Berliner FC Dynamo
|Full name||Berliner Fussball Club Dynamo e. V.|
|Nickname(s)||"The Wine Reds"|
|Founded||15 January 1966|
|League||Regionalliga Nordost (IV)|
SC Dynamo Berlin was founded as a sports club in East Berlin on 1 October 1954.[nb 1] As all clubs bearing the name Dynamo, it was part of SV Dynamo, the Sports Association for the security agencies. The president of SV Dynamo was Erich Mielke, at the time Deputy State Secretary of the State Secretariat for State Security, commonly known as Stasi. Erich Mielke was a huge football enthusiast, who saw football as a way of aggrandizing East Germany and socialism.
In order to establish a competitive side in Berlin, the team of Dynamo Dresden was relocated to East Berlin, to play as SC Dynamo Berlin. Political factors and pressure from Erich Mielke were probably the main reasons behind the relocation.[nb 2] The relocation was designed to provide the capital with a team that could rival Hertha BSC, Blau-Weiß 1890 Berlin and Tennis Borussia Berlin, which were still popular in East Berlin and drew football fans to West Berlin. A common idea is that Erich Mielke personally ordered the relocation.
Some of the players transferred from Dynamo Dresden, Johannes Matzen, Herbert Schoen and Günter Schröter, had a few years earlier been ordered to leave SG Volkspolizei Potsdam for Dresden. In Dresden they had joined the new football team SG Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden, which replaced the popular, but bourgeois, SG Friedrichstadt. SG Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden soon became a dominant side in East German football and was renamed Dynamo Dresden in 1953. The city of Dresden had two sides in the DDR-Oberliga in the 1953–54 season, as BSG Rotation Dresden (then BSG Sachsenverlag Dresden) had qualified for league in 1950. Berlin hade none, and this did not please Erich Mielke. Berlin was the capital of the republic, and he felt it needed a strong football team to represent it.
The team finished its first league season as SC Dynamo Berlin on seventh place. It was relegated to the DDR-Liga in 1957, but returned to the top level after only one season, and finished the 1959 DDR-Oberliga on third place. SC Dynamo Berlin then won its first trophy in the 1959 FDGB-Pokal, defeating SC Wismut Karl-Marx-Stadt in the final. The first leg ended 0–0, but the second leg was won 3–2, with two goals scored by Christian Hofmann and one penalty goal scored by Günter Schröter.
SC Dynamo Berlin had some success in the first seasons of the 1960s, with a second place in the 1960 DDR-Oberliga season and an appearance in the 1961 FDGB-Pokal final. But SC Dynamo Berlin would find itself overshadowed in the capital by the army sponsored ASK Vorwärts Berlin, who had captured the league title in 1958 and 1960, and would go on to capture four more league titles over the coming years. The team of SC Dynamo Berlin of the 1960s was relatively weak. Their play had fallen off by 1963, and they became a lower table side. The former Dresden players had also started to age, and a second relegation to the DDR-Liga would eventually occur.
A bitter dispute erupted in 1965 between SC Dynamo Berlin and SG Dynamo Schwerin, over the delegation of three players from SG Dynamo Schwerin to SC Dynamo Berlin. Local SED politicians and SV Dynamo functionaries in Schwerin wanted to transform the city into a major footballing center, and complained the reduction of SG Dynamo Schwerin into a feeder club. The disparity between SC Dynamo Berlin and SG Dynamo Schwerin was significant. The wage bill of officials and players was 315,559 Marks at SC Dynamo Berlin in the 1964-65-season, compared to 19,428 Marks at SG Dynamo Schwerin. When SC Dynamo Berlin tried to exercise its right to draw talented players from SG Dynamo Schwerin through delegation, members of the local SED Regional Administration Executive Committee and local SV Dynamo functionaries put up fierce resistance. SV Dynamo and Erich Mielke was conscious of the mass appeal of football and the role of SC Dynamo Berlin in the reputation of the Stasi. The delegation was eventually cancelled, but the dispute caused antipathy between the two Dynamo clubs.
East German football was re-organized in the middle of the 1960s, when some football departments were made independent from their umbrella sports clubs to create ten football clubs. These ten football clubs and Dynamo Dresden were designated as focus clubs, so called Schwerpunktclubs. They were elite clubs meant to provide stability to the game at the top level and to supply the national team with talent. Promising players would be ordered to play for them. As part of this re-organization, the football department of SC Dynamo Berlin was separated from the Sports Club in 1966 and reformed into football club Berliner FC Dynamo. SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen was also disbanded, and joined with BFC Dynamo. SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen was made the reserve team of BFC Dynamo.
SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen had been founded in 1952 under the name SG Dynamo Berlin. After the founding of SC Dynamo Berlin, there were two football teams in Berlin bearing the name "Dynamo Berlin". SG Dynamo Berlin was therefore renamed SG Dynamo Berlin-Mitte. SG Dynamo Berlin-Mitte merged with the reserve team of SC Dynamo Berlin in 1957 and reformed into SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen. SG Dynamo Hohenschönhausen had consisted mostly of young talents and former players of SC Dynamo Berlin.
Berliner FC Dynamo was founded on 15 January 1966. Elected as honorary president was Erich Mielke.
The club was formed as an elite club, and was planned to become a figurehead and flagship of East German football. The players were meant to become socialist heroes, and the team was destined to compete on European level, boosting East German self-confidence and international prestige. This was to be achieved through concentration of sports performance, politically justified. Supported by Erich Mielke and SV Dynamo, BFC Dynamo would over the years be given access to the best training facilities, equipment, coaching staff and talents, but it would also be delegated some of the best players from other teams.
Delegation of football players and concentration of the best players in one team was common practice in East Germany, as in the Eastern Bloc.[nb 3] This was part of a sports system, where talents and the best players were delegated to elite clubs or concentrated in centers of excellence. Focus clubs, such as BFC Dynamo, had access to talents within a designated geographical and administrative region, and permission to draw on the best players in the country. But football in East Germany was also a contested sphere. Teams were relocated and frequently renamed, and players were delegated from one team to another, in accordance with political criteria, or due to machinations of powerful political leaders or interest groups at regional or central level. The backing of a sponsor was crucial to the development of a team. The favoring of BFC Dynamo was not uncontested in the East German sports political establishment, not even within SV Dynamo itself. Political officials in Dresden and Leipzig, two cities with strong traditions in German football, had aspirations for their local teams. But despite opposition, Erich Mielke would manage to concentrate some of the best players in Hohenschönhausen.
Beginning and riseEdit
The 1966–67 season ended with relegation to the second tier DDR-Liga. A match beween SG Dynamo Schwerin and BFC Dynamo in Schwerin during the 1967–78 DDR-Liga season ended in serious disporder among home fans. Going back to the dispute over player delegations in 1965, feelings between the two clubs had been tence. But the decisive factor causing the riots was perceived manipulation of the game by the referee. BFC Dynamo would win the match narrowly by 2–1. A Stasi investigation revealed that a sense of injustice was share also by members of the regional Stasi and that some members, who had attended the game, had either left the ground or followed the events passively.
BFC Dynamo would dominate the 1967–68 DDR-Liga and immediately bounce back to the DDR-Oberliga. The club would struggle to reach the top of the league, before it finally captured a second place in 1971–72 season. But this period also saw Dynamo Dresden return to dominance. Dynamo Dresden had been severely weakened by the establishment of SC Dynamo Berlin in 1954 and also suffered relegation the same year. The club managed to return to the DDR-Oberliga in 1962 and won the championship in 1971. Dynamo Dresden would become one of the main rivals of BFC Dynamo, and the 1970s would largely belong to Dynamo Dresden, followed by 1. FC Magdeburg. But another rival would at the same time disappear when the Stasi outmaneuvered the army in 1971 and FC Vortwärts Berlin was relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder. Erich Mielke regarded FC Vortwärts Berlin as a competitor to BFC Dynamo in the capital, while his fellow Politburo member and SED First Secretary of the Bezirk Frankfurt, Erich Mückenberger, anticipated a boost for the Frankfurt and der Oder region.
BFC Dynamo reached the final of the 1970–71 FDGB-Pokal, but lost 2–1 to Dynamo Dresden at the Kurt-Wabbel-Stadion in Halle. The club then made its first appearance in the European Cup Winners' Cup in the following season. BFC Dynamo reached the semi finals of the 1971–72 European Cup Winners' Cup, but was eliminated by Dynamo Moscow on penalty shootout.
BFC Dynamo finished runners up in the 1971–72 DDR-Oberliga, and qualified for the UEFA Cup for the first time. The club reached the third round of the 1972–73 UEFA Cup, where it faced Liverpool FC. The team managed a 0–0 draw before 20,000 spectators at the Dynamo-Stadion im Sportforum, but suffered a 3–1 defeat at Anfield, with a single goal scored by Wolf-Rüdiger Netz.
BFC Dynamo only finished on sixth place in the following two seasons, but captured a second place in the 1975–76 DDR-Oberliga season. The team qualified for the 1976–77 UEFA Cup but was eliminated by Shakhtar Donetsk in the first round.
Dynamo Dresden would capture their third league title in a row at the end of the 1977–78 season. What happened after is subject to various rumors. Formal title celebrations took place in June 1978 at the hotel and restaurant Bastein at Prager Straße in Dresden. Erich Mielke paid a visit on behalf of SV Dynamo to congratulate the team to the title, and Dynamo Dresden player Reinhard Häfner recalls how Erich Mielke held a speech where he said that he would prefer if the BFC was champions. And according to other versions of the same event, he proclaimed that everything will be done so that in the coming year, the champion till come from Berlin, and that it was now the turn of BFC. But it is also said that Erich Mielke made a remark about bringing the title to Berlin after a fractious encounter between Dynamo Dresden and BFC Dynamo in December 1978, when he allegedly walked into the locker room of Dynamo Dresden, and told the players that "You must understand, the capital city needs a champion!".
BFC Dynamo won ten consecutive titles from 1979 to 1988 allegedly assisted by corrupt referees, and important player transfers from other East German teams. BFC Dynamo was reviled by many East Germans because of its connection with the oppressive State security apparatus and referee corruption incurred the unofficially expressed displeasure of the country's ruling Politburo, particularly bureaucrats from the Leipzig region. Alleged manipulation of the 1986 championship match between BFC Dynamo and Lokomotive Leipzig which ended in a 1–1 draw resulted in sanctions against referee Bernd Stumpf.
After German re-unification in 1990, the side was renamed FC Berlin in an attempt to re-package it and distance it from its past (Dynamo admitted to tier III of the new German league in 1991–92 season). In 1999 and due to the supporters' desire they again took up the name BFC Dynamo. Without its powerful patron, the assistance of corrupt referees and losing its best players to West German Bundesliga teams, the side quickly fell to tier III play and since the 2000–01 season has toiled in IV or V division leagues. The club filed for insolvency in 2001 but was rescued by a number of supporters. The insolvency proceedings were successfully closed in 2004.
BFC recovered to win the Verbandsliga Berlin (V) championship in 2004 and return to fourth division play in the Oberliga Nordost-Nord (IV, now V) where they settled in as upper-table side.
On 12 June 2013, BFC Dynamo won the Berlin Cup (Berlin Pokal) for a third time, beating SV Lichtenberg 47 1–0, thus qualifying for the national cup of the DFB, the DFB-Pokal. The crowd of 6,381 set a new record for a Berlin Cup final.
The subsequent DFB-Pokal match against VfB Stuttgart took place on 4 August 2013 in front of 9,227 spectators. The stadium capacity of the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark had been limited and ticket prices had been increased due to requirements by the DFB. While Dynamo's Christoph Köhne came close after hitting the inner post in the 31st minute, Vedad Ibišević won the game for Stuttgart with goals in the 40th and 75th minutes (a penalty), resulting in a 0–2 defeat.
In the 2013–14 Oberliga season, BFC Dynamo won 15 out of the initial 16 games (while drawing against SV Lichtenberg 47). After 21 season matches, the streak was extended to 20 wins and one draw, effectively securing promotion to Regionalliga Nordost with a 25-point lead. The club subsequently extended contracts with its key players and announced to move back to the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark for its Regionalliga matches starting with the 2014–15 season.
Following promotion, BFC Dynamo finished the 2014–15 Regionalliga season in fifth place. During the season, coach Volkan Uluc was replaced by former Hamburger SV player and coach of SSV Jahn Regensburg, Thomas Stratos. Under Stratos, BFC Dynamo secured yet another Berlin Cup trophy, thus qualifying again for the DFB-Pokal. The crowd of 6,914 spectators during the 2015 cup final against Tasmania Berlin (1–0 victory) at the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark set another record for a Berlin Cup final.
The 2014–15 season marked the return of the club to live television (pay TV had broadcast the DFB-Pokal cup matches against 1.FC Kaiserslautern in 2011 and VfB Stuttgart in 2013) with its Regionalliga matches against Carl Zeiss Jena and 1. FC Magdeburg being broadcast by Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk television.
René Rydlewicz, a former Bundesliga player who had started his career at the club, took over as BFC coach in May 2016. The Regionalliga seasons 2015–16 and 2016–17 brought mixed results. However, BFC secured another Berlin Cup trophy in 2017, thus qualifying for DFB-Pokal season 2017–18. FC Schalke 04 was drawn as first round opponent for the match scheduled 14 August 2017. 12,000 tickets were sold in advance.
The long-time home and training ground of the club has been the Sportforum Hohenschönhausen. Its outdoor stadium has a capacity of 10,000 spectators, including 2,000 seated, and is part of a large sports complex with facilities for ice hockey, speed skating, athletics, and cycling. When opened it offered the world's first covered indoor speed skating oval. It is also the training ground for the Eisbären Berlin professional ice hockey team, formerly SC Dynamo Berlin.
The team played most European Cup matches and most seasons (1971–1992) at the Friedrich Ludwig Jahn Sportpark in Prenzlauer Berg, close to the former Berlin Wall. Following the 2014 promotion to Regionalliga Nordost, BFC moved permanently back to the Prenzlauer Berg stadium, next to the Mauerpark. The stadium currently has a capacity of 19,708 spectators.
The Friedrich-Ludwig-Jahn-Sportpark is under planning for a complete redevelopment. The estimated cost for the redevelopment of the whole area is estimated at up to €170 million, including €85 million for a new stadium. The current stadium will be demolished by 2020.
Club culture, supporters and rivalriesEdit
In the 1980s and 1990s, BFC Dynamo supporters became known to include skinheads, with far right political views. In the early 1990s, BFC Dynamo gained a reputation of having the strongest hooligan element in Germany.
It was the broader BFC supporter scene that managed to rescue the club during its insolvency proceedings in 2004. Today its supporter scene includes Ultra-groups and other supporter groups with various political or non-political views.
The BFC has rivalries with Dynamo Dresden and Union Berlin while enjoying friendly relations with Scottish side Aberdeen, and partially with Eintracht Braunschweig, Polish club Pogoń Szczecin and Swedish club GAIS.
Ownership of the BFC crestEdit
After German re-unification many East German clubs rushed to drop the names they were bearing during the Communist era. Dynamo was among the clubs to do so, becoming FC Berlin. However, like many others of these clubs they found more value and fan recognition in the names, colours and crests they had played under in East Germany, thus returning to them due to supporters' pressure and based on a members' decision.
Dynamo's situation was complicated as they had neglected to copyright their old crest. In 1999 that they no longer held title, having to share it with sports souvenir seller Peter "Pepe" Mager who laid claim to the orphaned image in March 1997. Control of the logo image has since passed to André Sommer and Rayk Bernt and their marketing firm Ra-Be GmbH through which they take ten percent of the value of all fan articles sold. Sommer and Bernt also assisted in the period following the club's insolvency in 2001. This was the cause of concern for the beleaguered football association as the pair were known to have links to the Hells Angels motorcycle club.
Dynamo has been working to recover the rights to its familiar traditional crest. Several alternative crests have been developed and registered in the event that they are unsuccessful in the attempt. The disputed image continued to be used on Dynamo's first team uniforms, at its website, and in other limited contexts, but the club was still unable to fully exploit the commercial value of the logo to its benefit. In 2009, in response to the problem, the club decided to introduce the current logo that abandoned the traditional stylized "D" in favour of the Berlin bear. However, the club and most of its fans identify with the traditional logo.
Championship stars controversyEdit
In 2004, the DFB introduced the Verdiente Meistervereine – a system to honor the most successful teams in Bundesliga history awarding one star for three titles, two stars for five, and three stars for ten – allowing qualifying teams to display on their jerseys the stars they have earned. Dynamo petitioned the league to have their East German titles recognized, but received no reply. They eventually took matters into their own hands and emblazoned their jerseys with three stars. This caused considerable debate on the fact that the DFB did not recognize East German championships, only those championships won since the 1963 formation of the Bundesliga. The issue also affected other former East German teams including Dynamo Dresden (8 titles), Vorwärts Berlin (6), SC Wismut Karl Marx Stadt, Carl Zeiss Jena and 1. FC Magdeburg.
The DFB has since updated this practice by broadening recognition to include all national level men's competitions since 1903 (when the first recognized national championship was staged), including those of the former East Germany, as well as all women's competitions since 1974. The DFB governs the use of championship stars and a club must have that governing body's approval before displaying any such badge.
Dynamo has since used the championship star in accordance with DFB graphic standards, displaying a star bearing the number 10 in the current website design.
Many BFC players of the 1970s or 1980's played on the GDR's or Germany's national team while others became coaches or Bundesliga players.
Dynamo Berlin was East Germany's most successful club, capturing ten national titles, and those ten titles came consecutively – a feat no other team in East Germany has matched. After German Reunification, DDR-Oberliga had dissolved and replaced by Bundesliga as the German Democratic Republic (GDR/DDR/East Germany) joined the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG/West Germany) to form the reunited nation of (Germany).
- DDR-Oberliga: 10 (Record)
- Gold Winners 1967/68
- Berlin Cup:
- NOFV-Oberliga Nord:
- Verbandsliga Berlin:
- Winners 2004
Seasons of GDREdit
Seasons since end of GDREdit
|1999–2000||Regionalliga Nordost||III||17th ↓|
|2001–02||NOFV-Oberliga Nord||IV||17th ↓|
|2003–04||Verbandsliga Berlin||V||1st ↑|
|2013–14||NOFV-Oberliga Nord||V||1st ↑|
|1971–72||Cup Winners' Cup||1st round||Cardiff City||1–1, 1–1, 6–5 (p)|
|1/8 final||K. Beerschot V.A.C.||3–1, 3–1|
|quarter-final||Åtvidabergs FF||2–0, 2–2|
|semi-final||Dynamo Moscow||1–1, 1–1, 1–4 (p)|
|1972–73||UEFA Cup||1st round||Angers||1–1, 2–1|
|2nd round||Levski Sofia||3–0, 0–2|
|1/8 final||Liverpool||0–0, 1–3|
|1976–77||UEFA Cup||1st round||Shakhtar Donetsk||0–3, 1–1|
|1978–79||UEFA Cup||1st round||Red Star Belgrade||5–2, 1–4|
|1979–80||European Cup||1st round||Ruch Chorzów||4–1, 0–0|
|1/8 round||Servette||2–1, 2–2|
|quarter-final||Nottingham Forest||1–0, 1–3|
|1980–81||European Cup||1st round||APOEL||3–0, 1–2|
|1/8 final||Baník Ostrava||0–0, 1–1|
|1981–82||European Cup||1st round||Zürich||2–0, 1–3|
|1/8 final||Aston Villa||1–2, 1–0|
|1982–83||European Cup||1st round||Hamburger SV||1–1, 0–2|
|1983–84||European Cup||1st round||Jeunesse Esch||4–1, 2–0|
|1/8 final||Partizan||2–0, 0–1|
|1984–85||European Cup||1st round||Aberdeen||1–2, 2–1, 5–4 (p)|
|1/8 final||Austria Wien||3–3, 1–2|
|1985–86||European Cup||1st round||Austria Wien||0–2, 1–2|
|1986–87||European Cup||1st round||Örgryte IS||3–2, 4–1|
|1/8 final||Brøndby||1–2, 1–1|
|1987–88||European Cup||1st round||Bordeaux||0–2, 0–2|
|1988–89||European Cup||1st round||Werder Bremen||3–0, 0–5|
|1989–90||Cup Winners' Cup||1st round||Valur||2–1, 2–1|
|1/8 final||Monaco||0–0, 1–1|
- The founding of SC Dynamo Berlin was part of general re-organization of sport in East Germany in the middle of the 1950s, in which 21 Sports Clubs were set up under different Sports Associations (SV), such as SV Dynamo and SV Lokomotive, entirely separate from the older enterprise sports community system, the so called Betriebssportgemeinschaft (BSG) system. The Sports Clubs were envisioned as centers of excellence for the promotion of elite sport. Membership in any of these Sports Clubs was only possible through delegation by the appropriate Sports Association and each Sports Association was allotted a regional center, a so called Schwerpunkt, for the development of talented performers and players in the region.
- This was not the first and last relocation of entire football teams in East Germany. Among several examples: SV Vorwärts der Kasernierten Volkspolizei (KVP) Leipzig was relocated to East Berlin in 1953 to play as SV Vorwärts der KVP Berlin (later known as ASK Vorwärts Berlin and then FC Vorwärts Berlin), which was then relocated to Frankfurt an der Oder in 1971 to play as FC Vorwärts Frankfurt. The successful BSG Empor Lauter was relocated to Rostock in 1953, to play as SC Empor Rostock, which later became FC Hansa Rostock.
- Examples: Five players from SG Volkspolizei Potsdam were delegated to Dresden in 1950 to play as SG Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden, which later became Dynamo Dresden. In total, 17 players from 11 different cities had been picked to form the nucleus of SG Deutsche Volkspolizei Dresden. Seven players from BSG Chemie Leipzig were delegated to SV Vorwärts der Kasernierten Volkspolizei (KVP) Leipzig in 1952.
- Grüne, Hardy (2001). Enzyklopädie des deutschen Ligafußballs 7: Vereinslexikon. Kassel: AGON Sportverlag. ISBN 3-89784-147-9.
- Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 9. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
- Dennis, Mike (2007). "Behind the Wall: East German football between state and society" (PDF). German as a Foreign Language (GFL). 2007 (2): 46–73. ISSN 1470-9570. Retrieved 9 June 2019.
- Evans, Stephen (12 July 2014). "The secret police with its own football team". BBC News. London: British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Nyari, Christian (30 January 2012). "Tyrant and Football Fanatic – Erich Mielke and Football in East Germany". bundesligafanatic.com. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
- Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 8. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
- Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
- Hesse-Lichtenberger, Ulrich (2003). Tor!: The Story of German Football (3rd ed.). London: WSC Books Ltd. p. 226. ISBN 095401345X.
- Pleil, Ingolf (2013). Mielke, Macht und Meisterschaft: Dynamo Dresden im Visier der Stasi (2nd ed.). Berlin: Chrisopher Links Verlag (LinksDruck GmbH). p. 16. ISBN 978-3-86153-756-4.
- Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 54. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
- Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism – Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 14. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
- Kelemen, Luci (5 February 2018). Saleem, Omar (ed.). "Eleven Pigs and the secret police: the story of BFC Dynamo". These Football Times. Retrieved 16 June 2019.
- Dennis, Mike; LaPorte, Norman (2011). State and Minorities in Communist East Germany (1st ed.). New York: Berghahn Books. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-85745-195-8.
- Mike, Dennis; Grix, Jonathan (2012). Sport under Communism - Behind the East German 'Miracle' (1st ed.). Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan (Macmillan Publishers Limited). p. 13. ISBN 978-0-230-22784-2.
- MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 149. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
- Leske, Hanns (2012). "Leistungskonzentration durch die Gründung von reinen Fußballclubs", "Hierarchie des DDR-Fußballs: Privilegierung der Schwerpunktclubs". Fußball in der DDR: Kicken im Auftrag der SED (2nd ed.). Erfurt: Landeszentrale für politische Bildung Thüringen. ISBN 978-3-937967-91-2.
- Hesse-Lichtenberger, Ulrich (2003). Tor!: The Story of German Football (3rd ed.). London: WSC Books Ltd. p. 227. ISBN 095401345X.
- "Jubiläum: BFC Dynamo wird 50 Jahre alt". B.Z. (in German). Berlin: B.Z. Ullstein GmbH. 15 January 2016. Retrieved 17 June 2019.
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In den Redetexten zu den folgenden BFC-Meisterfeiern verloren sich die Worten a die 'Freunde aus Dresden'. Im Jahr der Wende musste Mielke zur Meisterfeier wieder einmal an die Elbe reisen. Der volretzte DDR-Meisterteitel von Dynamo Dresden wurde auf der Bastei im Elbsandsteingebirge gefeiert. Reinhard Häfner erinnert sich: 'Mielke sagte, ihm wäre es zwar lieber, wenn die BFC Meister ist, aber da es ja auch Dynamo st, bleibt es sozysagen in der Familie, und das ist aucht gut.'
- Tomilson, Alan; Young, Christopher (2006). German Football: History, Culture, Society (1st ed.). Abingdon-on-Thames: Routlede, Taylor & Francis Group. p. 53. ISBN 0-415-35195-2.
- Klein, Daniel (11 April 2018). "Der Rivale aus Berlin". Sächsische.de (in German). Dresden: DDV Mediengruppe GmbH & Co. KG. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
Im Juni 1978 kam Erich Mielke nach Dresden. Es war ein nicht so angenehmer Termin für den Stasi- Chef und ersten Vorsitzender der Sportvereinigung Dynamo. Im Hotel und Restaurant Bastei auf der Prager Straße musste er den Dresdnern zur gewonnenen Meisterschaft gratulieren, was ihm als obersten Fan des BFC Dynamo schwergefallen sein dürfte. Seine Rede vor der Mannschaft war an Deutlichkeit nicht zu überbieten. 'Hört zu Genossen', begann er. 'Es ist schön, dass Ihr aus unserer Sportvereinigung nun schon zum dritten Mal in Folge den Fußballmeistertitel für Dynamo errungen habt. Herzlichen Glückwunsch, auch von mir. (…) Aber wir werden alles tun, damit im kommenden Jahr der Meister aus der Hauptstadt Berlin kommt und Ihr als Speerspitze den zweiten Platz belegen werdet.'
- "Interview: Mythos Dynamo – was steckt dahinter?". mdr.de (in German). Leipzig: Mitteldeutscher Rundfunk. 19 May 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2019.
- MacDougall, Alan (2014). The People's Game: Football, State and Society in East Germany (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 224. ISBN 978-1-107-05203-1.
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- East Germany's Star Quality in Question | German Soccer | Deutsche Welle | 13.05.2005