A bench memorandum (pl. bench memoranda) (also known as a bench memo) is a short and neutral memo which summarizes the facts, issues, and arguments of a court case. Bench memos are used by the judge as a reference when preparing for trial, when hearing lawyers' arguments, when drafting a decision, and to give the judge an idea of the arguments given by each side in the court case.[1] Bench memos are generally written by the judge's law clerk.[citation needed]