Berlin School of experimental psychology

The Berlin School of Experimental Psychology is founded by Carl Stumpf, a pupil of Franz Brentano and Hermann Lotze and a professor at the University of Berlin. It adhered to the method of experimental phenomenology, which understood it as the science of phenomena.[1] It is also noted as the originator of Gestalt psychology and


Stumpf founded the Berlin Laboratory of Experimental Psychology in 1893. It was a refinement of Brentano's neo-Aristotelian theory or the study of phenomena's qualitative properties.[1] Stumpf influenced his pupils[2] such as Max Wertheimer, Kurt Koffka, Wolfgang Köhler, and Kurt Lewin, and these contributed to the school's development.[3] Lewin, for instance, developed a set of models and ideas linked to change management theory and practice.[4] These psychologists further refined Stumpf's work, which facilitated experimental investigation that culminated in the development of Gestalt psychology.[1] These psychologists stressed the primacy of objects as units of experience, instead of sensations.[5]

Only after Köhler took over the direction of the psychology institute in 1922 did the Berlin School effectively become a school for Gestalt psychology.

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ a b c Hipólito, Inês; Gonçalves, Jorge; Pereira, João G. (2018). Schizophrenia and Common Sense: Explaining the Relation Between Madness and Social Values. Cham: Springer. p. 61. ISBN 978-3-319-73992-2.
  2. ^ Bachmann, Talis (2000). Microgenetic Approach to the Conscious Mind. John Benjamins Publishing. p. 23. ISBN 978-90-272-5145-9.
  3. ^ Blunden, Andy (2012). Concepts: A Critical Approach. Leiden: BRILL. p. 203. ISBN 978-90-04-22848-1.
  4. ^ Stokes, Peter (2011). Critical Concepts in Management and Organization Studies: Key Terms and Concepts. Macmillan International Higher Education. ISBN 978-0-230-34431-0.
  5. ^ Stevens' Handbook of Experimental Psychology and Cognitive Neuroscience, Sensation, Perception, and Attention. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons. 2018. ISBN 978-1-119-17407-3.