of BFC Dynamo was worsened when three top players of Dynamo Dresden, Gerd Weber, Peter Kotte and Matthias Müller, were arrested on suspicion of planning to defect to West Germany in 1981.[323][157] Weber had solicited plans to defect, but the other two had not.[324] Weber received a prison sentence and a lifetime ban from playing football at any level in East Germany, while Kotte and Müller received lifetime bans from playing in the top two tiers for alleged complicity.[323][157][325] Neither would return to the Oberliga. The punishment against the three players led to rumors and protests in Dresden.[323] They also fueled local patriotism and anti-Berlin sentiments in Dresden.[323]

Supporters of Dynamo Dresden saw the lifetime bans on Weber, Kotte and Müller as "an order from Erich Mielke" designed to weaken Dynamo Dresden.[323] Also, Kotte has claimed they were part of a delibate plan by Mielke to weaken Dynamo Dresden.[326] However, such claims are doubtful.[326] The three players had been reported by an unofficial collaborator (IM) and Mielke was convinced that all three were originally prepared to defect.[324][326] Kotte was not an isolated case. The great fear of footballers, fans and officials who had fled East Germany was omnipresent at the Stasi.[327] Kotte and Müller knew about the intentions of Weber.[323] Their failure to inform authorities was critical.[323] Former SED First Secretary in Bezik Dresden Hans Modrow concludes that the measures against the three were "generally cautious", given the completely different consequences for other East German citizens in similar contexts. After all, the three were also members of the armed organs (German: Bewaffnete Organe der DDR) with ranks.[328] Müller said in an interview with Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten in 2011 that he "knew one hundred percent" that the uncompromising actions against the three players were a deliberate attempt by the Stasi to weaken Dynamo Dresden in order to secure the supremacy of BFC Dynamo.[329]

BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden would be the two main contenders for titles in East German football during the 1980s. BFC Dynamo dominated the DDR-Oberliga and won numerous concesutive titles, while Dynamo Dresden had major success in the FDGB-Pokal. The two teams met in the 1981-82 FDGB-Pokal and 1983-84 FDGB-Pokal final. Dynamo Dresden won both finals and thus prevented BFC Dynamo from being able to capture the Double.[314] The teams then also met in the 1984-85 FDGB-Pokal final. The performance of the referees in the final was controversial. A review by the DFV found that 30 percent of the referee decisions during the match had been wrong, and that 80 percent of those had been of disadvantage to Dynamo Dresden.[330] Referee Manfred Roßner was banned one year from officiating matches above second tier after the final.[331][332][330] However, nothing emerged that indicated that Roßner had been bought by the Stasi.[333] Dynamo Dresden won the final 3–2 in front of 48,000 spectators at the Stadion der Weltjugend. It was the fourth loss for BFC Dynamo to Dynamo Dresden in the final of the FDGB-Pokal and the third time that Dynamo Dresden had prevented the team from winning the Double.[314] BFC Dynamo ultimately managed to capture the Double in the 1987–88 season, defeating FC Carl Zeiss Jena 2–0 in 1987-88 FDGB-Pokal final.

Disturbances by spectators was a regular occurrence at matches between the two teams.[134] BFC Dynamo was met by immense hostility during away matches in Dresden. Fans of BFC Dynamo would occasionally respond to the hatred they met by singing chants in praise of Erich Mielke.[134][135] They would also throw tropical fruits, that were only available in East Berlin, at home fans as a provocation.[135][127][124][nb 10] A number of fans of Dynamo Dresden were arrested after the match between the two teams in the 1987-88 DDR-Oberliga in East Berlin on 6 April 1988 for using anti-Semitic slogans, such as "Berlin Jews!" and "Jews' sow!"[335][168]

BFC Dynamo's ten-year dominance in the league was eventually broken by Dynamo Dresden in the 1988–89 season. BFC Dynamo won a second consecutive cup title in the 1988-89 FDGB-Pokal, but Dynamo Dresden became the new champion in the 1988-89 DDR-Oberliga. BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden then met in the first ever DFV-Supercup in 1989. BFC Dynamo won the match 4–1 in front of 22,347 spectators at the Stadion der Freundschaft in Cottbus and became the first and only winner of the DFV-Supercup in the history of East German football.

BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden met 60 times in the Oberliga, FDGB-Pokal and DFV-Supercup between 1966 and 1991. BFC Dynamo won 21 matches and Dynamo Dresden won 27 matches. BFC Dynamo and Dynamo Dresden also met 10 times in the Regionalliga Nordost between 1995 and 2000. BFC Dynamo won 3 matches and Dynamo Dresden won 5 matches. The last meeting ended 1–1 and took place in the 1999-00 Regionalliga Nordost on 26 April 2000. The two teams rarely meet these days, because Dynamo Dresden regularly appears in the second or third tier of the German football league system. Former Dynamo Dresden player Ralf Minge expressed in an interview in 2018 his satisfaction that Dynamo Dresden has advanced past BFC Dynamo, but also said that he would not mind new duels with BFC Dynamo and that duels with BFC Dynamo "have a certain charm".[336]

1. FC Union BerlinEdit

BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin were founded only a few days apart. Both clubs were formed during the reorganization of East German football in December 1965 and January 1966, when ten football departments were reorganized into dedicated football clubs.[337] However, Union Berlin was not part of the original plan. Two football clubs had already been planned for East Berlin. They were to be formed from the football departments of SC Dynamo Berlin and ASK Vorwärts Berlin.[338] In addition, TSC Berlin played only in the second tier DDR-Liga at the time.[337][338] The founding of Union Berlin probably owed much to the intervention of the powerful Herbert Warnke.[337][139][339] Herbert Warnke was the chairman of the national state trade union FDGB and a member of the SED Politburo.[337] Dynamo Berlin and Vorwärts Berlin were both associated with the armed and security organs.[337][338] Herbert Warnke therefore argued for the formation of a civilian club for the working people of East Berlin.[337][338] He would be a passionate fan of Union Berlin.[340]

Both BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin belonged to the elite in East German football.[139][341] The new football clubs were intended as centers of excellence, with the right to draw on talents within designated geographical areas.[157][338] BFC Dynamo was supported by the Stasi, while Union Berlin was supported by the FDGB.[342][343][nb 11] However, Union Berlin was able to trace its origins back to FC Olympia Oberschöneweide in 1906.[127] BFC Dynamo had no history before East Germany. The supporters of Union Berlin therefore considered their club to be a genuine football club, unlike BFC Dynamo.[139] However, even as a civilian club, Union Berlin was also part of the sports political system.[130][347][348] The founding of the Union Berlin was organized by the then SED First Secretary in Köpenick Hans Modrow.[349] Like Herbert Warnke, Hans Modrow would be a sponsoring member of the club.[342][349] The most important positions on the board of Union Berlin were exclusively held by directors of state-owned factories or SED representatives.[348] Union Berlin was state-funded and all decisions in club had to be reported to the all-powerful central sports agency DTSB.[347] The DTSB stood in turn under direct control of the SED Central Committee.[350]

The rivalry between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin began in the mid-1960s. It was initially based on the geographical proximity to each other.[351] BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin were two clubs from East Berlin in the DDR-Oberliga.[351] BFC Dynamo struggled in the 1966-67 DDR-Oberliga and was threatened with relegation. The feud between the two clubs began when fans of Union Berlin mocked BFC Dynamo with a banner saying "We greet the relegated" during a league match at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 26 April 1967.[352][343] Union Berlin won the match by 3–0 and BFC Dynamo was relegated to the DDR-Liga.[352] BFC Dynamo immediately bounced back and managed to establish itself in the DDR-Oberliga. However, Union Berlin would be the stronger of the two teams until the 1970s.[353] Union Berlin surprisingly won the 1967–68 FDGB-Pokal, but was also relegated to the DDR-Liga after the 1968–69 season.[139]

The rivalry between the two clubs intensified in the early 1970s.[351] The player of Union Berlin, Klaus Korn, was suspended from all sports after a heated derby at Sportforum on 28 October 1970.[351][352] The performance of the referees had been "catastrophic" according to private notes from the then Second Club Secretary and Vice President of Union Berlin Günter Mielis, and the match ended with riots.[351][354] Klaus Korn had insulted players in BFC Dynamo with slurs such as "Stasi-pig". The DFV Legal Commission imposed a one-year ban on Klaus Korn after a circumstantial trial.[355][356] The DFV Legal Commission also demanded that Union Berlin considered his exclusion from the club. Klaus Korn was then excluded from the club and would never play in the DDR-Oberliga again.[355][356][351][352] Unrest broke out again at a derby in Hohenschönhausen one year later. Eight spectators were arrested after the match between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum on 28 December 1971.[357] The match was attended by 14,000 spectators and the stadium was sold out.[358][81]

The football landscape in East Berlin changed before the 1971–72 season. Vorwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder on 31 July 1971. BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin were from now on the only major football clubs in East Berlin.[359] The relocation meant that BFC Dynamo could now take over the role of the dominant team for the armed organs in East Berlin. The team would have the opportunity to move into the larger and more centrally located Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark, which led to increased interest in the club and growing attendance numbers.[351] The districts in East Berlin had previously been divided between BFC Dynamo, Vorwärts Berlin and Union Berlin. Each club was able to recruit young players from training centers (TZ) in their districts.[338][348] All training centers that had previously belonged to Vorwärts Berlin were now given to BFC Dynamo.[338][348] The DSTB allegedly saw more potential in BFC Dynamo.[338] BFC Dynamo now had access to two thirds of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin.[348][360] This meant that BFC Dynamo had gained a much stronger position in East Berlin than Union Berlin when it came to recruiting young players.[353] FC Vorwärts Frankfurt was given Bezirk Potsdam as a catchment area, in addition to Bezirk Frankfurt. Bezirk Potsdam had previously been assigned to Union Berlin and thus had to be handed over to Vorwärts Frankfurt.[361][348][nb 12]

Union Berlin was relegated to the DDR-Liga after the 1972–73 season. The Union Berlin star Reinhard Lauck was transferred to BFC Dynamo after the relegation.[362] The loss of Lauck was a hard blow for the team. Lauck had contributed greatly to the victory in the 1968 FDGB-Pokal final and was well-liked among the supporters of Union Berlin.[362] Supporters of Union Berlin are said to have gathered outside his apartment, to appeal to him to stay in the team and play in the second tier.[363][364] But Lauck had already decided to change team.[363][365] The DFV had allegedly advised him to switch to BFC Dynamo in order to continue playing in the national team.[362] Lauck would make a successful appearance for East Germany in the 1974 FIFA World Cup and would win gold with East Germany in the 1976 Summer Olympics.[362][364] Lauck became the team captain of BFC Dynamo in the 1974–75 season.[366] He would later win two league titles with BFC Dynamo before ending his career due to a knee injury.[364][367]

Union Berlin would remain in the DDR-Liga for several seasons. The club would also suffer more blows which further weakened its position in relation to BFC Dynamo. Herbert Warnke died in 1975 and was replaced as chairman of the FDGB by Harry Tisch.[342] Harry Tisch had begun his political career in Rostock and chose instead to give the support of the FDGB to F.C. Hansa Rostock.[342] Union Berlin thus lost the support of the FDGB and also no longer had any support in the top of the political hierarchy.[368] The club could now only rely on support from the district administration of the SED in East Berlin and local state-owned enterprises, such as VEB Kabelwerk Oberspree (KWO) and VEB Transformatorenwerk Oberschöneweide (TRO).[369][342] The DTSB and the DFV would also continue their efforts to concentrate resources on a few clubs during the 1970s.[370] A number of football clubs were designated as specially promoted focus clubs in the 1970 Football Resolution.[371][372] The focus clubs would receive additional financial support from DTSB and other advantages.[373][374][371][372] They would have the right to delegate twice as many young players to their affiliated elite Children and Youth Sports School (KSJ) each year and would also receive expanded catchment areas in the 1976 Football Resolution.[373][375][376] BFC Dynamo would be appointed as the focus club in East Berlin.[373][377][370][nb 13] Union Berlin would then have to delegate some of its best young players to BFC Dynamo.[353][nb 14] One example was the talented Detlef Helms, who was delegated to BFC Dynamo as a 17-year-old in 1977.[348][341]

Union Berlin returned to the Oberliga in the 1976–77 season. Stadion an der Alten Försterei was a small football stadium without cinder tracks where the crowd stood close to the pitch.[139][365] Union Berlin had become the focus of hooligan attention.[93] Matches at the Stadion an der Alten Föresterei had regularly been interrupted by spectators throwing objects on the pitch.[378] The derby between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin was now such as heated affair that the matches were moved by the DFV to the neutral Stadion der Weltjugend in Mitte.[379] It was considered that safety could not be guaranteed with the larger number of spectators.[380][381][93][139] The Stadion an der Alten Försterei was known for its atmosphere and the Stadion der Weltjugend was located only a few minutes away from the home district of BFC Dynamo.[365][351] The move was therefore seen as a major disadvantage by the fans to Union Berlin and further diluted their aversion to BFC Dynamo.[352][351][nb 15] Union Berlin defeated BFC Dynamo 1–0 in front of 45,000 spectators at the Stadion der Weltjugend in the first meeting of the 1976–77 season on 4 September 1976.[383][91][384] Union Berlin also won the return match on 19 February 1977.[384] The two wins against BFC Dynamo during the 1976–77 season cemented the reputation of Union Berlin as a cult club and crowd puller.[385]

BFC Dynamo established itself as one of the top teams in the DDR-Oberliga from the mid-1970s. Union Berlin would come to play second fiddle in East Berlin from now on and never finish higher than seventh place in the DDR-Oberliga.[386] In the shadow of BFC Dynamo, Union Berlin would no longer have any major sporting significance in East Germany.[387] Union Berlin became an elevator team that hovered between the Oberliga and the DDR-Liga.[386] Supporters of Union Berlin saw BFC Dynamo as the highest representative of the security organs and the police, with privileges in player recruitment and financial support as well as the political clout of Mielke.[139] This was supposedly in contrast to their own club, which they regarded as an underdog rooted in the working class.[139][93][388][127] BFC Dynamo would be disliked all over East Germany for its successes and its connection to the Stasi.[290][129][389] This was also reflected in the derby between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin.[129] The supporters of Union Berlin were seen as oppositional.[129] This is illustrated in the famous sentence of the editor-in-chief of the satirical magazine Eulenspiegel: "Not all Union fans are enemies of the state, but all enemies of the state are Union fans."[129][390] But the fact that people supported Union Berlin did not automatically mean that they were against the state.[130] Union Berlin got a lot of sympathy as the weaker club.[130][391] There was a simple rule in East German football, where the least privileged club got the most sympathy.[135] Supporters of Union Berlin cultivated the image of their club as the eternal underdog.[139][392]

Clashes between the supporters of the two teams became increasingly common in the 1970s. Union Berlin had one of the most notorious followings in East Germany at this time.[133] The supporters of Union Berlin often went to away matches in large numbers.[133] Fights were initially won by the supporters of Union Berlin. They were in the clear majority and could chase the supporters of BFC Dynamo from the streets.[343] A punch in the face and a stolen scarf was an experience for many young supporters of BFC Dynamo at this time.[365] But BFC Dynamo gained more and more young supporters with its growing successes in the late 1970s.[121] Many came from working-class families in Prenzlauer Berg.[122] The supporters of BFC Dynamo would eventually begin to appear extremely well organized and began to fight back in the early 1980s.[343][133] The tide now turned and the supporters of BFC Dynamo would win all fights between the supporters of the two teams from now on.[343][365] Derbies at the Stadion der Weltjugend usually ended with a couple of hundred supporters of BFC Dynamo chasing the supporters of Union Berlin along Chausseestraße down towards the Friedrichsstrasse S-Bahn station.[393][133][394] The fights often continued on the side streets of Friedrichstraße.[394]

Union Berlin is often portrayed as an opponent of the system and matches between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin during the East German era are often hyped up as some kind of domestic political showdown.[395] But in fact, Union Berlin was mostly a football club that struggled against unfavorable conditions.[395] The club would be disadvantaged by the state sports politics compared to BFC Dynamo.[395] Honorary President of Union Berlin Günter Mielis has said: "Union was not a club of resistance fighters, but we had to fight against a lot of political and economic resistance over and over again. We got strength from our fans".[396]

Union Berlin would become known for a supporter scene that was anti-establishment, where people could vent their disdain for the system in the anonymity of a crowd.[386] Supporters of Union Berlin also saw themselves as stubborn and non-conformist, but this should not be confused with actual resistance.[389] Provocation was part of football in East Germany and people shouted out anything, because it was possible to get away with it.[397] A critical attitude to the system was something that football supporters across East Germany had in common in the 1970s and 1980s.[398] Supporters of Union Berlin from the era concede that it is an exaggeration to call the club a "resistance club".[399][341] A supporter of Union Berlin has said: "With the best of intentions, Union fans did not contribute to the overthrow of the GDR. No way, we were interested in football. There is the cliché about the club for the enemies of the state, but that wasn't us".[400] There were no political groups among the supporters of Union Berlin.[401] For some supporters of Union Berlin, the dissident reputation of Union Berlin is a legend that was created after Die Wende.[399]

Most supporters of Union Berlin were just normal football supporters.[397] Politics was not in the foreground.[341] Supporters of Union Berlin from the era have testified that their support for the club had nothing to do with politics.[402] The club was the most important thing and the identification with Union Berlin had primarily to do with Köpenick.[402][403] The rivalry with BFC Dynamo was fueled by local pride.[404] However, the political dimension was also there.[386] BFC Dynamo was supported by the Stasi, who were disliked by many.[386] But above all, it was the political instrumentalization of football that irritated.[405] The political favoritism of BFC Dynamo greatly contributed to the enthusiasm of the supporters of Union Berlin.[343] Supporters of Union Berlin embraced the image of the underdog fighting the odds.[379] An expression of the supporters of Union Berlin was: "Better to be a loser than a stupid Stasi pig".[387]

The derby between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin was first and foremost a local football derby.[386] Both clubs had supporters who were not true to the line.[401][406][124] Also supporters of BFC Dynamo were observed by the Stasi during the 1980s.[407] East Berlin was divided into two. BFC Dynamo was more strongly represented in some parts, and Union Berlin was more strongly represented in other parts.[343] Which team you supported was very much a question of where you lived.[133] BFC Dynamo was the local team if you grew up in Prenzlauer Berg.[408] If you lived in Mitte, you were more likely to be a supporter BFC Dynamo, as the home stadium was only a stone's throw away along Schönhauser Allee.[133] But Mitte was a contested area.[136] The border ran at Alexanderplatz, where many fights between the supporters of the two teams were fought.[343][137] The home districts of the two clubs, Hohenschönhausen and Köpenick respectively, were always dangerous territory for supporters of the other team.[343]

 
BFC Dynamo midfielder Bernd Schulz celebrating together with team captain Frank Rohde after scoring a goal against 1. FC Union Berlin at the Stadion der Weltjugend on 18 March 1989.

BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin met a total of 35 times in the DDR-Oberliga and the FDGB-Pokal. BFC Dynamo won 22 meetings and Union Berlin won 6 meetings. Matches against Union Berlin was often won with big numbers in the late 1970s and 1980s.[352][409] BFC Dynamo defeated Union Berlin with 1–8 and then 7–1 in the round of 16 of the 1978-79 FDGB-Pokal.[352] Hans-Jürgen Riediger scored a hat-trick in both legs.[410][411] BFC Dynamo also defeated Union Berlin 8–1 in the Oberliga on 13 September 1986. Thom, Frank Pastor and Christian Backs scored two goals each.[412] The 1980s was a crushing win for BFC Dynamo. Former BFC Dynamo midfielder Falko Götz concluded that: "Union was no opponent to us".[393] The two teams met 13 times in the Oberliga and FDGB-Pokal during the 1980s. BFC Dynamo won 11 matches and two matches ended in a draw. The matches between the two local rivals were hard-fought on the pitch.[91] Former BFC Dynamo midfielder Frank Terletzki has said that the victories against Union Berlin were always the best.[409] But despite the rivalry between the clubs, it happened that players hung out outside of football.[413] Former BFC Dynamo defender Frank Rohde has said that players of BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin often gathered to have a beer together after matches.[91]

There were several transfers between the two clubs. BFC Dynamo recruited some of the best players of Union Berlin, such as Reinard Lauck in 1973, Detlef Helms in 1977 and Waldemar Ksienzyk in 1984.[352][341] But there were also transfers in the other direction. Union Berlin predecessor TSC Oberschöneweide recruited Ralf Quest from SC Dynamo Berlin in 1962. Quest scored the winning goal for Union Berlin in the final of the 1967-68 FDGB-Pokal, when the club won a sensational cup victory.[414] Union Berlin would then recruit several players from BFC Dynamo over the years, such as Werner Voigt in 1973, Rainer Rohde in 1975, Rainer Wroblewski in 1977, Olaf Seier in 1983, Ralf Sträßer in 1984, Olaf Hirsch in 1986, Norbert Trieloff in 1987, Mario Maek in 1988 and Thomas Grether in 1989.[384][341][91] Union Berlin recruited a couple of players from BFC Dynamo in the 1980s who did some of their best seasons at the club.[415][365] Olaf Seier became the team captain of Union Berlin and Ralf Sträßer became first and only player in Union Berlin to ever become league top goal scorer during the East German era.[348] Mario Maek saved Union Berlin from relegation with a late 3–2 goal against FC Karl-Marx-Stadt in the last match day of the 1987-88 DDR-Oberliga.[341][416] As many as three former players of BFC Dynamo were involved in the winning goal for Union Berlin.[416]

 
Supporters of FC Berlin during a match against 1. FC Union Berlin at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 23 September 1990.

Union Berlin played in the DDR-Liga in the 1989–90 season. FC Berlin and Union Berlin met in the second round of the 1990-91 FDGB-Pokal at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 23 September 1990. It was the first match between the teams since the fall of the Berlin Wall. BFC Dynamo, now named FC Berlin, had now already lost many of its former top-performers to the West German Bundesliga.[417][188] Hooligans of FC Berlin stormed the home stands and attacked supporters of Union Berlin with clubs and flares at the beginning of the match.[187][188] Union Berlin won the match 2–1 on extra-time.[188] It was the first win for Union Berlin against FC Berlin since 1977.[187] Thomas Grether scored the first goal and Olaf Seier scored the winning goal for Union Berlin in the match. Both players had been brought up in the youth department of BFC Dynamo and had played matches for BFC Dynamo in the DDR-Oberliga.[188]

FC Berlin and Union Berlin then met in the promotion round to the 2. Bundesliga in the 1990–91 season. FC Berlin lost the first match 1–0 away in the second round at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 8 June 1991. Former BFC Dynamo player Bernd Schulz scored the winning goal for Union Berlin.[418] FC Berlin then defeated Union Berlin 2–0 in the return match in fifth round in front of 9,475 spectators at the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark on 18 June 1991. Heiko Bonan and Thorsten Boer scored one goal each in the match.[419] FC Berlin was only one point behind leader BSG Stahl Brandenburg before the last round. The team managed to defeat Magdeburg 3–5 away on 23 June 1991. However, BSG Stahl Brandenburg defeated Union Berlin 2–0 away. FC Berlin thus finished in second place and missed promotion. Some supporters of BFC Dynamo are convinced that Union Berlin deliberately lost in order to prevent FC Berlin from advancing to the 2. Bundesliga.[205] FC Berlin and Union Berlin then also met in the promotion round for the 2. Bundesliga in 1991–92 season. FC Berlin won the first match 3–0 at home in the third round on 31 May 1992. The team then also won the return match 0–4 away in the fourth round on 7 June 1992.

The two teams met again in the new Regionalliga Nordost that was formed in 1994–95 season. FC Berlin under coach Werner Voigt lost 0–6 to 1. FC Union Berlin in the 1996–97 Regionalliga Nordost at the Stadion im Sportforum on 28 September 1996. It was the biggest defeat so far to Union Berlin.[91] Former FC Berlin player Thorsten Boer scored two goals for Union Berlin in the match.[420] The two teams met 12 times in total in Regionalliga Nordost between 1994 and 2000. BFC Dynamo won one match and Union Berlin won eight matches. The most recent meetings between BFC Dynamo and Union Berlin occurred in the 2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord. The first match was played at the Stadion an der Alten Försterei on 21 August 2015. BFC Dynamo was missing striker Danny Kukulies and first-choice goalkeeper Nico Thomaschewski before the match. Kukulies was suspended and Thomaschewski injured.[421][422] German police and members of the SEK carried out a controversial raid against supporters of BFC Dynamo the night before the match.[239] Club management initially considered withdrawing from the match. The players voted on whether or not to play the match against Union Berlin.[243] More than 1,000 police officers were deployed to the match.[393] BFC Dynamo eventuallty lost 8–0.[341] The return match was played at the Stadion im Sportforum on 13 May 2006. The score was 1–1 when around 200 supporters of BFC Dynamo stormed the pitch to attack supporters of Union Berlin.[423][249][251] Supporters of Union Berlin fled the guest block in panic.[250] The match was abandoned and Union Berlin was awarded a 2–0 victory.[249][251] The two teams has not met since then.

BFC Dynamo met the reserve team of Union Berlin six times in the NOFV-Oberliga Nord and Regionalliga Nordost between 2010 and 2015. Union Berlin II won the first five matches. The last match was played in the 2014-15 Regionalliga Nordost on 15 March 2015. BFC Dynamo defeated Union Berlin II 1–0 in front of 8,169 spectators at Stadion an der Alten Försterei. The match was interrupted for 18 minutes when supporters of Union Berlin tried to attack the supporters of BFC Dynamo.[424][425][352] 112 police officers were injured and 175 supporters were arrested during the match.[426][352] Some media reported that 300 supporters of Union Berlin had participated in the attack on guest supporters. Journalist Frank Willmann attended the match and claims that the number was rather 30. He also said he did not see any injured police.[425] There have been several cases of violence between the supporters of the two teams during the 2010s.[427] Around a hundred hooligans from Union Berlin tried to attack a senior tournament organized by BFC Dynamo in the Dynamo-Sporthalle on 30 January 2010.[428][429][430][253] Also women and children got in the way of the attack.[430] Around 30 partially masked supporters from Union Berlin attacked players and a small group of supporters of BFC Dynamo in connection with a senior match between Union Berlin and BFC Dynamo on Hämmerlingstraße in Köpenick on 27 March 2015.[431][352][427] One player of BFC Dynamo and two guest spectators were injured.[352] A number of supporters of BFC Dynamo joined Hertha BSC in the guest block of the Stadion an der Alten Försterei during the derby between Union Berlin and Hertha BSC on 2 November 2019.[279]

OrganizationEdit

Current board and managementEdit

As of 24 September 2022 [432][433][434][435][436]
Berliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V.
Presidium
Member Position
Norbert Uhlig President
Karsten Valentin Vice President
Sven Radicke Treasurer
Economic Council
Member Position
Peter Meyer Chairman
Falk Stoltmann Member
Dennis Wisbar Member
Other officials
Name Position
Angelo Vier Sports director
Sven Franke Head of youth department
Rainer Lüdtke Fan representative
Andreas Utzki Representative for fans with disabilities
Mike Fidorra Security officer
Martin Richter Spokesperson
Patrick Skrzipek Club photographer

Presidential historyEdit

No. Name Period Notes
1   Manfred Kirste 1966–1988 [nb 16]
2   Herbert Krafft 1988–1990
3   Jürgen Bogs 1990 [nb 17]
4   Dr. Klaus Janz 1990 [nb 18]
5   Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich 1990–1994 [nb 19]
6   Eberhard Landmann 1994–1995 [nb 20]
7   Klaus Bittroff 1995 [nb 21]
8   Volkmar Wanski 1995–2000 [nb 22]
9   Hans Reker 2000 [nb 23]
10   Karin Halsch 2000–2001 [nb 24]
11   Hans Reker 2001 [nb 25]
- Office vacant 2001–2002 [nb 26]
12   Mike Peters 2002–2004 [nb 27]
13   Mario Weinkauf 2004–2007 [nb 28]
14   Frank Berton 2007–2008 [nb 29]
15   Norbert Uhlig 2008– [nb 30]

PlayersEdit

Current squadEdit

As of 1 August 2022[462][463]

Note: Flags indicate national team as defined under FIFA eligibility rules. Players may hold more than one non-FIFA nationality.

No. Pos. Nation Player
1 GK   GER Matthias Hamrol
3 DF   GER Bastian Schrewe
4 DF   GER Felix Meyer
6 MF   GER Niklas Brandt (Captain)
7 MF   GER Philip Schulz
8 MF   GER Andreas Pollasch
9 FW   GER Christian Beck
10 FW   GER Cedric Euschen
11 FW   GER Darryl Geurts
12 GK   GER Paul Hainke
13 DF   GER Chris Reher
14 MF   GER Joey Breitfeld
17 DF   GER Marvin Kleihs
No. Pos. Nation Player
18 MF   GER Alexander Siebeck
19 MF   GER Max Klump
20 MF   KOS Erlind Zogjani
20 FW   GER Justin Reichstein
21 DF   GER Michael Blum
22 DF   GER Arthur Ekallé
23 DF   GER Leonidas Tiliudis
24 DF   GER Anton Rücker
24 FW   BIH Amar Suljić
27 FW   USA Dominic Duncan
28 FW   GER Pelle Hoppe
29 DF   GER Luca-René Heinrich
79 GK   GER Kevin Sommer

Notable past playersEdit

 
Goalkeeper Bodo Rudwaleit played 318 matches for BFC Dynamo in the DDR-Oberliga between 1976 and 1989.

Many players of BFC Dynamo of the 1970s and 1980s played for the East German national football team. Some would later become players or coaches in the Bundesliga and play for German national football team.

The list includes players with 100 appearances for SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo at professional level and who have also played for the national team. The flag inficates the national team they last played for. The players are sorted chronologically by the date of their first appearance with the first team of SC Dynamo Berlin or BFC Dynamo.

CoachesEdit

Current staffEdit

As of 1 August 2022[464]
Coaching staff
  Heiner Backhaus Head coach
  Marco Sejna Goalkeeping coach
  Nils Veiler Video analyst
Medical department
  Adrian Marklowski Physiotherapist
  Nils Vielose Physiotherapist
Sport management and organisation
  Jörn Lenz Team manager
  Frank Radicke Kit manager
  Stefan Malchow

Coach historyEdit

 
Jürgen Bogs was coach from 1 July 1977 to 30 June 1989 and led BFC Dynamo to ten consecutive league titles.

SC Dynamo Berlin had six different coaches until the founding of BFC Dynamo in 1966. The first coach was Helmut Petzold, who was delegated along with the team of Dynamo Dresden to Dynamo Berlin and took office on 21 November 1954. Other coaches of Dynamo Berlin were Istvan Orczifalvi, Fritz Bachmann, János Gyarmati and Fritz Gödicke. Fritz Bachmann served as coach of Dynamo Berlin during the successful 1959 season.

No. Coach Period Notes
1   Karl Schäffner 1965–1966
2   Bela Volentik 1966–1967
3   Karl Schäffner 1967–1969
4   Hans Geitel 1969–1972
5   Günter Schröter 1972–1973
6   Harry Nippert 1973–1977
7   Jürgen Bogs 1977–1989
8   Helmut Jäschke 1989–1990
9   Peter Rohde 1990
10   Jürgen Bogs 1990–1993
11   Helmut Koch 1993–1995
12   Dr. Dieter Fuchs 1995[465] [a]
13   Werner Voigt 1995–1998
14   Ingo Rentzsch 1998 [a]
15   Henry Häusler 1998–1999
16   Ingo Rentzsch 1999[466] [a]
17   Norbert Paepke 1999[466] [a]
18   Klaus Goldbach 1999
19   Jürgen Bogs 1999–2001
20   Mario Maek 2001–2002
21   Dirk Vollmar 2002–2003
22   Sven Orbanke 2003–2004
23   Christian Backs 2004–2005
24   Rajko Fijalek 2005 [a][b]
24   Bodo Rudwaleit 2005 [a][b]
25   Jürgen Piepenburg 2005
26   Rajko Fijalek 2005 [a][b]
26   Bodo Rudwaleit 2005 [a][b]
27   Rajko Fijalek 2005-2006
28   Nico Thomaschewski 2006[467] [a][b][c]
28   Jörn Lenz 2006[467] [a][b][c]
29   Ingo Rentzsch 2006–2007
30   Nico Thomaschewski 2007[468] [a][b][c]
30   Jörn Lenz 2007[468] [a][b][c]
31   Volkan Uluç 2007–2009
32   Hakan Pinar 2009 [a]
33   Christian Backs 2009–2010
34   Heiko Bonan 2010–2011
35   René Gritschke 2011 [a]
36   Igor Lazić 2011
37   René Gritschke 2011–2012 [a]
38   Volkan Uluç 2012–2014
39   Thomas Stratos 2014–2016
40   René Rydlewicz 2016–2018
41   Matthias Maucksch 2019
42   Christian Benbennek 2019–2022
43   Heiner Backhaus 2022-
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Interim coach.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h Co-coach
  3. ^ a b c d Player-coach.

HonoursEdit

 
The team celebrating the victory in the 1989 DFV-Supercup together with fans. Heiko Bonan is holding the trophy.

BFC Dynamo was the most successful club in the DDR-Oberliga. The club won ten consecutive championships. That is a feat no other team in East Germany has matched. The DDR-Oberliga was rebranded as the NOFV-Oberliga from the 1990–91 season. The league was then replaced by the Bundesliga as the highest competition when East Germany joined West Germany to form the reunited Germany.

DomesticEdit

  1. ^ a b c d Won by SC Dynamo Berlin.
  2. ^ The Fuwo-Pokal was only arranged in 1972. All teams in the 1971-72 DDR-Oberliga took part in the cup.

InternationalEdit

DoubleEdit

RegionalEdit

Seasons in East GermanyEdit

 
Historical chart of the club's league performance

SC Dynamo BerlinEdit

Year Division Level Position
1954–55 DDR-Oberliga I 7th
1955 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1956 DDR-Oberliga I 13th
1957 DDR-Liga II 1st
1958 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1959 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1960 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1961–62 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1962–63 DDR-Oberliga I 10th
1963–64 DDR-Oberliga I 8th
1963–65 DDR-Oberliga I 12th

BFC DynamoEdit

Year Division Level Position
1965–66 DDR-Oberliga I 9th
1966–67 DDR-Oberliga I 13th
1967–68 DDR-Liga II 1st
1968–69 DDR-Oberliga I 10th
1969–70 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1970–71 DDR-Oberliga I 9th
1971–72 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1972–73 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1973–74 DDR-Oberliga I 6th
1974–75 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1975–76 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1976–77 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1977–78 DDR-Oberliga I 3rd
1978–79 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1979–80 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1980–81 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1981–82 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1982–83 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1983–84 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1984–85 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1985–86 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1986–87 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1987–88 DDR-Oberliga I 1st
1988–89 DDR-Oberliga I 2nd
1989–90 DDR-Oberliga I 4th
1990–91 NOFV-Oberliga I 11th

Seasons since 1991Edit

Year Division Level Position
1991–92 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 1st
1992–93 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 4th
1993–94 NOFV-Oberliga Nord III 4th
1994–95 Regionalliga Nordost III 11th
1995–96 Regionalliga Nordost III 13th
1996–97 Regionalliga Nordost III 13th
1997–98 Regionalliga Nordost III 11th
1998–99 Regionalliga Nordost III 8th
1999–00 Regionalliga Nordost III 17th
2000–01 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 1st
2001–02 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 17th
2002–03 Verbandsliga Berlin V 3rd
2003–04 Verbandsliga Berlin V 1st ↑
2004–05 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 6th
2005–06 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 6th
2006–07 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 10th
2007–08 NOFV-Oberliga Nord IV 5th
2008–09 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 2nd
2009–10 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 2nd
2010–11 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 7th
2011–12 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 13th
2012–13 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 3rd
2013–14 NOFV-Oberliga Nord V 1st
2014–15 Regionalliga Nordost IV 5th
2015–16 Regionalliga Nordost IV 4th
2016–17 Regionalliga Nordost IV 15th
2017–18 Regionalliga Nordost IV 4th
2018–19 Regionalliga Nordost IV 12th
2019–20 Regionalliga Nordost IV 6th
2020–21 Regionalliga Nordost IV 6th
2021–22 Regionalliga Nordost IV 1st

European competitionsEdit

Season Competition Round Country Club Score
1961-62 International Football Cup Group stage   Wiener SC 5-3, 2-1
  DSO Spartak Hradec Králové 1-1, 0-1
  Górnik Zabrze 1-5, 4-3
1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup First round   Cardiff City 1–1, 1–1, 6–5 (p)
Second round   K. Beerschot V.A.C. 3–1, 3–1
Quarter-finals   Åtvidabergs FF 2–0, 2–2
Semi-finals   Dynamo Moscow 1–1, 1–1, 1–4 (p)
1972–73 UEFA Cup First round   Angers 1–1, 2–1
Second round   Levski-Spartak Sofia 3–0, 0–2
Third round   Liverpool 0–0, 1–3
1976–77 UEFA Cup First round   Shakhtar Donetsk 0–3, 1–1
1978–79 UEFA Cup First round   Red Star Belgrade 5–2, 1–4
1979–80 European Cup First round   Ruch Chorzów 4–1, 0–0
Second round   Servette 2–1, 2–2
Quarter-finals   Nottingham Forest 1–0, 1–3
1980–81 European Cup First round   APOEL 3–0, 1–2
Second round   Baník Ostrava 0–0, 1–1
1981–82 European Cup Qualification   Saint-Étienne 1–1, 2–0
First round   Zürich 2–0, 1–3
Second round   Aston Villa 1–2, 1–0
1982–83 European Cup First round   Hamburger SV 1–1, 0–2
1983–84 European Cup First round   Jeunesse Esch 4–1, 2–0
Second round   Partizan 2–0, 0–1
Quarter-finals   Roma 0–3, 2–1
1984–85 European Cup First round   Aberdeen 1–2, 2–1, 5–4 (p)
Second round   Austria Wien 3–3, 1–2
1985–86 European Cup First round   Austria Wien 0–2, 1–2
1986–87 European Cup First round   Örgryte IS 3–2, 4–1
Second round   Brøndby 1–2, 1–1
1987–88 European Cup First round   Bordeaux 0–2, 0–2
1988–89 European Cup First round   Werder Bremen 3–0, 0–5
1989–90 European Cup Winners' Cup First round   Valur 2–1, 2–1
Second round   Monaco 0–0, 1–1
1990 Intertoto Cup Group stage   FC Bayer 05 Uerdingen 1-2, 0-3
  Grasshopper Club Zürich 2-1, 3-1
  NK Olimpija Ljubljana 1-1, 0-1

European recordEdit

Competition Record
G W D L Win %
European Cup 38 15 8 15 039.47
UEFA Cup 10 3 3 4 030.00
UEFA Cup Winners' Cup 12 5 7 0 041.67
Intertoto Cup 12 5 2 5 041.67
Total 72 28 20 24 038.89

Youth departmentEdit

BFC Dynamo is known for a recognized youth work.[469][268] The club had 23 youth teams in the 2021–22 season.[470][268] There were 68 trainers and supervisors responsible for the youth teams in the club during the season.[268] The youth teams range from U7 to U19 teams. The U17 team competes in the third tier B-Junior Verbandsliga Berlin and the U19 team competes in second tier A-Junior Regionalliga Nordost.[470] The youth teams are based in the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen.[7]

There were more than 800 children and youth players in the club as of 2019.[471] Many children in the club comes from immigrant backgrounds or socially disadvantaged families.[7][472][2][127][268][4] BFC Dynamo helped football club FC Berlin 23 from neighbouring Storkower Straße in September 2021 and saved more than 40 to 50 children from the club, which was about to be dissolved.[268]

The club launched the so-called "Kita-projekt" in 2003.[7] The Kita-projekt is a day care project that gives boys and girls aged 3 to 6 the opportunity to participate in sports on a regular basis.[7][473] The Kita-projekt involved approximately 200 children from 16 day care centers in Berlin as of 2020.[472] The majority of the children come from the localities or former boroughts of Lichtenberg, Hohenschönhausen, Karlshorst, Mitte, Weißensee and Pankow.[473] The Kita-projekt was the first of its kind in Germany and has received several awards for its work with children.[7][474][475] The former professional player of BFC Dynamo Jörn Lenz is the head of the Kita-projekt as of 2021.[475]

The so-called "Jugendförderverein" was founded in 2004.[457] It is a registered voluntary association that aims to promote youth sports at BFC Dynamo. The Jugendförderverein has supported youth teams with equipment, covered costs for trips to tournaments and helped youth trainers to be able to obtain their trainer license. The Jugendförderverein relies on donations and voluntary work.[476] Former Club President Mario Weinkauf was one of the seven founding members of the Jugenförderverein and briefly served as chairman of the association before he became club president. Weinkauf had also been a youth trainer in the club for some time.[457]

Youth academy during East German eraEdit

BFC Dynamo had a very successful youth academy during the East German era.[393][121][312] The youth department had full-time trainers available for all youth classes and access to the best material conditions in the Sportforum.[477][478] Youth coaches were highly qualified and training in the Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) was extensive.[479][480] The youth work at BFC Dynamo during the East German era was described as "absolutely leading" by former coach Jürgen Bogs, who had a background as coach of the junior team.[477][478] It was also described as "exquisite" by former German sports journalist Horst Friedemann, who worked for Deutsches Sportecho and Kicker.[312]

The upper tier of elite clubs in East Germany had privileged access to talents within designated geographical and administrative areas.[157][481] All designated football clubs were assigned one or two regional districts in East Germany as catchment areas at their founding. BFC Dynamo was initially assigned Bezirk Cottbus and one third of all training centers (German: Trainingszentrum) (TZ) in East Berlin.[360] The club was then allowed to take over the training centers (TZ) in East Berlin that had previously belonged to the catchment area of FC Vorwärts Berlin, when FC Vorwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder before the 1971-72 season.[348][338] BFC Dynamo would eventually be able recruit talents from the youth departments of all sports communities (German: Sportgemeinschaft) (SG) of SV Dynamo in East Germany, except those in Bezirk Dresden.[477][157][482][nb 31] The club came to benefit from a nationwide scouting network, which included 33 training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo and the partnership with Bezirk Cottbus.[485][486][305] In total, BFC Dynamo had access to 38 training centers (TZ) across East Germany for the recruitment of talents. As a comparison, Union Berlin had only access to six training centers (TZ), all of which were located in the Berlin area.[487]

A number of football clubs were designated as specially promoted focus clubs in the 1970 Football Resolution.[371][373] The focus clubs would receive additional financial support from the DTSB and other advantages.[374][372] BFC Dynamo was appointed as focus club in East Berlin. As a focus club, BFC Dynamo had the right to accommodate twelve students in the district Children and Youth Sports Schools (KJS) every year.[482][375] Non-focus football clubs only had the right to delegate six students to their respective Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) every year.[375] The elite Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) "Werner Seelenbinder" provided boarding and schooling for talented players in the Sportforum.[488][489][490] The Children and Youth Sports School (KJS) "Werner Seelenbinder" was affiliated to sports club SC Dynamo Berlin.[491]

Several former players of SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo became youth trainers in the club after ending their playing careers, such as Herbert Schoen, Günter Schröter, Hermann Bley, Martin Skaba, Peter Rohde, Werner Voigt, Hartmut Pelka and Hans-Jürgen Riediger.[492][493][494][495] The youth academy produced stars such as Lutz Eigendorf, Falko Götz and Andreas Thom.[488][393][479][126] Only a fifth of the players who won the ten championships with BFC Dynamo were older than 18 years when they joined the club.[365] Most of the top performers of BFC Dynamo in the 1980s came through the club's own youth teams, including Hans-Jürgen Riediger, Norbert Trieloff, Bodo Rudwaleit, Ralf Sträßer, Artur Ullrich, Rainer Ernst, Bernd Schulz, Christian Backs, Frank Rohde, Falko Götz, Jan Voß, Andreas Thom, Jörg Fügner, Hendrik Herzog and Marco Köller.[493][496][497]

HonoursEdit

  • Next Generation Oberliga (German: Nachwuchsoberliga) (de)[a]
    • Winners: 1981, 1991[b]
    • Runners-up (6): 1979, 1983
  • East German Junior Championship (de)[c]
    • Winners: (5) 1960,[d] 1978, 1979, 1987, 1991
    • Runners-up (6): 1967, 1974, 1976, 1977, 1988, 1989
  • East German Youth Championship (de)[e]
    • Winners: (4) 1967, 1972, 1975, 1987
    • Runners-up: 1983, 1989
  • East German Junior Cup (Junge Welt-Pokal) (de)[c]
    • Winners: (5) 1966, 1967, 1987, 1989, 1990[b] (record)
  • East German Youth Cup (Youth FDGB-Pokal/Youth FDJ-Pokal)[e]
    • Winners: (5) 1965,[d] 1968, 1971, 1972, 1976 (record)
  1. ^ Corresponds to U21 level. The league existed from 1976 to 1983 and 1989 to 1991. The reserve teams of the 14 DDR-Oberliga clubs were no longer allowed to participate in the DDR-Liga after the 1975-76 season. The Junior Oberliga (de) was also disbanded after the season. The Next Generation Oberliga was introduced instead. Youth teams of the 14 DDR-Oberliga clubs were all were eligible to start in the 1976-77 Next Generation Oberliga.
  2. ^ a b Won as FC Berlin.
  3. ^ a b Corresponds to U19 level.
  4. ^ a b Won by SC Dynamo Berlin.
  5. ^ a b Corresponds to U17 level.

Affiliated clubsEdit

The following East German sports communities have been affiliated with SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo:

Explanatory notesEdit

  1. ^ Sources vary on the history of the stadium. A few sources state that the stadium was constructed in 1954 and then refurbished in 1973.[58][65] A centrally located football stadium is depicted in the early plans for the Dynamo-Sportforum by architects Walter Schmidt and Heinz Scharlipp.[66] Other sources suggest that the stadium was completed in its current form in 1970.[67][61][68]
  2. ^ The capacity was 12,000 at the beginning of the 1966–67 season and 14,000 at the beginning of the 1968–69 season.[78][79]
  3. ^ The annual Special edition (German: Sonderausgabe) from Deutsches Sportecho and Die neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (De) first mentioned the Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark as a stadium of BFC Dynamo before the 1976-77 season.[83]
  4. ^ The skinhead movement in East Germany grew out of the punk subculture, and was characterized as an aggressive form of protest.[152][153] It was radicalized in the middle of the 1980s, by a hybrid of ultranationalism, xenophobia and anti-communism.[153] East Berlin was the epicenter of the East German skinhead movement, with BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin as its two football magnets.[153][154] The Stasi concluded that about 30-40 skinheads were associated to the two clubs in December 1985. Many were attached to fan cub Anale Berlin at BFC Dynamo.[153] Anale Berlin became infamous for its violence capital and glorification of fascism.[153][154] There were around 300–400 skinheads in East Berlin in December 1987.[155][90] Many were fans of BFC Dynamo.[90] Reports noted a group of roughly 100 skinheads that regularly attended the away matches of BFC Dynamo in 1988.[156] And the Stasi estimated that there were about 30 skinheads among the followers of 1. FC Union Berlin in July 1988.[157][156] Despite the fierce rivalry between BFC Dynamo and 1. FC Union Berlin, there were contacts between skinheads of the two clubs.[133] Far-right skinheads were attached to fan clubs Borussen and Die Löwen at 1. FC Union Berlin.[148][158]
  5. ^ However, hooligans of BFC Dynamo and skinheads allegedly attached to the hooligan scene of BFC Dynamo were also involved in serious incidents associated with racism and right wing-extremism in the 1980s. Hooligans of BFC Dynamo attacked 26 Cuban guest workers on train D 1056 towards Berlin-Lichtenberg, while returning from a match in Halle on 12 May 1984.[164][165] The hooligans had allegedly shouted racist slogans and sung the Deutschlandlied. At least nine Cubans were injured.[166] A number of skinheads allegedly attached to the BFC Dynamo hooligan scene were also among those convicted for the much-publicized attack on a punk concert in the Zionskirche church in East Berlin on 17 October 1987.[135][129] However, incidents associated to racism and right-wing extremism in East German football were not isolated to BFC Dynamo.[167] And authorities also recorded the use of racists slogans, such as "Jewish pigs!", by supporters of several teams at the time, including SG Dynamo Dresden and 1. FC Union Berlin.[168][169]
  6. ^ Several sources claim that a group of 500 hooligans of BFC Dynamo attacked a gas station, looted shops and attacked the Volkspolizei in Jena in November 1989.[133][175][176][164][174] One source specifically claims that the incidents occurred in connection to an away match in the DDR-Oberliga.[175] However, the sources do not specify any exact date or any details regarding which match the incidents occur in connection with. FC Berlin played away against FC Carl Zeiss Jena in the 18th matchday of the 1989-90 DDR-Oberliga on 8 April 1990.
  7. ^ Hooligans in Magdeburg attacked Soviet soldiers on 29 August 1990. One officer fired a warning shot.[180] The police fired warning shots during violent riots after the friendly match between 1. FC Lokomotive Leipzig and FC Bayern Munich on 6 September 1990.[180][191][193] The match between FC Sachsen Leipzig and FC Carl Zeiss Jena in the 1990-91 NOFV-Oberliga on 29 September 1990 was abandoned shortly before the end due to violent riots in the stadium.[191][192]
  8. ^ The number of supporters of FC Berlin allegedly on the scene varies between different sources. The police initially stated that they had faced up to 500 hooligans.[195][202] However, an eyewitness stated that the group that arrived at the S-Bahn station and marched towards the stadium rather consisted of only 150 supporters. This group was supposedly met by around 50 police officers outside the stadium.[198] Neues Deutschland reported that the number of rioters outside the stadium "grew to around 400 to 500 hooligans".[197] A common figure is that 400 supporters of FC Berlin arrived at the S-Bahn station after kick-off.[201][179][203][182] A supporter of FC Berlin has said in Zeit that there were almost 500 supporters of FC Berlin outside the stadium.[184]
  9. ^ Another legend tells that Erich Mielke made a remark about bringing the title to Berlin after the fractious encounter between Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo on 2 December 1978, when he allegedly walked into the locker room of Dynamo Dresden and told the players that "You must understand, the capital city needs a champion!".[300] However, according to another version, he instead made this remark when the players of Dynamo Dresden celebrated their title in 1978 and he allegedly ghosted into their locker room to inform them that BFC Dynamo will be champions next year.[301] And according to yet another version, this happened instead after BFC Dynamo had won its second title in 1980, when Erich Mielke allegedly told the players of Dynamo Dresden that "One must understand, the capital city needs a champion."[135] Dynamo Dresden was one point ahead of BFC Dynamo before the last match day of the 1979-80 DDR-Oberliga. BFC Dynamo met Dynamo Dresden home in the last matchday on 10 May 1980. BFC Dynamo won the match 1-0 and captured the league title. Dynamo Dresden player Udo Schmuck remembers how Mielke came into the locker room of Dynamo Dresden after the match with a gold medal around his neck. He allegedly said: "It doesn't matter. The main thing is that Dynamo is champion!".[302] Mielke is also said to have told Dynamo Dresden player Hans-Jürgen Dörner at the same occasion; "Comrade Dörner, it is clear to all of you that the title belongs in the capital, now it's the turn of the BFC."[303]
  10. ^ Supporters of 1. FC Union Berlin used the same provocation at away matches in Saxony, despite their cultivation of their club's underdog image. A supporter of 1. FC Union Berlin has testified that they brought Cuban organges and rotten bananas to an away match against FC Karl-Marx-Stadt, fully aware that these fruits were symbols of their privileges as East Berliners.[334]
  11. ^ BFC Dynamo was officially a club of the Ministry of the Interior.[344] The official sponsor (German: Träger) of the club was the Volkspolizei.[345] The official sponsor of Union Berlin was the state-owned combine VVB Hochspannungsgeräte und Kabel.[346]
  12. ^ The football clubs had been assigned one or two districts in East Germany as catchment areas at their founding. 1. FC Union Berlin had been assigned Bezirk Potsdam and one third of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. BFC Dynamo had been assigned Bezirk Cottbus and one third of training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. BFC Dynamo now had access to Bezirk Cottbus and two thirds of all training centers (TZ) in East Berlin. 1. FC Union Berlin on the other hand had to make do with its training centers (TZ) in East Berlin.[360][341]
  13. ^ Also FC Vorwärts Berlin was initially a focus club in East Berlin.[377] The only major club in East Berlin that was never appointed as focus club was 1. FC Union Berlin.[371] FC Vorwärts Berlin continued to be part of the group of focus clubs after its relocation to Frankfurt an der Oder.[377]
  14. ^ Football clubs were given performance assignments from the DTSB that had to be fulfilled. The clubs then had to report on the fulfillment in two-year analyzes. Union Berlin had the objective in 1977-78 of producing four players who could be delegated to the focus club BFC Dynamo. Union Berlin explained that its downward trend in the youth area was due to the fact that the club had to delegate its two best players to the focus club every year and that the club could only rely on four boroughs in East Berlin for further selection.[353]
  15. ^ The club management of 1. FC Union Berlin seriously considered moving all matches to Stadion der Weltjugend after a stormy encounter with BSG Wismut Aue in 1976.[382]
  16. ^ Manfred Kirste was the first president and is the longest serving president. He served as club president from 15 January 1966 to 30 August 1988.
  17. ^ Served briefly as an interim president, from 20 February 1990 to 27 May 1990.[437]
  18. ^ Dr. Klaus Janz served until 15 October 1990.[438] He asked to be relieved from the office due to professional stress as a lawyer. He continued as vice president.[439]
  19. ^ Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich became club president on 15 October 1990. He had a background as a club doctor for SC Dynamo Berlin and BFC Dynamo. Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich had previously served as vice president.[440][439] The presidium under Dr. Wolfgang Hösrich was replaced by a new presidium under Eberhard Landmann in May 1994.[441][442]
  20. ^ Eberhard Landmann was a former insurance salesman. He only served as club president for nine months.[441][442][443]
  21. ^ Klaus Bittroff was elected as the new president on 10 February 1995. Volkmar Wanski was elected as one of two vice presidents alongside re-elected Lutz Hoff.[444][443]
  22. ^ Resigned on 29 June 2000.[445][443][446]
  23. ^ Sports director Hans Reker was appointed acting president by the Economic council following the resignation of Volkmar Wanski on 29 June 2000.[445][446] Karin Halsch took office as new president on 27 September 2000.[447]
  24. ^ Karin Halsch was known as Karin Seidel-Kalmutzki during the era. Served from 27 September 2000 to 25 June 2001.[447][448]
  25. ^ Sports director Hans Reker served as acting president following the resignation of Karin Halsch on 25 June 2000.[448][449] Hans Reker held the position of vice president in the presidium of Karin Halsch.[450][451] He resigned together with the entire presidium on 30 October 2001.[452] An emergency board formed by André Sommer, Rayk Bernt and press spokesman Holger Zimmermann took office. The emergency board was meant to serve until the extraordinary general meeting on 26 November 2001.[452][218]
  26. ^ An emergency board formed by André Sommer, Rayk Bernt and press spokesman Holger Zimmermann took office on 1 November 2001. No new president was appointed for the transitional board.[452][218] Zimmerman soon resigned on 23 November 2001.[28] A new presidium was due to be elected on the extraordinary general meeting on 26 November 2001. However, the meeting agenda was changed with the votes 87 to 59 at the insistence of the emergency board. The meeting was converted into an information event and new elections were postponed.[28][453] Club members collected signatures for the election of a new presidium. But the signatures would be ignored by Sommer and Bernt.[454] The Sommer and Bernt presidium was finally overthrown by supporters and the former coach of the women's team Volkmar Lucius after an application to the Charlottenburg district court.[454][455] The Charlottenburg district court appointed Lucius as emergency board member.[454] A new presidium was elected on the extraordinary general meeting on 31 May 2002.[456]
  27. ^ Elected on an extraordinary general meeting on 31 May 2002.[456]
  28. ^ Mario Weinkauf was elected president on 18 June 2004.[457] He resigned on a meeting with the presidium on 22 June 2007. He was then dismissed in a vote of no-confidence on an extra-ordinary general meeting on 23 June 2007. Mario Weinkauf was succeeded by Volkmar Wanski as interim president. Volkmar Wanski had been co-opted into the presidium and elected as the provisional successor to Mario Weinkauf on the meeting with the presidium on 22 June 2007. However the interim presidency of Volkmar Wanski was controversial. It was put into question whether his election was compliant with club statutes. Volkmar Wanski resigned after only six days.[458][459][460]
  29. ^ Frank Bertron was launched as interim president by the Economic Council under Peter Meyer.[102][460] He was presented as new president on 28 June 2007.[460]
  30. ^ Norbert Uhlig is the second longest serving president after Manfred Kirste. Norbert Uhlig has been president since 11 October 2008.[461]
  31. ^ German sports historian Hanns Leske writes that BFC Dynamo was able to recruit young players from the youth departments of all sports communities (SG) of SV Dynamo in East Germany, except those in Bezirk Dresden.[483] German author Anne Hahn writes that the training centers (TZ) of SV Dynamo across East Germany were divided between BFC Dynamo and SG Dynamo Dresden. She writes that the catchment area of BFC Dynamo included the SV Dynamo sports communities (SG) of Rostock-Mitte, Neustrelitz, Fürstenwalde, Schwerin and Berlin. The best talents were brought together in these sports communities (SG) and then selected in a central, multi-day screening course.[484]

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  224. ^ Bertram, Marco (2015). BFC Dynamo Fußballfibel (1st ed.). Berlin: CULTURCON medien, Sole trader: Bernd Oeljeschläger. p. 119. ISBN 978-3-944068-38-1.
  225. ^ Görke, André (30 May 2000). "Schlechte Erinnerungen und Hoffen auf ein friedliches Finale vor dem heutigen Duell". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 4 June 2021. Schließlich sind nicht alle Fans des BFC Dynamo Gewalttäter oder gar Rechtsradikale. Und die älteren BFC-Fans freuen sich auch nicht gerade über den Besuch der Rechten. "Wenn hundert organisierte Nazis in unserem Fanblock stehen und Sprüche gegen Juden und Türken machen, kriege ich Pickel", sagte beispielsweise BFC-Fan Titus nach der Randale im vergangenen Jahr.
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  234. ^ "Randale im Jahn-Sportpark: Verletzte Polizisten bei Krawallen nach Fußballspiel des BFC Dynamo". Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Berlin: Berliner Morgenpost GmbH. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  235. ^ Iowa, Nicolas (26 April 2005). "Gezielte Provokationen: Beim Fußballspiel zwischen Yesilyurt und dem BFC Dynamo kommt es zu Ausschreitungen". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 5 December 2021.
  236. ^ a b Wolf, Matthias (8 August 2005). "Aggression zum Auftakt: Anhänger des Oberligisten BFC Dynamo randalieren". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 5 December 2021. Beim Bierfest in Friedrichshain sollen BFC-Anhänger dann gezielt ausländiche Mitbürger attackiert haben, so die Polizei. 'Wir distanzieren uns von dieser Gruppe', erklärte Kaufmann, 'das ist ein Mob von Reisefans, der überall Ärger machen will und jetzt den BFC in Misskredit bringt.'
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  243. ^ a b c "Razzia in Berlin: 180 Fußball-Anhänger festgenommen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung GmbH. 21 August 2005. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
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  245. ^ a b "Heult doch, ihr Hools!". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. 22 August 2005. Retrieved 20 November 2020.
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  248. ^ Wolf, Matthias (5 September 2005). "Frustriert im Vereinsheim: Der BFC Dynamo verliert erneut und ist jetzt Letzter". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 4 November 2021.
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  250. ^ a b Wolf, Matthias (15 May 2006). "Wild auf Gewalt: Beim Oberligaderby zwischen dem BFC und Union Berlin machen wie befürchtet Hooligans mobil". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 12 November 2021.
  251. ^ a b c Koch, Matthias (23 May 2006). "Sportgericht bestraft BFC Dynamo". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  252. ^ Koch, matthias (15 June 2006). "Nach Hooligan-Krawallen: BFC verzichtet auf Zuschauer". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH.
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  255. ^ Stein, Marcel (30 July 2013). "BFC Dynamo sehnt sich nach einem Fußballfest im DFB-Pokal". Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Berlin: Berliner Morgenpost GmbH. Archived from the original on 24 August 2013. Retrieved 4 June 2021.
  256. ^ a b "BFC-Randale nach Sieg von Ankaraspor". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 2 June 2010. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  257. ^ Schulz, Jürgen (4 June 2010). "BFC Dynamo droht nach dem Randale-Finale eine Pokal-Sperre". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH.
  258. ^ Bock, Andreas (3 June 2010). ""Das sind Krawalltouristen"". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 16 May 2021.
  259. ^ "BFC Dynamo vs. Kaiserslautern: Hunderte Hooligans stürmen Gästeblock". Spiegel (in German). Hamburg: DER SPIEGEL GmbH & Co. KG. 30 July 2011. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  260. ^ Völker, Markus (31 July 2011). "Hooliganattacken bei BFC Dynamo – Lautern: Auf die Fresse!". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 29 November 2020.
  261. ^ "Marsch gegen Zwangsabstieg". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. 26 October 2001. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  262. ^ Wolf, Matthias (23 October 2001). "Der BFC Dynamo geht in Insolvenz: Fans demonstrieren gegen den Fall in die Kreisliga C". Berliner Zeitung (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 6 June 2021.
  263. ^ Meyer, Ulli (14 April 2003). "Das besondere Berliner Derby". Fußball-Woche (de) (in German). Berlin: Fußball-Woche Verlags GmbH. Retrieved 7 June 2021.
  264. ^ "Vor 28 Jahren wurde Mike Polley erschossen". Faszination Fankurve (in German). Brühl: Faszination Fankurve, Sole trader: Johannes Mäling. 3 November 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  265. ^ "28 Mannschaften beim Fan-Turnier". Fußball-Woche (de) (in German). Berlin: Fußball-Woche Verlags GmbH. 20 October 2003. Retrieved 26 September 2021.
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  269. ^ Willmann, Frank (26 September 2012). "Willmanns Kolumne: Arthur aus Marzahn -". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  270. ^ Bertram, Marco (2015). BFC Dynamo Fußballfibel (1st ed.). Berlin: CULTURCON medien, Sole trader: Bernd Oeljeschläger. p. 137. ISBN 978-3-944068-38-1.
  271. ^ a b "FanProjekt Berlin: Aufsuchende pädagogische Arbeit mit jugendlichen Fußballfans". sportjugend-berlin.de (in German). Berlin: Landessportbund Berlin e.V. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  272. ^ Koch, Matthias (30 July 2007). ""Wer pöbelt, der fliegt"". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 28 December 2021. Das betrifft Rechte und Hooligans? Das betrifft alle, die bei Fußballspielen stören. Wer Naziparolen brüllt, fliegt aus dem Stadion.
  273. ^ a b "BFC DYNAMO: Nach dem drohenden Spielverbot schlägt Fan-Beauftragter Rainer Lüdtke im B.Z.-Interview Alarm". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 21 August 2007. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  274. ^ Hasselmann, Jörg (18 August 2007). "Furcht vor Krawall: Polizei macht Druck beim BFC Dynamo". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 8 January 2022.
  275. ^ "BFC Dynamo-Fans treffen sich am Alexanderplatz". Faszination Fankurve (in German). Brühl: Faszination Fankurve, Sole trader: Johannes Mäling. 15 August 2018. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  276. ^ a b Glaser, Joakim (2015). Fotboll från Mielke till Merkel – Kontinuitet, brott och förändring i supporterkultur i östra Tyskland [Football from Mielke to Merkel] (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Malmö: Arx Förlag AB. p. 98. ISBN 978-91-87043-61-1.
  277. ^ Lier, Axel (6 August 2019). "Hertha hat die meisten 'Problem-Fans'". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  278. ^ Füchsel, Katja (23 November 2019). "Seit 25 Jahren fast jedes Wochenende im Stadion: Uwe Storm jagt Hools in seiner Friezeit". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 24 May 2020.
  279. ^ a b Füchsel, Katja (23 November 2019). "Uwe Storm jagt Hools in seiner Friezeit". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 5 December 2020.
  280. ^ Bunkus, Mathias. "Alles, was Sie über das Aufstiegsduell zwischen Oldenburg und dem BFC Dynamo wissen müssen". Berliner Kurier (in German). Berlin: Berliner Verlag GmbH. Retrieved 8 June 2022.
  281. ^ "BFC Dynamo verpasst Aufstieg in die 3. Liga knapp". www.rbb24.de (in German). Berlin: Rundfunk Berlin-Brandenburg. 4 June 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  282. ^ ""Vollkatastrophe" – Dynamo sauer nach verpasstem Aufstieg". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 4 June 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
  283. ^ "Sch**ß Relegation! Meister müssen aufsteigen! Der BFC im Tal der (Pfeffer-)Tränen". turus.net (in German). Essen: Karsten Höft. 6 June 2022. Retrieved 7 June 2022.
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  285. ^ Glaser, Joakim (2015). Fotboll från Mielke till Merkel – Kontinuitet, brott och förändring i supporterkultur i östra Tyskland [Football from Mielke to Merkel] (in Swedish) (1st ed.). Malmö: Arx Förlag AB. pp. 97–98. ISBN 978-91-87043-61-1.
  286. ^ Wolf, Matthias (2 October 1999). "Mit Musik zum Derby: Eine Hymne für den BFC Dynamo". Berliner Zeitung. Berlin.
  287. ^ Zinsmaier, Markus (26 February 2008). "Der Schläger greift zum Stuhlbein". Die Zeit (in German). Hamburg: Zeit Online GmbH. Retrieved 25 January 2022.
  288. ^ Lorenz, Mirko (4 July 2016). "Wie die orangene Bomberjacke ihr Nazi-Image ablegte". Vice (in German). Berlin: VICE Media GmbH. Retrieved 8 July 2020.
  289. ^ Rüttenauer, Andreas (25 May 2004). "Der schöne Schein von Hoolywood". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 14 October 2021.
  290. ^ a b Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). pp. 146–147. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  291. ^ McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  292. ^ a b Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag GmbH. p. 16. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4. Mit Beschluss des DTSB-Bezirksvorstandes vom 5. August 1968 wird Dynamo zum Fußball-Leistungszentrum im Berizk Dresden, das damit in der gesamten Region auf Spielersuche gehen kann.
  293. ^ "Jubiläumswelle im Osten: Beschluss der Sport-Führung war Auslöser". Frankfurter Rundschau (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Frankfurter Rundschau GmbH. 18 June 2016. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  294. ^ "Der 'Lange' in einer Spielertraube". Neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (De) (in German). Vol. 1971, no. 25. Berlin: DFV der DDR. 22 June 1971. p. 5. ISSN 0323-8407. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  295. ^ "Fußball-Dresden darf sich freuen: Meister Dynamo holte auch den Pokal!" (PDF). Neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (De) (in German). Vol. 1971, no. 25. Berlin: DFV der DDR. 22 June 1971. p. 3. ISSN 0323-8407. Retrieved 9 April 2022.
  296. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2001). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Die "Bearbeitung" der Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden durch das MfS 1979–1989 (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Chrisoph Links Verlag - LinksDruck GmbH. p. 278. ISBN 3-86153-235-2. In den Redetexten zu den folgenden BFC-Meisterfeiern verloren sich die Worten a die 'Freunde aus Dresden'. Im Jahr der Wende musste Mielke zur Meisterfeier wieder einmal an die Elbe reisen. Der volretzte DDR-Meisterteitel von Dynamo Dresden wurde auf der Bastei im Elbsandsteingebirge gefeiert. Reinhard Häfner erinnert sich: 'Mielke sagte, ihm wäre es zwar lieber, wenn die BFC Meister ist, aber da es ja auch Dynamo st, bleibt es sozusagen in der Familie, und das ist aucht gut.'
  297. ^ Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
  298. ^ a b Klein, Daniel (11 April 2018). "Der Rivale aus Berlin". Sächsische.de (in German). Dresden: DDV Mediengruppe GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 4 January 2022. Im Juni 1978 kam Erich Mielke nach Dresden. Es war ein nicht so angenehmer Termin für den Stasi- Chef und ersten Vorsitzender der Sportvereinigung Dynamo. Im Hotel und Restaurant Bastei auf der Prager Straße musste er den Dresdnern zur gewonnenen Meisterschaft gratulieren, was ihm als obersten Fan des BFC Dynamo schwergefallen sein dürfte. Seine Rede vor der Mannschaft war an Deutlichkeit nicht zu überbieten. 'Hört zu Genossen', begann er. 'Es ist schön, dass Ihr aus unserer Sportvereinigung nun schon zum dritten Mal in Folge den Fußballmeistertitel für Dynamo errungen habt. Herzlichen Glückwunsch, auch von mir. (...) Aber wir werden alles tun, damit im kommenden Jahr der Meister aus der Hauptstadt Berlin kommt und Ihr als Speerspitze den zweiten Platz belegen werdet.'
  299. ^ "Interview: Mythos Dynamo – was steckt dahinter?". mdr.de (in German). Leipzig: Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
  300. ^ McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  301. ^ Buckley, Will (22 October 2009). "The forgotten story of ... East Germany's DDR-Oberliga". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 10 September 2020.
  302. ^ Franke, Jan (22 July 2014). "Interview mit Udo Schmuck". dynamo-dresden.de (in German). Dresden: SG Dynamo Dresden e.V. Retrieved 3 January 2021. An eine sehr kuriose Geschichte kann ich mich erinnern! 1980 gab es in der Oberliga am letzten Spieltag gewissermaßen ein Finale gegen den BFC Dynamo um die Meisterschaft. Wir hatten einen Punkt Vorsprung und bestritten das letzte Spiel in Berlin beim BFC. Die Berliner mussten gewinnen, um Meister zu werden, und sie gewannen 1:0. Nach dem Spiel kam der Minister Erich Mielke zu uns in die Kabine. Er hatte eine Goldmedaille um den Hals hängen, wir waren natürlich sehr enttäuscht, was er uns wohl angesehen hat. Er sagte nämlich: 'Das ist doch egal. Hauptsache, Dynamo ist Meister!'
  303. ^ Ruf, Christian (6 December 2019). "Was ein echter Dynamo-Dresden-Fan wissen muss: 101 schwarz-gelbe Momente in Buchform". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. Retrieved 4 January 2022. Und dann musste sich Rekordspieler 'Dixie' Dörner nach dem Abpfiff in der Kabine von Stasi-Chef Erich Mielke noch sagen lassen: 'Genosse Dörner, es ist euch doch allen klar, dass der Titel in die Hauptstadt gehört, jetzt ist der BFC dran.'
  304. ^ Braun, Jutta (2015). Münkel, Daniela (ed.). State Security: A reader on the GDR secret police (PDF). Berlin: German Federal Archives. pp. 86–87. ISBN 978-3-942130-97-4. Retrieved 13 April 2022.
  305. ^ a b Friedemann, Horst (1991). Sparwasser und Mauerblümchen: Die Geschichte des Fussballs in der DDR, 1949–1991 (in German) (1st ed.). Essen: Klartext Verlag. p. 128. ISBN 978-3884744628. Das DDR-weite Sichtungssystem mit 33 Trainingszentren der SV Dynamo sowie im Partnerbezirk Cottbus hat den Talentenachschub nie abreiß en lassen.
  306. ^ Teichler, Hans Joachim (4 May 2006). "Fußball in der DDR". bpb.de (in German). Bonn: Federal Agency for Civic Education. Retrieved 10 October 2020. Diese resultierten einerseits aus einer einseitigen sportlichen Nachwuchsarbeit, wodurch die besten Spieler automatisch beim BFC spielten, und andererseits aus einer systematischen politischen Einflussnahme.
  307. ^ "SG Dynamo Dresden – BFC Dynamo, 1:1, Oberliga, 1978/1979, Spieltag". dfb.de (in German). Frankfurt am Main: Deutscher Fußball-Bund e.V. Retrieved 11 August 2021.
  308. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2001). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: die "Bearbeitung" der Sportgemeinschaft Dynamo Dresden durch das MfS 1978-1989 (in German) (1st ed.). Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag GmbH. p. 220. ISBN 3-86153-235-2.
  309. ^ Simon, Günter (5 December 1978). "BFC konterte mit besseren Chancen" (PDF). Neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (De) (in German). Vol. 1978, no. 49. Berlin: DFV der DDR. p. 4. ISSN 0323-8407. Retrieved 17 April 2022.
  310. ^ McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 228. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  311. ^ a b Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). pp. 148–149. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  312. ^ a b c McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  313. ^ Binkowski, Manfred (13 May 1980). "Im Hundertsten schlug der Libero zu" (PDF). Neue Fußballwoche (FuWo) (De) (in German). Vol. 1980, no. 20. Berlin: DFV der DDR. p. 5. ISSN 0323-8407. Retrieved 5 January 2022.
  314. ^ a b c Leimer, Jochen (26 January 2022). "Von Görlitz über Dynamo in die Welt: Wie "Dixie" und die SGD dem BFC das Double vermasselten". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. Retrieved 29 January 2022.
  315. ^ "Armee, Polizei und Stasi: Fußball-Sponsoring der anderen Art". Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). München: Süddeutsche Zeitung Digitale Medien GmbH. 16 October 2019. Retrieved 10 April 2021.
  316. ^ Dobbert, Steffen (2 September 2009). "Schicksale des DDR-Fußballs". Die Zeit (in German). Hamburg: Zeit Online GmbH. Retrieved 10 March 2022.
  317. ^ a b c Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism - Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). pp. 145–146. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  318. ^ Braun, Jutta; Wiese, René (2 November 2013). "Aktion Vortsoss". 11 Freunde (in German). Berlin: 11FREUNDE Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 7 November 2020.
  319. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag GmbH. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4. Bei Meisterfeiern war zumindest die Dresdner Stasispitze stets awesend, 1978 und 1989 auch Stasi-Chef Mielke als 1. Vorsitzender der Sportvereinigung Dynamo. Anfang der achtziger Jahre, die große Ära der Mannschaft war vorbei, wurde das Dresdner MfS – and dessen Spitze mittlerweile der von Honecker ungewöhnlich schnell zum Generalmajor beförderte Horst Böhm stand – neben seiner Sicherungs- und Aufklärungsarbeit, die von den Spielern auch bei den Auslandseinsätzen registriert wurde, als Sponsor aktiver.
  320. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (11 June 2018). "Was der Geheimdienst der DDR mit dem Sport zu tun hatte". Dresdner Neueste Nachrichten (in German). Hannover: Verlagsgesellschaft Madsack GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  321. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (in German) (2nd ed.). Berlin: Christoph Links Verlag GmbH. pp. 31–32. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4. Wenn es um ihren Fußball ging, wurde Dresdner Stasi, Polizei und SED zu reinen Lokalpatrioten. Von einer aus Berlin durchgestellten Linie konnten die Spieler da nichts erkennen. Häfner: »Eher im Gegenteil, würde ich fast sagen. Also allein, wenn ich an die Feierlichkeit denke, als wir gegen den BFC gewonnen hatten, als ich da den Böhm gesehen habe und die Seite von der Partei … Das war der größte Sieg, gerade gegen den ›großen Bruder‹. Da kann ich mir nicht vorstellen, daß, was den Fußball angeht, hier intern groß mit Berlin zusammengearbeitet wurde. Es waren Lokalpatrioten. Also die führenden Leute, gerade wie Böhm und Nyffenegger (Chef der Bezirksbehörde der Volkspolizei – d.A.). Modrow weniger, da war es mehr der Stammnitz (Lothar Stammnitz war 2. Sekretär der SED-Bezirksleitung und für Sport verantwortlich – d.A.), der war ganz verrückt. Jedes Jahr mußten wir – vor der Saison, nach der Halbserie – eine Art Rechenschaftsbericht ablegen, da gab es immer ein Essen, wir mußten unsere Bekenntnisse abgeben, dass wir kämpfen für den Bezirk Dresden.«
  322. ^ Launer, Anton (15 May 2015). "In den Tiefen der Stasi-Keller". Neustadt-Geflüster (in German). Dresden: Jan Frintert. Retrieved 19 October 2021.
  323. ^ a b c d e f g McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 135–139. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  324. ^ a b Schwarz, Jürgen (8 December 2014). "Der Ausgestoßene". Sächsische Zeitung (in German). Dresden: Sächsische Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  325. ^ Riemer, Thomas (17 December 2018). "Anzeige in der Zeitung sorgt für Gerüchte". Sächsische Zeitung (in German). Dresden: Sächsische Zeitung GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021.
  326. ^ a b c Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 1348. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  327. ^ Boeger, Peter; Catrain, Elise, eds. (2016). Stasi in Dresden- Die Geheimpolizei im DDR-Bezirk (PDF) (in German). Berlin: Stasi Records Agency. p. 44. ISBN 978-3-946572-02-2. Retrieved 11 April 2021. Ist der Fall Kotte ein Einzelfall in der DDR oder doch ein Beispiel für eine systematische Einflussnahme des MfS auf den Fußball? Die große Furcht des MfS vor republikflüchtigen Fußballern, Fans und Funktionären war allgegenwärtig. Solche »Sportverräter« durfte es nicht geben. Die Angst der SED vor politischen Schäden und erheblichen negativen Auswirkungen auf den Leistungssport bestimmte das Handeln des MfS. Deshalb waren Spieler und Anhänger der Fußballclubs ständig im Fadenkreuz der Stasi. Der Fall Kotte ist kein Einzelfall.
  328. ^ Pleil, Ingolf (31 July 2007). "Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft". Hamburger Abendblatt (in German). Hamburg: FUNKE Medien Hamburg GmbH. Retrieved 25 December 2021.
  329. ^ Leimert, Jochen (24 January 2021). ""Kann sich heute keiner mehr vorstellen": Ex-Dynamo Müller erinnert sich an sein ungeplantes Karriereaus". Sportbuzzer (in German). Hannover: Sportbuzzer GmbH. Retrieved 11 April 2021. Glauben Sie, dass der dem BFC zugetane Minister für Staatssicherheit mit seinem kompromisslosen Vorgehen gegen drei Dresdner Spieler bewusst die Dynamo-Konkurrenz aus Elbflorenz schwächen wollte, um seinem Lieblingsclub die Vormachtstellung zu sichern? Das glaube ich nicht nur, das weiß ich zu 100 Prozent.
  330. ^ a b Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 149. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
  331. ^ Völker, Markus (18 July 2015). "Geschichte des BFC Dynamo: Weinrote Welt ohne gelbe Karten". Die Tageszeitung (in German). Berlin: taz Verlags u. Vertriebs GmbH. Retrieved 20 August 2019.
  332. ^ Geisler, Sven (9 August 2013). "Verpfiffen". Sächsische.de (in German). Dresden: DDV Mediengruppe GmbH & Co. KG. Archived from the original on 16 November 2020. Retrieved 16 May 2020.
  333. ^ McDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
  334. ^ Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 131. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8. Moreover, for all their cultivation of the club's underdog image, Union fans were not averse to basking in the glow of their superiority as Berliners over provincial rivals. One fan, "PID", boast that they took Cuban oranges and rotten bananas to Karl-Marx-Stadt, aware that these symbols of privilege would annoy the locals. Insult was added when the Berliners showed their disdain for the poor-quality fruit by using it as missiles.
  335. ^ Schubert, Florian (2019). Antisemitismus im Fußball: Tradition und Tabubruch (1 ed.). Gottingen: Wallstein Verlag GmbH. p. 114. ISBN 978-3-8353-4332-0.
  336. ^ "Ralf Minge spricht über Mielke, BFC, Schnee in Aue und darüber, was Union so stark macht". ddr-oberliga.de (in German). Dresden: Gunnar Klehm. 29 November 2018. Retrieved 25 July 2021. 'Würden Sie sich freuen, wenn es mal wieder so ein Dynamo-Duell geben würde, wenn der BFC so hochklassig spielen würde, wie Dynamo Dresden? René Rydlewicz macht in Berlin schließlich eine ansprechende Arbei...' 'Ja, das macht er. Warum nicht? Das hat schon einen gewissen Charme.'
  337. ^ a b c d e f Stier, Sebastian (18 January 2016). "1. FC Union, FC Vorwärts, BFC Dynamo: Als die DDR ihren Fußballbetrieb revolutionierte". Der Tagesspiegel (in German). Berlin: Verlag Der Tagesspiegel GmbH. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  338. ^ a b c d e f g h i Dost, Robert (17 January 2011). Written at Berlin. Der zivile Club - Die gesellschaftliche Stellung des 1.FC Union Berlin und seiner Anhänger in der DDR (PDF) (Bachelor thesis) (in German). Mittweida: Hochschule Mittweida. pp. 12–13. Retrieved 4 April 2021.
  339. ^ Benedikter, Roland; Wojtaszyn, Dariusz (2020). Football Politics in Central Eur